Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research Article| Volume 95, ISSUE 3, P230-236, March 2006

Download started.


Long-term effects of storage and thermal cycling on the marginal adaptation of provisional resin crowns: A pilot study

      Statement of problem

      Provisional resin crowns may be used for an extended period while complex treatments are completed. The crowns function intraorally; therefore, moisture absorption and thermal cycling may affect the physical properties of acrylic resin, causing a change in marginal gap size.


      The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effect of long-term water absorption and thermal cycling on marginal gap size of polymethyl methacrylate copolymer and bis-acrylic composite resin crowns.

      Material and methods

      Specimens (n=10) were fabricated from 2 acrylic resins: a polymethyl methacrylate (Alike) and a bis-acrylic composite resin (Provitec). Specimens were first fabricated on a metal master die. Custom die stems were fabricated for each specimen from a low-fusing alloy (Cerroblend) to eliminate the factor of polymerization shrinkage. Specimens were then fitted to assure a standardized, pre-experimental marginal gap range of ≤ 25 μm. Specimens were stored in a humidor at 37°C and 97% relative humidity for 1 year and subsequently thermal cycled (5°C to 60°C, 6-second dwell time, for 8000 cycles). Measurements in micrometers of the marginal gap were recorded using a microscope equipped with a digital video camera and image analysis software before and after treatment. A 2-way analysis of variance with a split design was performed for factors of materials and treatment (α=.05).


      For the factor of material, there was no significant difference; however, there was a significant difference between treatments, with a significantly greater increase in marginal gap size after thermal cycling (P<.002).


