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Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms

Ninth Edition
        GPT-9
        The Academy of Prosthodontics
        The Academy of Prosthodontics Foundation

        Editorial Staff

        Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms Committee of the Academy of Prosthodontics
        Keith J. Ferro, Editor and Chairman, Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms Committee
        Steven M. Morgano, Copy Editor
        Carl F. Driscoll, Martin A. Freilich, Albert D. Guckes, Kent L. Knoernschild and Thomas J. McGarry, Members, Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms Committee
        Cover photo
        Heat by Naoki Aiba, CDT.
        © Naoki Aiba Photography.

        Preface to the Ninth Edition

        “The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug.”—Mark Twain
        I live down the street from Samuel Clemens’ (aka Mark Twain) home in Hartford, Connecticut. I refer to his quotation because he is a notable author who wrote with familiarity about our spoken language. Sometimes these spoken words are objectionable and more appropriate words have evolved over time. The editors of the ninth edition of the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms ensured that the spoken vernacular is represented, although it may be nonstandard in formal circumstances. I hope that authors, poster presenters, and lecturers will use this edition as a guide for the “right word”.
        This ninth edition of the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms upholds the same objectives and standards as it did when it was first authored by the Academy of Denture Prosthetics in 1956. Throughout the world of prosthodontics, it has been valued as a reference for “uniform terminology [that] would permit authors to discuss their concepts and techniques and be sure that these would be understood by those who would read the articles, regardless of the geographic location or the specialty of the reader.”1 The generation of new terms and the modification of the old definitions, significant as much today as they were a century ago, are a resounding hallmark in the collective advancements of new knowledge in our specialty.
        The Fellows of the Academy of Prosthodontics, with the leadership of the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms Committee, have strived to faithfully execute the duties of lexicographers. It holds true throughout these several decades that we should continue the improvement of this document with contributions by many prosthodontic organizations regardless of geographic location or political affiliations. Acknowledgments are recognized by many of the Academy fellowship, too many to name individually, with whom we have consulted for expert opinion. Also recognized are Gary Goldstein, Charles Goodacre, Albert Guckes, Steven Morgano, Stephen Rosenstiel, Clifford VanBlarcom, and Jonathan Wiens for their contributions to the Glossary, which have spanned many decades. We thank them for guiding us in this monumental project and teaching us the objectiveness and the standards for evidence-based dentistry to be passed on to the next generation of dentists.
        Keith J. Ferro, DMD
        Committee Chairman, Committee of the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition Nine
        Academy of Prosthodontics
        1Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition One, J Prosthet Dent 1956;1-34

        Preface to the First Edition

        This Glossary is a collection of words and terms and their special connotations in the art and science of prosthodontics. It is in the nature of a progress report in a tremendous effort to standardize the nomenclature used in this field. The advantages to the dental profession of a successful effort in this direction are manifold. The most important of these is that the use of a uniform terminology would permit authors to discuss their concepts and techniques and be sure that these would be understood by those who would read the articles, regardless of the geographic location or the specialty of the reader.
        The need for a glossary of terms used in prosthodontics has been recognized for many years. In 1923, Ottofy stated, “It is to be hoped that members of the profession and specialists through their organizations will reach an agreement as to the terms to be given preference or to be used exclusively.” He called particular notice to the confused state of the prosthodontic terminology of that time, and it is even worse now because of the progress in the art and science of prosthodontics. Many new terms and words intended to describe or explain modern philosophies or procedures have been added to the literature. Authors, clinicians, and teachers have ascribed many different interpretations and meanings to the same terms and words. Many “old” terms have been given “new” definitions by contemporary authors. Many “old” terms have been redefined in the light of the increased knowledge of the problems of prosthodontics.
        Through the years, individuals, specialty groups, and the Bureau of Library and Indexing of the American Dental Association have made many sincere attempts to develop a standard and acceptable nomenclature in dentistry. The major obstacle has been the difficulty in obtaining universal acceptance of proposed interpretations.
        The Academy of Denture Prosthetics has studied the problem throughout its existence and, until recently, has reached unanimous agreement on very few terms. This was in spite of sincere and valiant efforts on the part of the nomenclature committees, and it was due to the wide differences of opinion and background among those who considered the committees’ recommendations. This lack of progress was most discouraging, but three years ago it was agreed by the Fellowship of the Academy that this Glossary would be prepared, and that the majority opinion would be adopted. This decision made possible real progress toward the ultimate goal—a universal terminology for prosthodontics.
        The “workshop” technique was used in the course of two meetings of the Academy for the study of nearly 1000 words or terms. The Nomenclature Committee of the Academy restudied the results of these “workshop” sessions. At least sixteen outstanding prosthodontists have given serious study to each term included in this Glossary. The definitions represent a composite of their understanding of the terms. The Fellows of the Academy of Denture Prosthetics have combined their efforts to serve as lexicographers.
        The chief role of a lexicographer is to record the current usage of words. The chief function of words in science is to convey meaning.
        The lexicographer has a duty to lead as well as to follow. Where clearness demands it, he should place such restrictions as are necessary to avoid ambiguity. That is, he must narrow down some definitions so they will not carry too much generality. Where voids exist, he should fill them in. Where more than one term is used to express the same idea or concept, he should indicate the preference on the basis of logic and other considerations.
        Many instances could be cited in the Glossary where the Academy and its Nomenclature Committee have performed these various “duties” of the lexicographer. Certain terms were determined to be objectionable for some reason and are marked (Obj).1 Some new terms have been added which seem to express the desired idea or meanings more accurately than the corresponding terms in current usage. Where more than one term which carries the same connotation was found, the preferred term is listed first. Likewise, when more than one definition was assigned to the same term, the preferred definition is listed first. These decisions were made on the basis of majority opinion. It is hoped that eventually obsolete or objectionable terms and terms which tend to mislead and confuse will be eliminated entirely.
        This, the first edition of the Glossary, is offered to the dental profession for its consideration. Since it is recognized that there are some terms that have not been included and that some other terms and definitions that may be objectionable to some authorities have been included, revisions will be necessary from time to time. Constructive suggestions are invited, and these will be given thorough consideration in future editions. In its present form, this Glossary can serve as a good temporary standard.
        It is impossible to give due credit here to all that have worked to make this Glossary possible. The Fellows of the Academy of Denture Prosthetics have supplied the fundamental information and have made the necessary decisions. The Editorial Council of THE JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY, and The C. V. Mosby Company, its publisher, have provided encouragement and technical assistance in its development. Special acknowledgment is due to Dr George B. Denton of the Bureau of Library and Indexing of the American Dental Association, for his advice and counsel, and to Mrs. Marice K. Musgrove and Miss Barbara Eichhorn for the tremendous amount of secretarial work which was necessary. Acknowledgment is made, also, to certain dictionaries and textbooks from which the definitions for some of the terms have been taken. These are: Dorland, W. A. Newman, The American Illustrated Medical Dictionary, ed. 22, Philadelphia, 1951, W. B. Saunders Company (Dor.); Dunning, William B., and Davenport, S. Ellsworth, Jr., A Dictionary of Dental Science and Art, Philadelphia, 1936, P. Blakiston’s Son & Company, Inc. (D. & D.); Swenson, Merrill G., and Terkla, Louis G., Partial Dentures, St. Louis, 1955, The C. V. Mosby Company (S.); Blakiston’s New Gould Medical Dictionary, ed. 1, Philadelphia, 1949, The Blakiston Company (Gould). To all of these, the Nomenclature Committee expresses its gratitude.
        THE NOMENCLATURE COMMITTEE
        ACADEMY OF DENTURE PROSTHETICS
        1The recent edition designates an objectionable (obj in previous editions) term as slang and nonstandard.

        Contributions to the Ninth Edition of the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms Were Requested from the Following Organizations:

        The Academy of Prosthodontics
        The American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry
        The American Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics
        The American Academy of Implant Dentistry
        The American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics
        The American Academy of Restorative Dentistry
        The American Board of Prosthodontics
        The American College of Prosthodontists
        The American Dental Education Association
        The American Equilibration Society
        The American Prosthodontic Society
        The Association of Prosthodontists of Canada
        The Australian Prosthodontic Society
        The British Society for the Study of Prosthetic Dentistry
        The Greater New York Academy of Prosthodontics
        The Indian Prosthodontic Society
        The International Academy of Gnathology-American Section
        The International Journal of Prosthodontics
        The Iranian Prosthodontic Journal
        The Italian Academy of Prosthetic Dentistry
        The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
        The Journal of Prosthodontics
        The Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
        The Northeastern Gnathological Society
        The Pacific Coast Society for Prosthodontics
        The Swiss Society of Reconstructive Dentistry
        The Turkish Prosthodontics and Implantology Association

        Explanatory Notes

        Entries

        Main entries

        Any boldface letter or combination of letters that is set flush with the left-hand margin of each page constitutes a main entry or main-entry word. Such main entries may consist of letters, letters joined by hyphens, or letters separated by one or more spaces:
        • glarevb
        • glass-ceramicsn
        • gold foiln
        The subsequent explanation in lightface type that follows each main entry on the same line and, as necessary, on succeeding indented lines explains its inclusion in the glossary. Variations in compound words are frequent and widespread. Generally, although several acceptable variations may occur, one single style for any compound word has been chosen, usually on the basis of its frequency of occurrence, because that usually is its predominant form.

