Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research Article| Volume 110, ISSUE 6, P521-528, December 2013

An in vitro study of the effect of different restorative materials on the reliability of a veneering porcelain

Published:November 04, 2013DOI:

      Statement of problem

      Implant-supported, porcelain veneered restorations experience a greater rate of porcelain fracture than tooth-supported restorations. For completely edentulous patients, one approach to minimizing porcelain fracture is to use acrylic resin in the mandible, although its efficacy is unknown.


      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a veneering porcelain fatigued with different restorative materials in vitro.

      Material and methods

      Fifty-nine veneering porcelain disk specimens were fabricated by layering veneering porcelain on nickel-chromium base metal alloy disks. Four groups of different indenter materials fatigued the porcelain specimens: group WC, tungsten carbide served as a control; group FC, pressed leucite glass ceramic; group NHC, nanohybrid composite resin denture tooth; and group AR, unfilled acrylic resin denture tooth. Porcelain specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=14). A step-stress accelerated life-testing model was used. Use-level probability Weibull plots were generated, and the reliability of each group was estimated for a theoretical completion of 50 000 cycles at 150 N.


      Nanohybrid composite resin and unfilled acrylic resin denture tooth groups had higher reliability than tungsten carbide and leucite glass ceramic groups. No significant differences existed between the reliability of the tungsten carbide and leucite glass ceramic groups and the nanohybrid composite resin and acrylic resin denture tooth groups.


