Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Load to failure of different zirconia abutments for an internal hexagon implant


      Statement of problem

      Various zirconia abutment designs are available to restore implant systems. Fracture resistance is one of the criteria involved in selecting among these options.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure and compare load to failure for 5 zirconia abutments for an internally hexagon implant.

      Material and methods

      Five 4.1×11.5-mm Zimmer tapered screw-vent implants were individually secured in a loading apparatus, and 3 specimens of each of the 5 different abutments (Zimmer Contour with a Ti ring, anatomic-contour Atlantis-Zr, anatomic-contour Inclusive-Zr, anatomic-contour Astra Tech ZirDesign, Legacy Straight Contoured abutment with Ti core) (N=15) were loaded at a 30-degree angle until the implant abutment complex failed. Data for load to failure were compared with analysis of variance and a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α=.05).


      The custom anatomic-contour abutment (Inclusive) showed the lowest load to fracture, and the stock anatomic-contour (AstraTech ZirDesign) the second lowest load to fracture. These were significantly lower than all other abutments (P<.05). The highest overall fracture strength was of a zirconia abutment with a titanium core-hexagon (Legacy Straight Contoured), which was significantly greater than all other abutments (P<.05). Anatomic-contour zirconia abutments fractured at an average of 275 N compared with the average fracture load of 842 N for zirconia abutments with titanium component (P<.05).


      The stock zirconia abutment with a titanium ring and the zirconia abutment with a titanium core-hexagon (Legacy Straight Contoured) had significantly greater fracture resistance than that of any of the 1-piece anatomic-contour zirconia abutments tested.
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