        Order of main entries

        All main entries are listed in their alphabetic order, letter by letter, without regard to intervening spaces or hyphens; that is, iatrogenic follows I-bar clasp. Generally accepted abbreviations have been spelled out in the alphabetic order. Full words come before parts of words made with the same letters.

        Homographs

        Some main entries have precisely the same written form. Two or more similarly spelled words are distinguished by superscript numerals that precede each word:
        • 1 luten 1 articulatevb
        • 2 lutevt 2 articulateadj
        Homographs are generally entered in order of their first use in the English language.

        Guide words

        Pairs of words, termed guide words, are printed at the top of each page. All main entries that fall alphabetically between the guide words are found on that page. The first guide word is alphabetically the first entry on the page, and the second guide word is the last entry:
        • agenesisalveolar resorption

        Variants

        If a main entry is followed by another variation of the word with another spelling, the two spellings are equal variants. Both may be assumed to be standard, and either one may be used according to personal inclination:
        • color or colour

        Run-on entries

        A main entry may be followed by one or more derivatives or by a homograph with a different functional label. These constitute run-on entries. Each is introduced by a lightface dash and each has a functional label. They are, however, not defined because their meanings are readily derived from the root word's meaning:
        • 2curvevb … -curved … -curvingvi

        Functional Labels

        An italic label indicating a part of speech or some other functional classification follows the main entry. The eight standard parts of speech are:
        • adjective … adj
        • adverb … adv
        • conjunction … conj
        • interjection … interj
        • noun … n
        • preposition … prep
        • pronoun … pron
        • verb … vb
        If a verb is transitive and intransitive, the functional labels vt and vi introduce the subdivisions. Other italicized labels used to indicate functional classifications that are not traditional parts of speech are:
        • -prefix
        • -suffix
        • -trademark

        Capitalization

        Most main entries in this glossary begin with a lowercase letter. Some, however, begin with an uppercase letter, which indicates that the word is usually capitalized:
        • myocentric
        • Myo-monitor
        The capitalization of entries that are open or hyphenated compounds is indicated by the form of the entry:
        • Dolder bar …
        • curve of Spee …
        • Davis crown …
        GPT terms related to the main entry are capitalized and placed after the definition. Non-GPT related terms are in lowercase, italicized, and placed after the definition.

        Etymology

        All material in square brackets preceding the definition constitutes the etymology. Etymology traces a vocabulary entry as far back as possible in English, and, where possible, its origins.

        Dates

        Some main entries will have a date enclosed in parentheses immediately preceding the boldface colon that introduces the first sense or sense number when one is present. This represents the date of earliest recorded use, in English, as far as could be determined. Many prosthodontic terms have evolved without prior dating. As such, few dates appear in this glossary.

        Usage

        Usage notes

        Only one status label (temporal) is used in this glossary to denote that a word, the sense of a word, or a phrase is not part of the standard vocabulary of prosthodontics. The label obs for “obsolete” means that there is no evidence to support its use in current literature:
        • balancing sideobs … syn, NONWORKING-SIDE
        The label obs is a comment by the editorial staff on the word being defined. An appropriate definition is provided where no current term is available or, alternatively, current acceptable terminology is suggested.
        The stylistic label slang is used with words or senses that are especially inappropriate or in contexts of extreme informality. There is no satisfactory objective test for slang. Many are composed of shortened forms or extravagant or fictitious figures of speech:
        • bite registrationnslangsyn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD
        • suck-downnslangsyn, VACUUM THERMOMOLD
        The stylistic label nonstand for “nonstandard” is used for words or senses that conform to a widespread pattern of usage in informality that differs in choice of word or expression from that of the general prosthodontic community language standard. In fact, many words, invariably nonstandard, are in our spoken vernacular:
        • black trianglenonstandsyn, INTERDENTAL GINGIVAL SPACE
        • pink porcelainnonstandsyn, GINGIVAL PORCELAIN

        Usage paragraphs

        Brief usage notes or paragraphs, labeled Editorial note for usage, have been placed in several entries for words or phrases that are considered to present special problems in terms of confused or disputed usage. A usage paragraph typically summarizes the historic background of the issue and its associated body of opinion, compares these with available evidence of current usage, and often adds comment for the use of the inquirer.

        Definitions

        Division of senses

        A boldface colon is used in this glossary to introduce a definition:
        • 1abrasive n (1853): a substance used for abrading, smoothing, or polishing
        Boldface Arabic numerals separate the senses of a word that has more than one sense:
        • equilibrium n (1608): 1. a state of even adjustment between opposing forces; 2. the state or condition of a body in which any forces acting upon it are so arranged that their product at every point is zero; 3. a balance between active forces and negative resistance
        The system of separating the various senses of a word by numerals is strictly a lexical convenience. It tends to reflect something of the semantic relationship, but it may establish a hierarchy of importance within them. Sometimes a particular relationship between senses is suggested by use of an italicized sense divider: comp (for compare). A brief statement that discriminates words of closely associated meaning has been placed in some entries. They are signaled by an italic: syn (for synonym). Italicized sense dividers are followed by the all CAPITALIZED glossary term or an italicized term if it is not in the glossary. With respect to the hierarchy of the use of a term, the primary term is defined.

        Omission of a sense

        Occasionally the glossary user, having turned to an entry, may not find an expected or hoped for particular sense. This usually means that the editors judged the sense insufficiently common or otherwise unimportant to include in the glossary. Because our language is dynamic, revision by future editors may reflect changes in the sense of a word not found in this edition.

        Abbreviations Used in This Work

        abbr … abbreviation
        adj … adjective
        adv … adverb
        c … century
        ca … circa
        contr … contraction
        comp … compare
        GPT-1 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 1, J Prosthet Dent 1956 (March); Appendix No. 2 inserted supplemental between 1:286 and 1:287
        GPT-2 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 2, J Prosthet Dent 1960;10(6); Part Two, inserted supplemental after page 1200 of volume 10
        GPT-3 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 3, J Prosthet Dent 1968;20:443-80
        GPT-4 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 4, J Prosthet Dent 1977;38:66-109
        GPT-5 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 5, J Prosthet Dent 1987;58:713-62
        GPT-6 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 6, J Prosthet Dent 1994;71:41-111
        GPT-7 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 7, J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:41-110
        GPT-8 … Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms, Edition 8, J Prosthet Dent 2005;94:1-92
        n … noun
        nonstand … nonstandard or informal
        obs … obsolete
        orig … original, originally
        pl … plural
        pron … pronoun
        slang … inappropriate
        syn … synonym
        vb … verb
        vi … verb intransitive
        vt … verb transitive

        Pronunciation key

        Tabled 1
        SpellingsPronunciation Key used in the Glossary
        gagă
        faceā
        sparä
        boneb
        chewch
        deep, milledd
        pegĕ
        see, fieldē
        form, photonf
        gagg
        hardh
        whitinghw
        pinĭ
        fine, byī
        veneerîr
        jigj
        key, conek
        metal, lugl
        mandiblem
        nasal, painn
        polishingng
        ponticŏ
        openō
        pawlô
        foiloi
        took, neurogenousŏŏ
        lute, boot, rougeōō
        outou
        papillap
        rodr
        sluices
        shellsh
        template, stoppedt
        thermalth
        thisth
        cuffŭ
        firm, word, cervicalûr
        valuev
        wirew
        yieldy
        zero, xenogenicz
        occlusionzh

