Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Two-body wear of different ceramic materials opposed to zirconia ceramic

      Statement of problem

      Little is known about the wear behavior of ceramics opposed to unveneered zirconia and whether wear varies according to microstructure, surface toughness, and flexural strength of the ceramics.


      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 2-body wear resistance of 5 ceramics opposing unveneered zirconia ceramic.

      Material and methods

      Yttrium-stabilized zirconia, lithium disilicate glass ceramic, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, fluorapatite glass ceramic, and nanofluorapatite glass ceramic specimens (n=8) were tested against standardized zirconia balls. Wear tests were performed in a dual-axis mastication simulator. Wear resistance was calculated by measuring the vertical and volumetric substance loss using a laser scanner. Specimen surfaces were evaluated at x50 and x500 magnification using SEM. Data were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test (α=.05).


      Zirconia specimens demonstrated significantly lower vertical and volumetric loss than other ceramics (P<.05). The wear of fluorapatite and nanofluorapatite glass ceramics was significantly greater than that of leucite-reinforced and lithium disilicate glass ceramics (P<.05). SEM images showed no cracks or flaws in the zirconia and leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic specimens, indicating a mixture of attritional and adhesive wear. Other ceramic specimens exhibited cracks and chipped particle spaces which were consistent with fatigue wear. Zirconia demonstrated the lowest vertical and volumetric wear values. Leucite-reinforced and lithium disilicate glass ceramics demonstrated nonsignificant differences in volumetric wear, but these values were significantly lower than those observed for nanofluorapatite and fluorapatite glass ceramics (P<.05).


