Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research Article| Volume 107, ISSUE 1, P17-23, January 2012

The effect of multiple firings on the marginal integrity of pressable ceramic single crowns

      Statement of problem

      The marginal adaptation of metal ceramic crowns is affected by firing cycles for veneering porcelain application. The effect of multiple firings on the marginal integrity of pressable ceramic core crowns is unknown.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of repeated firing cycles on the marginal discrepancy of veneered (layered) pressable ceramic anterior crowns with 2 different finish line configurations.

      Material and Methods

      Forty pressable ceramic single anterior complete crowns were fabricated from 2 systems (IPS Empress Esthetic and IPS e.max Press) with 2 finish line designs (shoulder, chamfer) on epoxy resin dies. Specimens were divided into 4 groups of 10, and measurements were made after pressing (control) and after 5 veneer firing stages: 1) wash, 2) first incisal, 3) second incisal, 4) characterization and glazing, and 5) corrective. The change in vertical marginal discrepancy was measured with a light microscope at 4 locations: facial (F), mesial (M), lingual (L), and distal (D) surfaces. One-way ANOVA (α-=.05) was used to evaluate the marginal change. A Student-Newman-Keuls test was also used for comparison among the groups.


      There were no significant changes in the vertical marginal integrity related to ceramic type and marginal location and their interactions. However, there was a significant marginal integrity change during the characterization and glazing firing stage. (P<.05)


      The marginal gap increased for both systems during veneer application and decreased during the characterization and glazing firing cycle. The total marginal fit change after 5 firings was 0.33 μm for IPS e.max Press, and 0.27 μm for IPS Empress Esthetic.
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