        The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms

        A

        Abbe flap ∖Ăb′ē flăp∖ : eponym for a lip switch operation; a triangular, full-thickness flap from the mandibular lip used to fill in a deficit in the maxillary lip; specifically applied to the midportion of the maxillary or mandibular lip; orig, Robert Abbe, surgeon, New York, NY, 1851-1928; syn, LIP SWITCH OPERATION, ESTLANDER’S OPERATION
        Abbe R. A new plastic operation for the relief of deformity due to double harelip. Med Rec 1898;53:477
        abduct ∖ăb dŭkt′∖ vt (1834): to draw away from the median plane; comp, ADDUCT
        aberrant ∖ă-bĕr′ant∖ adj (ca. 1798): 1. a deviation from the normal or usual course, form, or location; 2. straying from the normal way
        abfraction ∖ăb frăk΄shun∖ n (1991): the pathologic loss of hard tooth substance caused by biomechanical loading forces; such loss is thought to be the result of flexure and chemical fatigue degradation of enamel and/or dentin at some location distant from the actual point of loading; syn, NONCARIOUS CERVICAL LESION; comp, ABLATION, ABRASION, and EROSION
        ablation ∖ă-blā΄shun∖ n (15c): 1. separation or detachment; extirpation; eradication; 2. removal of a part, especially by cutting; comp, ABFRACTION, EROSION, NONCARIOUS CERVICAL LESION
        abrade ∖uh-brād΄∖ vt (1677): to rub away the external covering or layer of a part; comp ATTRITION, EROSION
        abrasion ∖ă-brā shun∖ n (1656): 1. the wearing away of a substance or structure (such as the skin or the teeth) through some unusual or abnormal mechanical process; 2. an abnormal wearing away of the tooth substance by causes other than mastication; comp, ATTRITION, EROSION
        1abrasive ∖uh-brā siv, -ziv∖ n (1853): a substance used for abrading, smoothing, or polishing
        2abrasive ∖uh-brā siv, -ziv∖ adj (1875): 1. tending to abrade; 2. causing irritation; abrasively adv; abrasiveness n
        abrasivity ∖uh-brā΄siv-ĭ-tē, -ziv-ĭ-tē∖ n (1998): the property of one material to wear away another material by means of frictional contact
        abscopal effect: occurs when the localized radiotherapy of a primary tumor results in the regression of distant secondary metastatic cancer
        absorbed dose ∖ab-sôrbd΄,-zôrbd΄ dōs∖: the amount of energy from ionizing radiation absorbed per unit mass of matter, expressed in Gray units; comp, GRAY, RAD
        absorptance ∖ab-sôrp΄tans, -zôrp΄tans∖ n (ca. 1931): the ratio of the radiant energy absorbed by a body to that incident upon it
        absorption ∖ab-sôrp΄shun, -zôrp΄-∖ n (1741): 1. the uptake of substances into or through tissues, e.g., mucosa, skin, and intestine; 2. in radiology, the uptake of energy by matter with which the radiation interacts; comp, ABSORPTION OF RADIATION, ADSORPTION
        absorption of radiation ∖ab-sôrp΄shun ŭv rā΄dē-ā΄shun∖: collision-like interactions between the individual particulate or quantum components of a beam of radiation and the subatomic parts of matter that occur at random during irradiation; each interaction may result in partial or complete transfer of energy
        abutment ∖a-bŭt΄ment∖ n (1634): 1. that part of a structure that directly receives thrust or pressure; an anchorage; 2. a tooth, a portion of a tooth, or that portion of a dental implant that serves to support and/or retain a prosthesis; comp, ANGULATED ABUTMENT, HEALING ABUTMENT, DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT, INTERMEDIATE ABUTMENT, one-piece abutment, STANDARD ABUTMENT, two-piece abutment
        abutment alignment device: any device used for positioning a dental implant abutment on the dental implant body; syn, abutment alignment coping, ABUTMENT CLAMP
        abutment analog (2005): a replica of the superior portion of a dental implant; usually used to provide an exact form of the dental implant abutment within the dental laboratory during fabrication of a prosthesis supported in part or whole by the dental implant
        abutment clamp ∖a-bŭt΄ment klămp∖ (1998): syn, ABUTMENT ALIGNMENT DEVICE
        abutment driver (2005): any hand instrument usually specifically made to assist in insertion and securing of a dental implant abutment to the superior portion of a dental implant
        abutment healing cap (2005): syn, ABUTMENT HEALING SCREW
        abutment healing screw n: any temporary cover used to provide a seal over the superior portion of a dental implant; most such covers are metallic and are intended for interim use following exposure of the dental implant’s superior surface
        abutment post n (2005): the component of a dental implant abutment that extends into the internal structure of a dental implant and is used to provide retention and/or stability to the dental implant abutment
        abutment screw n (1998): that component which secures the dental implant abutment to the dental implant body; comp, ATTACHMENT SCREW
        accelerant ∖ăk-sĕl΄a-rănt΄∖ n (1916): a substance used to accelerate a process (as in enhancing the speed of a chemical reaction)
        accelerator ∖ăk-sĕl΄a-rā΄ter∖ n (1611): 1. a substance that speeds a chemical reaction; 2. in physiology, a nerve, muscle, or substance that quickens movement or response
        accretion ∖a-krē΄shun∖ n (1615): 1. the process of enlargement or growth by a gradual buildup; 2. in periodontics, the accumulation on teeth or dental implants of foreign material such as plaque, calculus, and materia alba
        achromatic ∖ăk΄ra-măt΄ĭk∖ adj (1766): 1. lacking in hue and saturation, therefore, falling into a series of colors that varies only in lightness or brightness; 2. possessing no hue; being or involving black, gray, or white
        achromatopsia ∖ā-krō΄ma-tŏp΄zhē-a∖ n: 1. Monochromatism; 2. a type of monochromatism in which all colors are perceived as achromatic; syn, achromatism, total color perception deficiency
        acid-etched bonded splint: syn, RESIN-BONDED SPLINT
        acid-etched bridge nonstand: syn, RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS
        acid-etched fixed partial denture: syn, RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS
        acquire ∖a-kwīr΄∖ vt (15c): 1. to obtain as one’s own; to come to have as a new or additional trait, characteristic, or capability; 2. attained with time; acquired, acquiring
        acquired occlusal position nonstand ∖a-kwīrd΄ a-klōō΄zal pa-zish΄an∖: syn, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        acquired occlusion nonstand: syn, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        acrylic resin ∖a-krĭl΄ĭk rĕz΄ĭn∖: 1. pertaining to polymers of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, or acrylonitrile; 2. any of a group of thermoplastic resins made by polymerizing esters of acrylic or methylmethacrylate acids
        acrylic resin base ∖a-krĭl΄ĭk rĕz΄ĭn bās∖: a denture base made of acrylic resin
        acrylic resin veneer: usually referring to a crown or fixed partial denture or removable partial denture; the veneering or lamination of the facial surfaces of a crown or dental prosthesis by using acrylic resin; the intention of such veneering is to provide a natural tooth appearance to the viewable portions of the restoration
        1activator ∖ăk΄tĭ-vā΄ tôr∖ n: a removable orthodontic prosthesis intended to stimulate perioral muscles
        2activator ∖ăk΄tĭ-vā΄ tôr∖ n (1998): 1. a source of energy that promotes the initiator to begin a chemical reaction; 2. a substance used in small proportions to increase the effectiveness of an accelerator chemical; comp, INITIATOR
        acute closed lock ∖a-kyōōt΄ klōzd lŏk∖: a form of temporomandibular joint dysfunction characterized by sudden onset, short-term limitation in jaw movement caused by anterior displacement of the intra-articular disc and associated with pain, limitation of jaw opening to 25 to 30 mm (as measured in the incisor area) and, with jaw opening, a deflection of the mandible toward the affected joint
        acute pain: pain having a brief and relatively severe course
        adaptation ∖ăd΄ăp-tā΄shun∖ n (1610): 1. the act or process of adapting; the state of being adapted; 2. the act of purposefully adapting two surfaces to provide intimate contact; 3. the progressive adjustive changes in sensitivity that regularly accompany continuous sensory stimulation or lack of stimulation; 4. in dentistry, (a) the degree of fit between a prosthesis and supporting structures, (b) the degree of proximity of a restorative material to a tooth preparation, (c) the adjustment of orthodontic bands to teeth
        adaptation syndrome ∖ăd΄ăp-tā΄shun sĭn΄drōm΄∖: a syndrome characterized by alterations in response as an accommodation to the environment
        adaptive occlusion: syn, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        additive color mixture ∖ăd΄ ĭ-tĭv kŭl΄ur mĭks΄chur∖: the perceived color that results when the same area of the retina of the eye is illuminated by lights of different spectral distribution such as by two colored lights; comp, SUBTRACTIVE COLOR SYSTEM
