Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Cytotoxic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled acrylate-based restorative composite resins: An in vitro study

Published:February 10, 2016DOI:


      Statement of problem

      Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination.

      Material and methods

      Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software.


      Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis.


      The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials.
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