      Provisional crowns made from either a bis-acrylic resin composite or a polymethyl methacrylate copolymer demonstrated loss of marginal adaptation during a simulated long-term period of service.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Asmussen E.
        Clinical relevance of physical, chemical and bonding properties of composite resins.
        J Oper Dent. 1985; 10: 61-73
        • Finer Y.
        • Santerre J.P.
        Salivary esterase activity and its association with the biodegradation of dental composites.
        J Dent Res. 2004; 83: 22-26
        • Fransson B.
        • Oilo G.
        • Gjeitanger R.
        The fit of metal-ceramic crowns, a clinical study.
        Dent Mater. 1985; : 197-199
        • Freitag T.A.
        • Cannon S.L.
        Fracture characteristics of acrylic bone cements.
        I. Fracture toughness. J Biomed Mater Res. 1976; 10: 805-828
        • Freitag T.A.
        • Cannon S.L.
        Fracture characteristics of acrylic bone cements. II. Fatigue.
        J Biomed Mater Res. 1977; 11: 609-624
        • Hailey J.L.
        • Turner I.G.
        • Miles A.W.
        An in vitro study of the effect of environment and storage time on the fracture properties of bone cement.
        Clin Mater. 1994; 16: 211-216
        • Hailey J.L.
        • Turner I.G.
        • Miles A.W.
        Fracture properties of fully cured acrylic bone cement.
        J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1995; 6: 635-638
        • James S.P.
        • Jasty M.
        • Davies J.
        • Piehler H.
        • Harris W.H.
        A fractographic investigation of PMMA bone cement focusing on the relationship between porosity reduction and increased fatigue life.
        J Biomed Mater Res. 1992; 26: 651-662
        • Jendresen M.D.
        • Allen E.P.
        • Bayne S.C.
        • Donovan T.E.
        • Hansson T.L.
        • Klooster J.
        • et al.
        Annual review of selected dental literature: report of the Committee on Scientific Investigation of the American Academy of Restorative Dentistry.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1993; 70: 44-85
        • Kaiser D.A.
        Accurate acrylic resin temporary restorations.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1978; 39: 158-161
        • Karlsson S.
        The fit of Procera titanium crowns. An in vitro and clinical study.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1993; 51: 129-134
        • Molin M.K.
        • Karlsson S.L.
        • Kristiansen M.S.
        Influence of film thickness on joint bend strength of a ceramic/resin composite joint.
        Dent Mater. 1996; 12: 245-249
        • O'Brien W.J.
        Dental materials and their selection.
        Quintessence, Chicago2002 (113-30 309-90)
        • Reeves G.W.
        • Lentz D.L.
        • O'Hara J.W.
        • McDaniel M.D.
        • Tolbert W.E.
        Comparison of marginal adaptation between direct and indirect composites.
        Oper Dent. 1992; 17: 210-214
        • Sadamori S.
        • Ishii T.
        • Hamada T.
        Influence of thickness on the linear dimensional change, warpage, and water uptake of a denture base resin.
        Int J Prosthodont. 1997; 10: 35-43
        • Topoleski L.D.
        • Ducheyne P.
        • Cuckler J.M.
        Microstructural pathway of fracture in poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement.
        Biomaterials. 1993; 14: 1165-1172
        • Davidoff S.R.
        Heat-processed acrylic resin provisional restorations: an in-office procedure.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1982; 48: 673-675
        • Shillingburg H.T.
        • Hobo S.
        • Whitsett L.D.
        • Jacobi R.
        • Brackett S.
        Fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics. 3rd ed. Quintessence, Chicago1997: 225-256
        • Crispin B.J.
        • Watson J.F.
        • Caputo A.A.
        The marginal accuracy of treatment restorations: a comparitive analysis.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1980; 44: 283-290
        • Gegauff A.
        Provisional restorations.
        in: Rosenstiel S.F. Land M.F. Fujimoto J. Contemporary fixed prosthodontics. Mosby, St. Louis1995: 325-357
        • Ehrenberg D.S.
        • Weiner S.
        Changes in marginal gap size of provisional resin crowns after occlusal loading and thermal cycling.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2000; 84: 139-148
        • Koumjian J.H.
        • Nimmo A.
        Evaluation of fracture resistance of resins used for provisional restorations.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1990; 64: 654-657
        • Moulding M.B.
        • Loney R.W.
        • Ritsco R.G.
        Marginal accuracy of provisional restorations fabricated by different techniques.
        Int J Prosthodont. 1994; 7: 468-472
        • Koumjian J.H.
        • Holmes J.B.
        Marginal accuracy of provisional restorative materials.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1990; 63: 639-642
        • Blum J.
        • Weiner S.
        • Berendsen P.
        Effects of thermocycling on the margins of transitional acrylic resin crowns.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1991; 65: 642-646
        • Hung C.M.
        • Weiner S.
        • Dastane A.
        • Vaidyanathan T.K.
        Effect of thermocycling and occlusal force on the margins of provisional acrylic resin crowns.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1993; 69: 573-577
        • Barghi H.
        • Simmons Jr., E.W.
        The marginal integrity of the temporary acrylic resin crown.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1976; 36: 274-277
        • Robinson F.B.
        • Hovijitra S.
        Marginal fit of direct temporary crowns.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1982; 47: 390-392
        • Preston J.D.
        A systemic approach to the control of esthetic form.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1976; 35: 393-402
        • Young H.M.
        • Smith C.T.
        • Morton D.
        Comparative in vitro evaluation of two provisional restorative materials.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2001; 85: 129-132
        • Zwetchkenbaum S.
        • Weiner S.
        • Dastane A.
        • Vaidyanathan T.K.
        Effects of relining on long-term marginal stability of provisional crowns.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1995; 75: 525-529
        • Dubois R.J.
        • Kyriakakis P.
        • Weiner S.
        • Vaidyanathan T.K.
        Effects of occlusal loading and thermocycling on the marginal gaps of light-polymerized and auto-polymerized resin provisional crowns.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1999; 82: 161-166
        • Guler A.U.
        • Kurt S.
        • Kulunk T.
        Effect of various finishing procedures on the staining of provisional restorative materials.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2005; 93: 453-458
        • McCabe J.F.
        • Rusby S.
        Water absorption, dimensional change and radial pressure in resin matrix dental restorative materials.
        Biomaterials. 2004; 25: 4001-4007