        additive manufacturing file: acronym is AMF; data format proposed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM); this file is used in additive manufacturing of any three-dimensional (3D) object to be fabricated on any 3D printer; AMF has shape and composition for color, materials, and texture
        adduct ∖a-dŭkt΄,-ă-∖ vt (1836): to draw toward the median plane or toward the axial line; comp, ABDUCT
        adherence ∖ăd-hîr΄ens, -enz∖ n (1531): the act, quality, or action of adhering; persistent attachment
        adhesion ∖ăd-hē΄zhun∖ n (1624): 1. the property of remaining in close proximity, as that resulting from the physical attraction of molecules to a substance or molecular attraction existing between the surfaces of bodies in contact; 2. the stable joining of parts to each other, which may occur abnormally; 3. a fibrous band or structure by which parts abnormally adhere; comp, CAPSULAR FIBROSIS, FIBROUS ADHESION, INTRACAPSULAR ADHESION, MYOFIBROTIC CAPSULAR CONTRACTURE
        1adhesive ∖ăd-hē΄siv, -ziv∖ adj (1670): sticky or tenacious
        2adhesive ∖ăd-hē΄siv, -ziv∖ n (1912): 1. any substance that creates close adherence to or on adjoining surfaces; 2. a luting agent; comp, DENTURE ADHESIVE, MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHETIC ADHESIVE
        adhesive capsulitis ∖ăd-hē΄siv,-ziv kăp΄sul-ī΄tis∖: within the temporomandibular joint, any situation in which the disc is in its normal position, the joint space volume is decreased, and motion is restricted
        adhesive failure ∖ăd-hē΄siv,-ziv fāl΄yur∖ (1998): bond failure at an interface between two materials because of tensile or shearing force; comp, COHESIVE FAILURE
        adhesive resin: any resin material with incorporated adhesive chemicals such as 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihidrogen phosphate (MDP), an organophosphate, or 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) and related carboxyl-modified acrylic resins; in dentistry, to describe adhesive agents used for the luting of fixed dental prostheses and veneering resin to metal alloy
        adiadochokinesia ∖ăd΄ē-ă dō chō kĭ nē΄zha∖ n: inability to perform rapid alternating movements, such as opening and closing the jaws or lips, raising and lowering the eyebrows, or tapping the finger
        adipose atrophy ∖ăd΄ĭ-pōs΄ ăt΄ra-fē∖: reduction of fatty tissue
        adjustable anterior guidance ∖a-jŭst΄a΄bul ăn-tîr΄ē-or gīd΄ns∖: an anterior guide on an articulator whose surface may be altered to provide desired guidance of the articulator's movement mechanism; the guide may be programmed (calibrated) to accept eccentric interocclusal records
        adjustable articulator ∖a-jŭst΄a΄bul är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄tor∖: an articulator that allows some limited adjustment in the sagittal and horizontal planes to simulate recorded mandibular movements; comp, ARTICULATOR
        adjustable axis facebow: syn, AVERAGE AXIS FACEBOW, FACEBOW
        adjustment ∖a-jŭst΄mant∖ n (1644): 1. the act or process of modifying physical parts; 2. in dentistry, a modification made on a dental prosthesis or natural tooth to enhance fit, function, or acceptance by the patient; comp, OCCLUSAL ADJUSTMENT, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING, ESTHETIC RESHAPING
        adsorption ∖ăd-sôrp΄shun, -zôrp΄-∖ n (1882): the adhesion, in an extremely thin layer, of molecules to the surfaces of liquids or solids with which they are in contact; comp ABSORPTION
        adult speech aid prosthesis ∖a-dŭlt΄ spēch ād prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a definitive maxillofacial prosthesis that can improve speech in adult cleft palate patients either by obturating (sealing off) a palatal cleft or fistula, or occasionally by assisting an incompetent soft palate; both mechanisms are necessary to achieve palatopharyngeal closure; Editorial note for usage: generally this prosthesis is fabricated when no further growth is anticipated and the objective is to achieve long-term use, hence, more precise materials and techniques are used; occasionally such procedures are accomplished in conjunction with precision attachments in fixed dental prostheses undertaken on some or all maxillary teeth to achieve improved esthetics; syn, PROSTHETIC SPEECH AID, SPEECH AID, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS, SPEECH BULB
        afterimage ∖ăf΄ter ĭm΄ĭj∖ n (1874): in visual acuity, a prolongation or renewal of a visual sensory experience, ascribable to residual excitation after external stimuli have ceased to operate
        afterloading technique ∖ăf΄ter-lōd΄ing tĕk-nēk΄∖: in therapeutic radiology, the use of applicators for brachytherapy so designed that they may be quickly loaded with radioactive sources after placement within the patient
        agar ∖ā΄gar΄, ä΄gar΄∖ n (1889): a complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae; it is a mucilaginous substance that melts at approximately 100° C and solidifies into a gel at approximately 40° C; it is not digested by most bacteria and is used as a gelation agent in dental impression materials and a solid culture media for microorganisms
        age atrophy ∖āj ăt΄ra-fē∖: a wasting away; the normal diminution of all tissues as a result of advanced age
        agenesis ∖ā-jĕn΄ĭ-sĭs∖ n (ca. 1879): absence, failure of formation, or imperfect development of any body part; comp, CONDYLAR AGENESIS
        agnathia ∖ăg-nā΄thē-a∖ n: a developmental anomaly characterized by absence of the mandible
        agnosia ∖ăg-nō΄zha∖ n (ca. 1900): diminution or loss of the ability to recognize the import of sensory stimuli; the varieties correspond with the senses and are distinguished as auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, and visual
        agonist ∖ăg΄a-nĭst∖ n (ca. 1626): 1. in physiology, a muscle that is controlled by the action of an antagonist with which it is paired; 2. in anatomy, a prime mover; 3. in pharmacology, a drug that has an affinity for and stimulates physiologic activity in cell receptors normally stimulated by naturally occurring substances
        air abrasion: syn, AIRBORNE-PARTICLE ABRASION
        air-bone gap ∖âr΄bōn΄ găp∖: in audiology, the difference in patient acuity to sound transmitted though air and through bone that reflects hearing loss as a result of middle ear dysfunction or pathology
        air chamber: syn, RELIEF AREA
        air conduction ∖âr kon-dŭk΄shun∖: the normal process of conducting sound waves through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane
        air dose ∖âr dōs∖: in therapeutic radiology, the amount of energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue at a given site, in air
        airborne-particle abrasion ∖âr΄bôrn΄ pär΄tĭ-kal a-brā΄zhun∖: the process of altering the surface of a material through the use of abrasive particles propelled by compressed air or other gases
        Akers clasp ∖Ā΄kerz klăsp∖: eponym for a cast circumferential clasp; this cast clasp improved and standardized the one-piece casting method for fabricating gold alloy removable partial denture frameworks in the early 1920s; orig, Polk E. Akers, dentist, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.; comp, COMBINATION CLASP, SUPRABULGE CLASP, WROUGHT WIRE CLASP
        Akers PE. Partial dentures. J Am Dent Assoc 1928;15:717-22
        ala ∖ā΄la∖ n (1738): a wing or a wing-like anatomic part or process; alae ∖ā΄lē∖ pl; alar adj
        ala nasi ∖ä΄la năs΄ē∖ n: in anatomy, the cartilaginous processes forming the wing-like flare of each naris
        ala-tragus line ∖a΄lah tră΄gŭs līn∖: a line running from the inferior border of the ala of the nose to the superior border on the tragus of the ear; it is frequently used, with a third point on the opposing tragus, for the purpose of establishing the ala-tragus plane; ideally the ala-tragus plane is considered to be parallel to the occlusal plane; the occlusal plane is at an angle of approximately 10 degrees relative to the Frankfort horizontal plane, when viewed in the mid-sagittal plane; syn, CAMPER’S LINE
        alginate n (ca. 1909): syn, IRREVERSIBLE HYDROCOLLOID
        all-ceramic restoration: syn, CERAMIC RESTORATION
        all-polymer prosthesis: a fixed partial denture fabricated from non-metallic or ceramic components typically composed of an internal glass fiber-reinforced composite framework covered by a particulate composite resin; syn, FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE RESIN FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE (FRC-FPD)
        allodynia ∖ăl ō deen΄ya∖ n: pain resulting from a non-noxious stimulus to normal skin or mucosa
        allogeneic ∖al ă jn΄ĭk∖ adj (1963): in transplantation biology, denoting individuals (or tissues) that are of the same species however antigenically distinct; syn, homologous
        allogeneic graft: syn, HOMOGRAFT
        allograft ∖ăl΄a-grăft΄∖ n (1964): a graft of tissue between genetically dissimilar members of the same species; syn, ALLOGENEIC GRAFT, HOMOGRAFT
        alloplast ∖ăl΄a plăst΄∖ n: 1. an inert foreign body used for implantation within tissue; 2. a material originating from a nonliving source that surgically replaces missing tissue or augments that which remains
        alloplastic graft ∖ăl΄a-plăs΄tĭk grăft∖: a graft consisting of an inert material