      Veneering porcelain disk specimens fatigued with the unfilled acrylic resin and nanohybrid composite resin denture tooth indenters exhibited higher reliability than the specimens fatigued with either the tungsten carbide or leucite glass ceramic indenters. All of the veneering porcelain disk specimens failed with the same mode of fracture, although the surface posttest exhibited different fracture characteristics among specimens fatigued with the 4 different materials.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Schwartz-Arad D.
        • Chaushu G.
        Full-arch restoration of the jaw with fixed ceramometal prosthesis.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1998; 13: 819-825
        • Chaushu G.
        • Schwartz-Arad D.
        Full-arch restoration of the jaw with fixed ceramo-metal prosthesis: late implant placement.
        J Periodontol. 1999; 70: 90-94
        • Mitrani R.
        • Phillips K.
        • Escudero F.
        A simplified approach in the fabrication of an implant-supported, full mouth, fixed metal-ceramic restoration.
        Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2004; 16: 125-127
        • Lawn B.R.
        Fracture of brittle solids.
        2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, New York1993: 180-191
        • Linkevicius T.
        • Vladimirovas E.
        • Grybauskas S.
        • Puisys A.
        • Rutkunas V.
        Veneer fracture in implant-supported metal-ceramic restorations: part 1—overall success rate and impact of occlusal guidance.
        Stomatologia. 2008; 10: 133-139
        • Pjetursson B.E.
        • Tan K.
        • Lang N.P.
        • Brägger U.
        • Egger M.
        • Zwahlen M.
        A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) after an observation period of at least 5 years.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2004; 15: 625-642
        • Pjetursson B.E.
        • Brägger U.
        • Lang N.
        • Zwahlen M.
        Comparison of survival and complication rates of tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and implant-supported FDPs and single crowns (SCs).
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007; 18: 97-113
        • Bozini T.
        • Petridis H.
        • Tzanas K.
        • Garefis P.
        A meta-analysis of prosthodontics complication rates of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses in edentulous patients after an observation period of at least 5 years.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011; 26: 304-318
        • Brägger U.
        • Aeschlimann S.
        • Bürgin W.
        • Hämmerle C.H.
        • Lang N.P.
        Biological and technical complications and failures with fixed partial dentures (FPD) on implants and teeth after four to five years of function.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2001; 12: 26-34
        • El-Sheikh A.M.
        • Hobkirk J.A.
        • Howell P.G.
        • Gilthorpe M.S.
        Passive sensibility in edentulous subjects treated with dental implants: a pilot study.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2004; 91: 26-32
        • Guichet N.F.
        Biological laws governing functions of muscles that move the mandible: part I. Occlusal programming.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1977; 37: 648-656
        • Hämmerle C.H.
        • Brägger U.
        • Lussi A.
        • Karayiannis A.
        • Joss A.
        • Lang N.P.
        Threshold of tactile sensitivity perceived with dental endosseous implants and natural teeth.
        Clin Oral Implant Res. 1995; 6: 83-90
        • Tartaglia G.M.
        • Testori T.
        • Pallavera A.
        • Marelli B.
        • Sforza C.
        Electromyographic analysis of masticatory and neck muscles in subjects with natural dentition, teeth-supported and implant-supported prostheses.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008; 19: 1081-1088
        • Daly C.H.
        • Nicholls J.I.
        • Kydd W.L.
        • Nansen P.D.
        The response of the human periodontal ligament to torsional loading – I. Experimental methods.
        J Biomech. 1974; 5: 517-522
        • Picton D.C.
        • Wills D.J.
        Viscoelastic properties of the periodontal ligament and mucous membrane.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1978; 40: 263-272
        • Sekine H.
        • Komiyama Y.
        • Hutta H.
        • Yoshida K.
        Mobility characteristics and tactile sensitivity of osseointegrated mobility characteristics and tactile sensitivity of osseointegrated fixture-supported systems.
        in: van Steenberghe D. Tissue-integration in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. Amsterdam: Exerpta Medica, 1986: 326-332
        • Nyman S.R.
        • Lang N.P.
        Tooth mobility and the biological rationale for splinting teeth.
        Periodont. 2000; 1994: 15-22
        • Kinsel R.P.
        • Lin D.
        Retrospective analysis of porcelain failures of metal ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures supported by 729 implants in 152 patients: patient-specific and implant specific predictors of ceramic failure.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2009; 101: 388-394
        • Walton J.N.
        • MacEntee M.I.
        A retrospective study on the maintenance and repair of implant-supported prostheses.
        Int J Prosthodont. 1993; 6: 451-455
        • Yanikoglu N.
        The repair methods for fractured metal-porcelain restorations: a review of the literature.
        Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2004; 12: 161-165
        • Kupiec K.A.
        • Wuertz K.M.
        • Barkmeier W.W.
        • Wilwerding T.M.
        Evaluation of porcelain surface treatments and agents for composite-to-porcelain repair.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1996; 76: 119-124
        • Brånemark P.I.
        Osseointegration and its experimental background.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1983; 50: 399-410
        • Davis D.M.
        • Rimrott R.
        • Zarb G.A.
        Studies on frameworks for osseointegrated prostheses: part 2. The effect of adding acrylic resin or porcelain to form the occlusal superstructure.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1988; 3: 275-280
        • Cibirka R.M.
        • Razzoog M.E.
        • Lang B.R.
        • Stohler C.S.
        Determining the force absorption quotient for restorative materials used in implant occlusal surfaces.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1992; 67: 361-364
        • Hobkirk J.A.
        • Psarros K.J.
        The influence of occlusal surface material on peak masticatory forces using osseointegrated implant-supported prostheses.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1998; 13: 781-790
        • Gracis S.E.
        • Nicholls J.I.
        • Chalupnik J.D.
        • Yuodelis R.A.
        Shock-absorbing behavior of five restorative materials used on implants.
        Int J Prosthodont. 1991; 4: 282-291
        • Brunski J.B.
        • Puleo D.A.
        • Nanci A.
        Biomaterials and biomechanics of oral and maxillofacial implants: current status and future developments.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000; 15: 15-46
        • Balshi T.J.
        • Wolfinger G.J.
        Teeth in a day for the maxilla and mandible: case report.
        Clin Implant Relat Dent Res. 2003; 5: 11-16
        • Purcell B.A.
        • McGlumphy E.A.
        • Holloway J.A.
        • Beck F.M.
        Prosthetic complications in mandibular metal resin implant-fixed complete dental prosthesis: a 5 to 9 year analysis.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008; 23: 847-857
        • Hemmings K.W.
        • Schmitt A.
        • Zarb G.A.
        Complications and maintenance requirements for fixed prostheses and overdentures in the edentulous mandible: a 5-year report.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1994; 9: 191-196
        • Ekfeldt A.
        • Oilo G.
        Occlusal contact wear of prosthetic materials. An in vivo study.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1988; 46: 159-169
        • Ghazal M.
        • Yang B.
        • Ludwig K.
        • Kern M.
        Two-body wear of resin and ceramic denture teeth in comparison to human enamel.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 502-507
        • Lawn B.R.
        • Deng Y.
        • Thompson V.P.
        Use of contact testing in the characterization and design of all-ceramic crownlike layer structures: a review.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2001; 86: 495-510
        • Kim B.
        • Zhang Y.
        • Pines M.
        • Thompson V.P.
        Fracture of porcelain-veneered structures in fatigue.
        J Dent Res. 2007; 86: 142-146
        • Baran G.R.
        • McCool J.I.
        • Boberick K.G.
        • Zhang H.Q.
        Size effect in resin / glass composite flexural strengths.
        J Oral Rehabil. 1999; 26: 775-780
        • Green D.J.
        An introduction to the mechanical properties of ceramics.
        Cambridge University Press, Cambridge1998: 276-279
        • Johnson K.L.
        • O'Conner J.J.
        • Woodward A.C.
        The effect of the indenter elasticity on the Hertzian fracture of brittle materials.
        Proc R Soc Lond A. 1973; 334: 95-117
        • Nelson W.
        Accelerated testing: statistical models, test plans, and data analysis.
        Wiley, New York1990: 493-520
        • Zhao W.
        • Elsayed E.A.
        A general accelerated life model for step-stress testing.
        IEEE Trans Reliabil. 2005; 37: 1059-1069
        • Meeker W.Q.
        • Hahn G.J.
        Asymptotically optimum over-stress tests to estimate the survival probability at a condition with a low expected failure probability.
        Technometrics. 1977; 19: 381-399
        • Silva N.R.
        • de Souza G.M.
        • Coelho P.G.
        • Stappert C.F.
        • Clark E.A.
        • Rekow E.D.
        • et al.
        Effect of water storage time and composite cement thickness on fatigue of a glass-ceramic trilayer system.
        J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2008; 84: 117-123
        • Coelho P.G.
        • Silva N.R.
        • Bonfante E.A.
        • Guess P.C.
        • Rekow E.D.
        • Thompson V.P.
        Fatigue testing of two porcelain-zirconia all-ceramic crown systems.
        Dent Mater. 2009; 25: 1122-1127
      1. Urbaniak GC, Plous, S. Research Randomizer (v4.0). Available at: Accessed March 8, 2012.

        • Liu K.
        • Li X.P.
        • Rahman M.
        • Liu X.D.
        CBN tool wear in ductile cutting of tungsten carbide.
        Wear. 2003; 225: 1344-1351
        • Gonzaga C.
        • Cesar P.
        • Okada C.Y.
        • Fredericci C.
        • Neto F.B.
        • Yoshimura H.N.
        Mechanical properties and porosity of dental glass-ceramic hot-pressed at different temperatures.
        Mater Res. 2008; 11: 301-306
        • Abernethy R.
        The new Weibull handbook.
        5th ed. North Palm Beach, Robert B. Abernethy2006: 2-10