      Wear varied according to the structure of the ceramic tested. Wear was of the fatigue type, and was significantly lowest in the zirconia specimens tested.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • McLean JW
        Evolution of dental ceramics in the twentieth century.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2001; 85: 61-66
        • Conrad HJ
        • Seong WJ
        • Pesun IJ
        Current ceramic materials and systems with clinical recommendations: a systematic review.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2007; 98: 389-404
        • Krejci I
        • Lutz F
        • Reimer M
        Wear of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: restorations, opposing cusps, and luting cements.
        Quintessence Int. 1994; 25: 199-207
        • al-Hiyasat AS
        • Saunders WP
        • Smith GM
        Three-body wear associated with three ceramics and enamel.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1999; 82: 476-481
        • Dong JK
        • Luthy H
        • Wohlwend A
        • Schärer P
        Heat-pressed ceramics: technology and strength.
        Int J Prosthodont. 1992; 5: 9-16
        • Cattell MJ
        • Knowles JC
        • Clarke RL
        • Lynch E
        The biaxial flexural strength of two pressable ceramic systems.
        J Dent. 1999; 27: 183-196
        • Sorensen JA
        • Kang SK
        • Torres TJ
        • Knode H
        In-Ceram fixed partial dentures: three-year clinical trial results.
        J Calif Dent Assoc. 1998; 26: 207-214
        • Sorensen JA
        • Choi C
        • Fanuscu MI
        • Mito WT
        IPS Empress crown system: three-year clinical trial results.
        J Calif Dent Assoc. 1998; 26: 130-136
        • Albakry M
        • Guazzato M
        • Swain MV
        Biaxial flexural strength, elastic moduli, and x-ray diffraction characterization of three pressable all-ceramic materials.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2003; 89: 374-380
        • Denry I
        • Kelly JR
        State of the art of zirconia for dental applications.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 299-307
        • Raigrodski AJ
        Contemporary materials and technologies for all-ceramic fixed partial dentures: a review of the literature.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2004; 92: 557-562
        • White SN
        • Miklus VG
        • McLaren EA
        • Lang LA
        • Caputo AA
        Flexural strength of a layered zirconia and porcelain dental all-ceramic system.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2005; 94: 125-131
        • Guess PC
        • Kulis A
        • Witkowski S
        • Wolkewitz M
        • Zhang Y
        • Strub JR
        Shear bond strengths between different zirconia cores and veneering ceramics and their susceptibility to thermocycling.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 1556-1567
        • DeLong R
        • Douglas WH
        • Sakaguchi RL
        • Pintado MR
        The wear of dental porcelain in an artificial mouth.
        Dent Mater. 1986; 2: 214-219
        • Esquivel-Upshaw JF
        • Young H
        • Jones J
        • Yang M
        • Anusavice KJ
        In vivo wear of enamel by a lithia disilicate-based core ceramic used for posterior fixed partial dentures: first-year results.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2006; 19: 391-396
        • Suputtamongkol K
        • Anusavice KJ
        • Suchatlampong C
        • Sithiamnuai P
        • Tulapornchai C
        Clinical performance and wear characteristics of veneered lithia-disilicate-based ceramic crowns.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 667-673
        • Oh WS
        • Delong R
        • Anusavice KJ
        Factors affecting enamel and ceramic wear: a literature review.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2002; 87: 451-459
        • Mair LH
        • Stolarski TA
        • Vowles RW
        • Lloyd CH
        Wear: mechanisms, manifestations and measurement. Report of a workshop.
        J Dent. 1996; 24: 141-148
        • Lambrechts P
        • Braem M
        • Vuylsteke-Wauters M
        • Vanherle G
        Quantitative in vivo wear of human enamel.
        J Dent Res. 1989; 68: 1752-1754
        • Suzuki S
        • Suzuki SH
        • Cox CF
        Evaluating the antagonistic wear of restorative materials when placed against human enamel.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1996; 127: 74-80
        • Kern M
        Clinical long-term survival of two-retainer and single-retainer all-ceramic resin-bonded fixed partial dentures.
        Quintessence Int. 2005; 36: 141-147
        • Ghazal M
        • Kern M
        The influence of antagonistic surface roughness on the wear of human enamel and nanofilled composite resin artificial teeth.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2009; 101: 342-349
        • Mahalick JA
        • Knap FJ
        • Weiter EJ
        Occusal wear in prosthodontics.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1971; 82: 154-159
        • Baran G
        • Boberick K
        • McCool J
        Fatigue of restorative materials.
        Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2001; 12: 350-360
        • Kunzelmann KH
        • Jelen B
        • Mehl A
        • Hickel R
        Wear evaluation of MZ100 compared to ceramic CAD/CAM materials.
        Int J Comput Dent. 2001; 4: 171-184
        • Ramp MH
        • Suzuki S
        • Cox CF
        • Lacefield WR
        • Koth DL
        Evaluation of wear: enamel opposing three ceramic materials and a gold alloy.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1997; 77: 523-530
        • Yip KH
        • Smales RJ
        • Kaidonis JA
        Differential wear of teeth and restorative materials: clinical implications.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2004; 17: 350-356
        • Ghazal M
        • Yang B
        • Ludwig K
        • Kern M
        Two-body wear of resin and ceramic denture teeth in comparison to human enamel.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 502-507
        • Heintze SD
        • Cavalleri A
        • Forjanic M
        • Zellweger G
        • Rousson V
        Wear of ceramic and antagonist–a systematic evaluation of influencing factors in vitro.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 433-449
        • Heintze SD
        • Zappini G
        • Rousson V
        Wear of ten dental restorative materials in five wear simulators–results of a round robin test.
        Dent Mater. 2005; 21: 304-317
        • Heintze SD
        How to qualify and validate wear simulation devices and methods.
        Dent Mater. 2006; 22: 712-734
        • Yap AU
        • Wee KE
        • Teoh SH
        • Chew CL
        Influence of thermal cycling on OCA wear of composite restoratives.
        Oper Dent. 2001; 26: 349-356
        • Wassell RW
        • McCabe JF
        • Walls AW
        A two-body frictional wear test.
        J Dent Res. 1994; 73: 1546-1553
        • Heintze SD
        • Zellweger G
        • Cavalleri A
        • Ferracane J
        Influence of the antagonist material on the wear of different composites using two different wear simulation methods.
        Dent Mater. 2006; 22: 166-175
        • Wassell RW
        • McCabe JF
        • Walls AW
        Wear characteristics in a two-body wear test.
        Dent Mater. 1994; 10: 269-274
        • Stober T
        • Lutz T
        • Gilde H
        • Rammelsberg P
        Wear of resin denture teeth by two-body contact.
        Dent Mater. 2006; 22: 243-249
        • O'Kray HP
        • O'Brien WJ
        In vitro human enamel wear by a hydrated high-alkali porcelain.
        Quintessence Int. 2005; 36: 617-622
        • Ghazal M
        • Albashaireh ZS
        • Kern M
        Wear resistance of nanofilled composite resin and feldspathic ceramic artificial teeth.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2008; 100: 441-448
        • Ghazal M
        • Kern M
        Wear of human enamel and nano-filled composite resin denture teeth under different loading forces.
        J Oral Rehabil. 2009; 36: 58-64
        • DeLong R
        • Douglas WH
        • Sakaguchi RL
        • Pintado MR
        The wear of dental porcelain in an artificial mouth.
        Dent Mater. 1986; 2: 214-219
        • Scurria MS
        • Powers JM
        Surface roughness of two polished ceramic materials.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1994; 71: 174-177
        • Sarac D
        • Sarac YS
        • Yuzbasioglu E
        • Bal S
        The effects of porcelain polishing systems on the color and surface texture of feldspathic porcelain.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2006; 96: 122-128
        • Kern M
        • Strub JR
        • Lü XY
        Wear of composite resin veneering materials in a dual-axis chewing simulator.
        J Oral Rehabil. 1999; 26: 372-378
        • DeLong R
        Intra-oral restorative materials wear: rethinking the current approaches: how to measure wear.
        Dent Mater. 2006; 22: 702-711
        • Gibbs CH
        • Mahan PE
        • Lundeen HC
        • Brehnan K
        • Walsh EK
        • Holbrook WB
        Occlusal forces during chewing and swallowing as measured by sound transmission.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1981; 46: 443-449