        alloplastic material ∖ăl΄a-plăs΄tĭk ma-tîr΄ē-al∖: any non-biologic material suitable for implantation as an alloplast
        alloy ∖ăl΄oi΄, a-loi΄∖ n (14c): a mixture of two or more metals or metalloids that are mutually soluble in the molten state; distinguished as binary, ternary, quaternary, etc., depending on the number of metals within the mixture; alloying elements are added to alter the hardness, strength, and toughness of a metallic element, thus obtaining properties not found in a pure metal; alloys may also be classified on the basis of their behavior when solidified; comp, BASE METAL, HIGH NOBLE ALLOY, NOBLE METAL ALLOY
        alloying element ∖a-loi΄ĭng ĕl΄a-ment∖ (1998): metallic or non-metallic elements added to or retained by a pure metal for the purpose of giving that metal special properties
        alpha particle ∖ăl΄fa păr΄tĭ-kal∖ n (1903): a positively charged nuclear particle identical with the nucleus of a helium atom that consists of two protons and two neutrons and is ejected at high speed in certain radioactive transformations
        altered cast ∖ôl΄terd kăst∖: a final cast that is revised in part before processing a denture base; syn, CORRECTED CAST, MODIFIED CAST
        altered cast removable partial denture impression ∖ôl΄terd kăst pär΄shal dĕn΄cher ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: a negative likeness of a portion or portions of the edentulous denture bearing area made independent of and after the initial impression of the natural teeth; this technique uses an impression tray(s) attached to the framework of the removable partial denture, or its likeness
        aluminous porcelain ∖a-lōō΄mi-nus pôr΄si-lin, pōr΄-∖: a ceramic material composed of a glass matrix phase with 35% or more of aluminum oxide, by volume
        aluminum oxide ∖a-lōō΄mi-num ŏk΄sīd΄∖: 1. a metallic oxide constituent of dental porcelain that increases hardness and viscosity; 2. a high-strength ceramic crystal dispersed throughout a glassy phase to increase its strength as in aluminous dental porcelain used to fabricate aluminous porcelain crowns; 3. a finely ground ceramic particle (frequently 50 um) often used in conjunction with airborne-particle abrasion of metal castings before the application of porcelain as with metal ceramic restorations; syn, alumina
        alveolar ∖ăl-vē΄a-ler∖ adj (1799): the type of the jaw bone that retains the teeth
        alveolar augmentation ∖ăl-vē΄a-ler ôg΄mĕn-tā΄shun∖: any surgical procedure used to alter the contour of the residual alveolar ridge
        alveolar bone ∖ăl-vē΄a-ler bōn∖: the bony portion of the mandible or maxillae in which the roots of the teeth are held by fibers of the periodontal ligament; syn, ALVEOLUS, dental alveolus
        alveolar crest: syn, RESIDUAL RIDGE CREST
        alveolar mucosa ∖ăl-vē΄a-ler myōō-kō΄sa∖: the lining mucosal covering of the alveolar process, loosely attached to the bone
        alveolar process ∖ăl-vē΄a-ler pro-sĕs΄∖: the cancellous and compact bony structure that surrounds and supports the teeth
        alveolar reconstruction ∖ăl-vē΄a-ler rē΄kon-strŭk΄shun∖: any surgical procedure used to recreate an edentulous ridge where there is a severely resorbed residual alveolar ridge
        alveolar resorption: syn, RESIDUAL RIDGE RESORPTION
        alveolar ridge: syn, RESIDUAL RIDGE
        alveolectomy n: comp, OSTECTOMY
        alveoloplasty n: comp, OSTEOTOMY
        alveolus ∖ăl-vē΄a-lus,∖ n (ca. 1706): one of the cavities or sockets within the alveolar process of the maxillae or mandible in which the attachment complex held the root of a tooth that was removed; alveoli ∖ăl-vē΄a-lē∖ pl
        amalgam n: dental amalgam is an alloy of mercury, silver, copper, and tin, which may also contain palladium, zinc, and other elements to improve handling characteristics and clinical performance; syn, silver amalgam
        ambient ∖AM-bee-unt∖ adj: existing or present on all sides; encompassing
        AMF: acronym for ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FILE
        amorphous ∖a-mōr΄fus∖ n: without crystalline structure; having random arrangement of atoms in space
        analgesia ∖ăn΄al-jē zē-a,-zha∖ n (ca. 1706): absence of perception of pain, designating particularly the relief of pain without loss of consciousness; a term denoting a “total absence of all sensibility,” written by Oliver Wendell Holmes for William T. G. Morton (1846)
        1analgesic ∖ăn΄al-jē΄ zĭk, -sĭk∖ adj: relieving pain
        2analgesic ∖ăn΄al-jē΄zĭk, -sĭk∖ n: an agent that alleviates pain without causing loss of consciousness; comp, ANALGESIC BLOCKING AGENT, ANALGESIC DIAGNOSTIC BLOCK
        analgesic blocking agent ∖ăn΄al-jē΄zĭk blŏk΄ing ā΄jent∖: any analgesic that blocks or prohibits sensory perception
        analgesic diagnostic block ∖ăn΄al-jē΄zĭk dī΄ag-nŏs΄tĭk blŏk∖: the selective use of a local anesthetic injection or application of a topical anesthetic to identify a pain source
        analog ∖ăn΄a-lôg, -lŏg∖ n (1826): 1. in dentistry, something that is analogous, in part or whole, to something else; i.e., a replica of a portion of an implant abutment made of brass, aluminum, stainless steel, or plastic; 2. an organ similar in function to an organ of another animal or plant but with different structure and origin; analogue
        anamnesis ∖ăn΄ăm-nē΄sĭs∖ n (ca. 1593): 1. a recalling to mind; a reminiscence; 2. the past history of disease or injury based on the patient’s memory or recall at the time of interview and examination; 3. a preliminary past medical history of a medical or psychiatric patient; -neses pl
        anatomic crown ∖ăn΄a-tŏm΄ĭk kroun∖: the portion of a natural tooth that extends coronal from the cemento-enamel junction; syn, anatomical crown
        anatomic landmark ∖ăn΄a-tŏm΄ĭk lănd΄mărk∖: a recognizable anatomic structure used as a point of reference
        anatomic occlusion ∖ăn΄a-tŏm΄ĭk a-klōō΄zhun∖: an occlusal arrangement for dental prostheses wherein the posterior artificial teeth have masticatory surfaces that closely resemble those of the natural healthy dentition and articulate with similar natural or artificial surfaces; syn, anatomical occlusion
        anatomic teeth ∖ăn΄a-tŏm΄ĭk tēth∖: 1. artificial teeth that duplicate the anatomic forms of natural teeth; 2. teeth that have prominent cusps on the masticating surfaces and that are designed to articulate with the teeth of the opposing natural or prosthetic dentition; 3. anatomic teeth with cuspal inclinations greater than 0 degrees that tend to replicate natural tooth anatomy; Editorial note for usage: cusped teeth (30 to 45 degrees) are considered anatomic teeth. Modified occlusal forms are those with a 20-degree or less cuspal inclination; comp, SEMI-ANATOMICAL ARTIFICIAL TEETH
        Boucher CO. Occlusion in prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 1953;3:633-56
        anatomy ∖a-năt΄a-mē∖ n (14c): 1. a branch of morphology that involves the structures of organs; 2. the structural makeup esp. of an organ or any of its parts; -mies pl; anatomic ∖ăn΄a-tŏm΄ĭk∖ or anatomical ∖ăn΄a-tŏm΄ĭ-kal∖ adj
        ANB angle ∖A N B ăng΄gl∖: in cephalometric analysis, the angle formed between the nasion point A line and the nasion point B line
        anchorage area ∖ăng΄ker-ĭj âr΄ē-a∖: that area which, by its situation, configuration, and/or preparation, is suitable for the retention of a prosthesis
        anchorage component nonstand: syn, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        anchorage element nonstand: syn, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT ELEMENT(S)
        ancillary device: syn, DEVICE
        Anderson splint: eponym for a skeletal traction splint with pins inserted into proximal and distal ends of a fractured bone. Reduction is obtained by an external plate attached to the pins; orig, Roger Anderson, orthopedic surgeon, U.S.A., 1891-1971; syn, BYPHASIC SPLINT
        Anderson R. Ambulatory method of treating fractures of the shaft of the femur. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1936;62:865
        Andrews bridge ∖Ăn΄drōōs brĭj∖: eponym for the combination of a fixed partial denture incorporating a connecting bar with a removable partial denture that replaces teeth within the bar area, usually used for edentulous anterior spaces; the vertical walls of the bar may provide retention for the removable component; orig, James Andrews, dentist, U.S.A
        Amite LA, Everhart RJ, Cavazos E. Jr. Evaluation of a fixed removable partial denture: Andrews Bridge System. J Prosthet Dent 1983;50(2):180-84
        anesthesia ∖ăn΄ĭs-thē΄zha∖ n (ca. 1721): loss of feeling or sensation; anaesthesia
        anesthesia dolorosa ∖ăn΄ĭs-thē΄zha dō΄la-rō΄sa∖: pain within an area or region that is anesthetized
        1anesthetic ∖ăn΄ĭs-thĕt΄ĭk∖ adj (1846): 1. capable of producing anesthesia; 2. lacking awareness or sensitivity
        2anesthetic ∖ăn΄ĭs-thĕt΄ĭk∖ n (1848): 1. a substance that produces anesthesia; 2. something that brings relief
        angle of gingival convergence ∖ăng΄gl ŭv jĭn΄ji-val, -jĭn-jī΄- kun-vûr΄jens∖: the angle of gingival convergence is located apical to the height of contour on the abutment tooth; it can be identified by viewing the angle formed by the tooth surface gingival to the survey line and the analyzing rod or undercut gauge of a surveyor as it contacts the height of contour
        Schneider RL. Significance of abutment tooth angle of gingival convergence on removable partial denture retention. J Prosthet Dent 1987;58:194-96
        angle of incidence ∖ăng΄gl ŭv ĭn΄sĭ-dens∖: the angle formed between the axis of a light beam and a perpendicular to the object's surface
        angle of reflection ∖ăng΄gl ŭv rĭ-flĕk΄shun∖: the angle formed between the axis of a reflected light beam and a perpendicular to the object's surface
        angled abutment: syn, ANGULATED DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT
        angled implant: syn, ANGULATED DENTAL IMPLANT
        Angle’s classification of occlusion ∖Ăng΄gulz klăs΄a-fĭ-kā΄shun ŭv a-klōō΄shun∖: eponym for a classification system of occlusion based on the intercuspation of the first molar teeth originally described by Angle as four major groups depending on the anteroposterior jaw relationship; Class I (normal occlusion or NEUTRO-OCCLUSION): the dental relationship in which there is normal anteroposterior relationship of the jaws, as indicated by intercuspal position of maxillary and mandibular molars, but with crowding and rotation of teeth elsewhere, i.e., a dental dysplasia or arch length deficiency; Class II (DISTO-OCCLUSION): the dental relationship in which the mandibular dental arch is posterior to the maxillary dental arch in one or both lateral segments; the mandibular first molar is distal to the maxillary first molar; Class II can be further subdivided into two divisions; Division 1: bilateral distal retrusion with a narrow maxillary arch and protruding maxillary incisors. Subdivisions include right or left (unilaterally distal with other characteristics being the same); Division 2: bilateral distal with a normal or square-shaped maxillary arch, retruded maxillary central incisors, labially malposed maxillary lateral incisors, and an excessive vertical overlap. Subdivisions include right or left (unilaterally distal with other characteristics the same); Class III (MESIO-OCCLUSION): the dental relationship in which the mandibular arch is anterior to the maxillary arch in one or both lateral segments; the mandibular first molar is mesial to the maxillary first molar; the mandibular incisors are usually in anterior reverse articulation; subdivisions include right or left (unilaterally mesial with other characteristics the same); Class IV: the dental relationship in which the occlusal relations of the dental arches present the peculiar condition of being in distal occlusion in one lateral half and in mesial occlusion in the other (Class IV is no longer in use); orig, Edward Harley Angle, orthodontist, U.S.A., 1855-1930;
        Angle EM. Classification of malocclusion. Dental Cosmos 1899;41:248-64, 350-57
        angular cheilitis ∖ăng΄gya-ler kī-lī΄tĭs∖: inflammation in the area of the modiolus causing redness and the production of fissures; syn, perleche
        angulated dental implant: a dental implant placed in the bone such that its long axis of inclination varies considerably from a perpendicular relationship with the occlusal plane; syn, ANGLED IMPLANT; TILTED IMPLANT
        angulated dental implant abutment ∖ăng΄gya-lāt΄ĭd a-bŭt΄ment∖ (1998): any endosteal dental implant abutment that alters the long axis angulation between the dental implant and the dental implant abutment; syn, ANGLED ABUTMENT
        ankyloglossia ∖ang΄kĭ-lo-glos’e-ah, -glo-sha∖ n: the binding of the tip of the tongue to the floor of the mouth or the alveolar ridge as a result of abnormal attachment of the lingual frenum. This often restricts movement of the tongue, often because of the position of the lingual frenulum, resulting in speech impediments; may be complete or partial; syn, adherent tongue, lingua frenata, tongue-tie
        ankylosis ∖ăng΄ki-lō΄sĭs∖ n (1713): immobility and consolidation of a joint or tooth as a result of injury, disease, or a surgical procedure; -loses pl; comp, BONY ANKYLOSIS, EXTRACAPSULAR ANKYLOSIS, FIBROUS ANKYLOSIS, INTRACAPSULAR ANKYLOSIS; syn, anchylosis
        anneal ∖a-nēl΄∖ vt (1580): 1. to heat a material, such as metal or glass, followed by controlled cooling to remove internal stresses and create a desired degree of toughness, temper, or softness to a material; 2. to heat a material, such as gold foil, to volatilize and drive off impurities from its surface, thus increasing its cohesive properties; this process is termed degassing; 3. to homogenize an amalgam alloy by heating in an oven
        annular ∖ăn΄ya-ler∖ n (1571): a term used to describe a ring-like anatomic structure
        anodontia ∖ăn΄ō-dŏn΄shē-a∖ n: a rare dental condition characterized by congenital absence of all teeth (both deciduous and permanent); comp, HYPODONTIA, OLIGODONTIA
        anodontism n: syn, ANODONTIA
        anomalous trichromatic vision ∖a-nŏm΄a-lus trī΄krō-măt΄ĭk vĭzh΄un∖: a form of defective color vision in which three stimuli are required for color matching, but the proportions in which they are matched differ significantly from those required by the normal trichromat. There are three forms of anomalous trichromatic vision: protanomalous, deuteranomalous, and tritanomalous
        anomaly ∖a-nŏm΄a-lē∖ n (1664): 1. something different, abnormal, peculiar, or not easily classified; 2. an aberration or deviation from normal anatomic growth, development, or function; 3. marked deviation from the normal standard, especially as a result of congenital defects; anomalies ∖a-nŏm΄a-lēz∖ pl
        ANS: acronym for ANTERIOR NASAL SPINE; the outline of the anterior nasal spine as seen on the lateral cephalometric radiograph; used as a cephalometric landmark
        antagonist ∖ăn-tăg΄a-nĭst∖ n (1599): 1. a tooth in one jaw that articulates with a tooth in the other jaw; syn, dental antagonist; 2. a substance that tends to nullify the actions of another, as a drug that binds to cell receptors without eliciting a biologic response; 3. a muscle whose action is the direct opposite of another muscle
        Ante’s Law: eponym, in fixed prosthodontics, for the observation that the combined pericemental area of all abutment teeth supporting a fixed partial denture should be equal to or greater in pericemental area compared with the tooth or teeth to be replaced; as formulated for removable dental prosthodontics, the combined pericemental area of the abutment teeth plus the mucosal area of the denture base should be equal to or greater than the pericemental area of the missing teeth; orig, Irwin H. Ante, dentist, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
        Ante IH. The fundamental principles, design and construction of crown and bridge prosthesis. Dent Item Int 1928;50:215-32
        anterior ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or∖ adj (1541): 1. situated in front of or the front part; 2. the forward or ventral position; 3. a term used to denote the incisor or canine teeth or the forward region of the mouth
        anterior deprogramming device ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or de prō΄grăm’ĭng dĭ-vīs΄∖: an individually fabricated anterior guide table that allows mandibular motion without the influence of tooth contacts and facilitates the recording of maxillomandibular relationships; syn, LUCIA JIG
        anterior disc displacement: syn, DISC DISPLACEMENT
        anterior guidance ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or gīd΄ns∖: 1. the influence of the contacting surfaces of anterior teeth, limiting mandibular movements; 2. the influence of the contacting surfaces of the guide pin and anterior guide table on articulator movements; comp, ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE; 3. the fabrication of a relationship of the anterior teeth preventing posterior tooth contact in all eccentric mandibular movements; comp, ANTERIOR PROTECTED ARTICULATION, GROUP FUNCTION, MUTUALLY PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        anterior guide: syn, ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE
        anterior guide pin ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or gīd pĭn∖: that component of an articulator, generally a rigid rod attached to one member, contacting the anterior guide table on the opposing member. It is used for the purpose of maintaining the established vertical separation. The anterior guide pin and table, together with the condylar elements, direct the movements of the articulator’s separate members
        anterior guide table ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or gīd tā΄bl∖: that component of an articulator on which the anterior guide pin rests to maintain the occlusal vertical dimension and influence articulator movements; the guide table influences the degree of separation of the casts in all relationships; comp, CUSTOM GUIDE TABLE
        anterior nasal spine ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or nā΄zal spīn∖: acronym is ANS; a sharp median bony process, adjacent to the inferior margin of the anterior aperture of the nose and formed by the forward prolongation of the two maxillae
        anterior open bite obs, nonstand: syn, ANTERIOR OPEN OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIP
        anterior open occlusal relationship ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or ō΄pen a-klōō΄zal rĭ-lā΄shen-shĭp΄∖: the lack of anterior tooth contact in any occluding position of the posterior teeth; comp, APERTOGNATHIA
        anterior protected articulation ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or prō-tĕk΄tĭd är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: a form of mutually protected articulation in which the vertical and horizontal overlap of the anterior teeth disengage the posterior teeth in all mandibular excursive movements; syn, CANINE PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        anterior reference point ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or rĕf΄er-ens, rĕf΄rens point∖: any point located on the midface that, together with two posterior reference points, establishes a reference plane
        anterior teeth ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or tēth∖: the maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines
        anterior tooth arrangement ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or tōōth a-rănj’ment∖: the positioning of the anterior teeth for esthetics and phonetics
        anterior tooth form ∖ăn-tîr΄ē-or tōōth form∖: the outline form as viewed in any selected plane and/or other contours of an anterior tooth
        anteroposterior curve ∖ăn-ter-o-pŏ-stîr΄ē-or kûrv∖: the anatomic curve established by the occlusal alignment of the teeth, as projected onto the median plane, beginning with the cusp tip of the mandibular canine and following the buccal cusp tips of the premolar and molar teeth, continuing through the anterior border of the mandibular ramus, ending with the anterior most portion of the mandibular condyle; orig, Ferdinand Graf Spee, anatomist, Germany, 1890; syn, CURVE OF SPEE
        anti-Monson curve: syn, REVERSE CURVE; comp, PLEASURE CURVE, CURVE OF PLEASURE
        anti-rotation ∖ăn΄tē-rō-tā΄shun∖ (1998): a structural feature of some endosteal dental implant components that prevents relative rotation of fastened parts; this feature may exist between a dental implant body and the dental implant abutment, and/or the dental implant abutment and dental implant abutment element(s)
        antiflux ∖ăn΄tē-flŭks΄∖ n: materials that prevent or confine solder attachment or flow
        antimetabolite ∖ăn΄tē-ma-tăb΄a-līt∖ n (1945): a substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite
        antineoplastic ∖ăn΄tē-nē΄a-plăs΄tĭk∖ adj (1969): 1. inhibiting or preventing the development of neoplasms; inhibiting the maturation and proliferation of malignant cells; 2. an agent having such properties
        antineoplastic drug ∖ăn΄tē-nē΄a-plăs΄tĭk drŭg∖: an agent used in treatment or palliation of the symptoms of cancer
        antitragus ∖ăn΄tĭ-tră΄gŭs∖ n: a projection of the cartilage of the auricle in front of the cauda helicis, just above the lobule and posterior to the tragus, from which it is separated by the intertragal notch; antitragi ∖ăn΄tē-tră΄jē∖ pl
        apatite ∖ăp΄a-tīt΄∖ n (1803): calcium phosphate of the composition Ca5(PO4)3OH; one of the mineral constituents of teeth and bones (with CaCO3)
        apertognathia n: a condition in which the anterior or posterior teeth are not in contact; syn, OPEN OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIP
        aperture ∖ăp΄er-chur∖ n (15c): an opening or open space; a hole
        apex ∖ā΄pĕks΄∖ n (1601): 1. the uppermost point; the vertex; 2. in dentistry, the anatomic end of a tooth root; apexes or apices pl ∖ā΄pĭ-sēz΄, ăp΄ĭ-∖
        aphagia ∖a fā΄jē-a, -ja∖ n: inability to swallow; abstention from eating
        aphasia ∖a-fā΄zha∖ n (1867): defect or loss of the power of expression by writing, speech or signs, or of comprehending written or spoken language as a result of disease of or injury to the brain
        aphonia ∖ā-fō΄nē-a∖ n (1778): loss or absence of voice as a result of the failure of the vocal cords to vibrate properly
        apical ∖ăp΄ĭ-kal, -ā΄pĭ-∖ adj (1828): relating to or pertaining to the top or apex; apically adv
        aplasia ∖a-plā΄zha, -zhē-∖ n: defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue
        aplastic ∖ā-plăs΄tĭk∖ adj: devoid of form; without development
        Applegate’s Rules: eponym for rules of modification spaces that govern application of the Kennedy system
        appliance n, slang, obs (1561): syn, DEVICE, PROSTHESIS
        apposition ∖ăp′a-zĭsh′un∖ n (15c): the condition of being placed or fitted together; in juxtaposition or coadaptation
        approximation ∖a-prŏk′si-mā′shun∖ n (15c): 1. the process of drawing together; 2. the quality of being close or near; approximative ∖a-prŏk΄sĭ-mā΄tĭv∖ adj
        apraxia ∖ā-prăk΄sē-a∖ n (1888): the loss of ability to carry out familiar, purposeful movements in the absence of paralysis or other sensory or motor impairment, especially the inability to make proper use of an object
        apron n, obs, slang: syn, LINGUAL PLATE
        arbitrary facebow: syn, AVERAGE AXIS FACEBOW
        arc of closure ∖ărk ŭv klō΄zhur∖: the circular or elliptic arc created by closure of the mandible, most often viewed in the mid-sagittal plane, in relation to a reference point on the mandible (frequently the mesial incisal edge of either mandibular central incisor’s mesial incisal edge)
        arc therapy ∖ărk thĕr΄a-pē∖: in therapeutic radiology, external beam radiation in which the source of radiation is moved about the patient on an arc during treatment. Multiple arcs may be used. In some cases the beam is stationary and the patient is rotated in a vertical plane; comp, INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY (IMRT)
        arch bar ∖ärch bär∖: a rigid bar and/or wire used for maxillomandibular fixation in the treatment of fractures of the maxillae and mandible and/or stabilization of injured teeth, generally attached to the remaining natural dentition and/or occlusal splints
        arch form ∖ärch form∖: the geometric shape of the dental arch when viewed in the horizontal plane (square, tapering, ovoid, etc.)
        arch length discrepancy ∖ärch lĕngkth dĭ-skrĕp΄ens-sē∖: the abnormal relationship between the size of the mandible and/or maxillae and their component teeth, especially as viewed and analyzed in the occlusal plane
        arch wire ∖ärch-wīr∖ n: an orthodontic wire placed intraorally for the application of force
        arcon ∖ar΄kon∖ n: contr, ARTICULATOR and CONDYLE; used to describe an articulator containing the condylar path elements within its upper member and the condylar elements within the lower member; comp, NONARCON
        arcon articulator ∖ar’kon är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄tor∖: an articulator that applies the arcon design; this instrument maintains anatomic guidelines by the use of condylar analogs in the mandibular element and fossae assemblies within the maxillary element
        arrow point tracer ∖ăr΄ō point trā΄ser∖: 1. a mechanical device used to trace a pattern of mandibular movement in a selected plane, usually parallel to the occlusal plane; 2. a mechanical device with a marking point attached to one jaw and a graph plate or tracing plane attached to the other jaw, it is used to record the direction and range of movements of the mandible; Editorial note for usage: EXTRAORAL TRACER (ING), INTRAORAL TRACER (ING), and TRACING DEVICE are the primary terms; comp, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING, MANDIBULAR TRACER, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, STYLUS TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        arrow point tracing: syn, STYLUS TRACING
        arthralgia ∖ăr-thrăl΄ja, -jē-a∖ n (ca. 1848): pain in a joint or joints
        arthritis ∖är-thrī΄tis∖ n (14c): inflammation of a joint or joints
        arthrodial joint ∖är-thrō΄dē al joint∖: a joint that allows gliding motion of the surfaces
        arthrodial movement ∖är-thrō΄dē al mōōv΄ment∖: gliding joint movement
        arthrography ∖är-thrŏp΄a-thē∖ n: 1. roentgenography of a joint after injection of an opaque contrast material; 2. in dentistry, a diagnostic technique that entails filling the lower, upper, or both joint spaces of the temporomandibular joint with a contrast agent to enable radiographic evaluation of the joint and surrounding structures; used to diagnose or confirm disc displacements and perforations
        arthropathy n (ca. 1860): a disease of a joint
        arthroplasty ∖är-thrō΄plăs-tē∖ n: the surgical formation or reformation of a joint
        arthrosis ∖är-thrō΄sĭs∖ n (1634): 1. a joint or articulation; 2. a degenerative disease of a joint
        articular ∖är tĭk΄ya-ler∖ adj (15c): of or relating to a joint
        articular capsule ∖är tĭk΄ya-ler kăp’sel∖: the fibrous ligament that encloses a joint and limits its motion; it is lined with the synovial membrane
        articular cartilage ∖är tĭk΄ya-ler kär΄tl-ĭj∖: a thin layer of hyaline cartilage located on the joint surfaces of some bones; not found on the articular surfaces of the temporomandibular joints, that are covered with an avascular fibrous tissue
        articular disc: a ring of fibrocartilage that separates the articular surfaces of a joint. Relative to the temporomandibular joint, the articular disc is a fibrous connective tissue disc located between the articulating surfaces of the mandibular condyle and temporal bone; comp, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT ARTICULAR DISC
        1articulate ∖är-tĭk΄ya-lāt΄∖ vb (1691): 1. to join together as a joint; 2. the relating of contacting surfaces of the teeth or their artificial replicas in the maxillae to those in the mandible
        2articulate ∖är-tĭk΄ya-lāt΄ (1586): in speech, to enunciate clearly or be clearly spoken; -lĭt∖ adj
        articulating paper ∖är-tĭk΄ya-lāt΄ing pā΄per∖: ink-coated paper strips used to locate and mark occlusal contacts
        articulation ∖är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖ n (15c): 1. the place of union or junction between two or more bones of the skeleton; comp, CRANIOMANDIBULAR ARTICULATION, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR ARTICULATION; 2. in speech, the enunciation of words and sentences; syn, SPEECH ARTICULATION; 3. in dentistry, the static and dynamic contact relationship between the occlusal surfaces of the teeth during function; comp, ANTERIOR PROTECTED ARTICULATION, BALANCED ARTICULATION, DENTAL ARTICULATION, FUNCTIONAL ARTICULATION, MONOPLANE ARTICULATION, MUTUALLY PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        articulator ∖är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄tor∖ n: a mechanical instrument that represents the temporomandibular joints and jaws, to which maxillary and mandibular casts may be attached to simulate some or all mandibular movements; Editorial note for usage: articulators are divisible into four classes; Class I articulator: a simple holding instrument capable of accepting a single static registration; vertical motion is possible; syn, NONADJUSTABLE ARTICULATOR; Class II articulator: an instrument that permits horizontal as well as vertical motion but does not orient the motion to the temporomandibular joints; Class III articulator: an instrument that simulates condylar pathways by using averages or mechanical equivalents for all or part of the motion; these instruments allow for orientation of the casts relative to the joints and may be arcon or nonarcon instruments; syn, SEMIADJUSTABLE ARTICULATOR; Class IV articulator: an instrument that will accept 3D dynamic registrations; these instruments allow for orientation of the casts to the temporomandibular joints and simulation of mandibular movements; syn, FULLY ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATOR, FULLY ADJUSTABLE GNATHOLOGIC ARTICULATOR
        artifact ∖är΄ti-făkt΄∖ n (1821): 1. any characteristic product of human activity, i.e., any handmade object that could represent a particular culture or stage in its technologic development; 2. a product of an artificial character caused by an extraneous agency; used in medicine to signify details or conditions that are misleading or unnatural because of imperfect materials or techniques
        artificial crown ∖är΄ti-fish΄al kroun∖: a restoration that restores missing tooth structure of three or more axial surfaces and the occlusal surface or incisal edge of a tooth with a material such as cast metal alloy, ceramics, resin, or a combination of materials; comp, COMPLETE CROWN, PARTIAL-COVERAGE CROWN, PARTIAL-COVERAGE RETAINER
        artificial stone: syn, DENTAL STONE
        asepsis ∖a-sĕp΄sĭs, ā-∖ n (1892): 1. free from infection; 2. the prevention of contact with microorganisms
        aseptic ∖a-sĕp΄tĭk, ā-∖ adj (ca. 1859): free of infection or septic material; sterile; free from pathogenic microorganisms; aseptically ∖a-sep ′ti ka′ le∖ adv
        ASTM Committee F42: acronym for American Society of Testing Materials; the committee responsible for the development of standards in additive manufacturing
        asymmetrical ∖ā΄sĭ-mĕt΄rĭ-kal∖ adj (1690): characterized by or pertaining to asymmetry
        asymmetry ∖ā-sĭm΄ĭ-trē∖ n (1690): absence or lack of symmetry or balance; dissimilarity in corresponding parts or organs on opposite sides of the body
        asymmetry of movement ∖ā-sĭm΄ĭ-trē ŭv mōōv΄mant∖: the condition observed when mandibular movement has a lateral component on opening and closing, especially when viewed in the frontal plane
        asymmetry of the mandible ∖ā-sĭm΄ĭ-trē ŭv the măn΄di-bul∖: the condition that exists when the right and left sides of the mandible are not mirror images of each other
        atrophic fracture ∖ă trŏf΄ĭk frăk΄cher∖: spontaneous fracture as a result of atrophy
        atrophy ∖ăt΄ra-fē∖ n (1601): 1. a wasting away; 2. a diminution in size of a cell, tissue, organ or part; -phies pl ∖-fēz∖ atrophic adj; atrophy ∖ăt΄r-fē∖ vb; comp, ADIPOSE ATROPHY, AGE ATROPHY, BONE ATROPHY, DISUSE ATROPHY, MUSCULAR ATROPHY, POSTMENOPAUSAL ATROPHY, SENILE ATROPHY
        attached gingiva ∖a-tăchd΄ jĭn΄ja-va ∖: the portion of the gingiva that is firm, dense, stippled, and tightly bound to the underlying periosteum, bone, and tooth
        attachment ∖a-tăch΄ment∖ n (15c): 1. a mechanical device for the fixation, retention, and stabilization of a prosthesis; 2. a retainer consisting of a metal receptacle and a closely fitting part; the former (matrix component) is usually contained within the normal or expanded contours of the crown of the abutment tooth and the latter (patrix component), is attached to a pontic or the denture framework; comp, FRICTIONAL ATTACHMENT, EXTRACORONAL ATTACHMENT, INTERNAL ATTACHMENT, KEYWAY ATTACHMENT, PARALLEL ATTACHMENT, PRECISION ATTACHMENT, RESILIENT ATTACHMENT, SLOTTED ATTACHMENT
        attachment apparatus ∖a-tăch΄ment ăp΄a-rā΄tus, -răt΄us∖: in periodontics, a general term used to designate the cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone
        attachment screw: any component used to secure a fixed dental prosthesis; comp, ABUTMENT SCREW
        attenuation of radiation ∖a-tĕn΄yōō-ā΄shun ŭv rā΄dē-ā΄shun∖: the reduction in intensity of radiation as a result of scattering and absorption of radiation; attenuation of electron beams always lowers the average beam energy
        attrition ∖a-trĭsh΄un∖ n (14c): 1. the act of wearing or grinding down by friction; 2. the mechanical wear resulting from mastication or parafunction, limited to contacting surfaces of the teeth; comp ABRASION, EROSION, ABFRACTION
        atypical facial pain ∖ā-tĭp΄ĭ-kul fā΄shul pān∖: a painful syndrome characterized by dull aching or throbbing, rather than paroxysms of pain, such as seen in trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, or postherpetic neuralgia, occurring in areas supplied by various nerve groups, including the fifth and ninth cranial nerves and the second and third cervical nerves; however, the distribution of atypical facial pain does not follow the established pathways of innervation of the major sensory nerves (i.e., trigeminal neuralgia); attacks last from a few days to several months and often occur after dental care or sinus manipulation, but examination of the teeth, nose, sinuses, ears, and temporomandibular joints seldom reveals any abnormalities; a psychogenic or vascular etiology has been suggested; this is believed by some to not be a specific disease entity but rather a symptom, the etiology of which has not been determined; syn, atypical facial neuralgia, facial causalgia
        audiogram ∖ô΄dē-ō-grăm∖ n (1927): a record of the thresholds of hearing of an individual over various sound frequencies
        audiology ∖ô΄dē-ŏl-a-jē∖ n (1946): the study of the entire field of hearing, including the anatomy and function of the ear, impairment of hearing, and the education or reeducation of the person with hearing loss
        audiometer ∖ô΄dē-ŏm΄ĭ-ter∖ n (1879): an instrument used to assess hearing at various intensity levels and frequencies
        audition ∖ô-dĭsh΄un∖ n (1599): the power or sense of hearing
        auditory discrimination ∖ô΄dĭ-tôr΄ē, -tōr΄ē- dĭ-skrĭm΄a-nā΄shun∖: ability to discriminate between sounds of different frequency, intensity, and pressure pattern components; ability to distinguish one speech sound from another
        augment ∖ôg-mĕnt΄∖ vb (15c): to make greater, more numerous, larger, or more intense
        augmentation ∖ôg΄mĕn-tā΄shun∖ n (14c): to increase in size beyond the existing size. In alveolar ridge augmentation, bone grafts or alloplastic materials are used to increase the size of an atrophic alveolar ridge
        auricle: the appendage of soft tissue and cartilage that is lateral to the external auditory meatus; the ear
        auricular defect ∖ô-rĭk΄ya-lar dē΄fĕkt΄, dĭ-fĕkt΄∖: absence or partial absence of the external ear
        auricular prosthesis ∖ô-rĭk΄ya-ler prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a removable maxillofacial prosthesis that artificially restores part of or the entire natural ear; syn, artificial ear, ear prosthesis
        auriculotemporal syndrome ∖ô-rĭ-kū-lō-tĕm΄pral sĭn΄drōm∖: sweating and flushing in the preauricular and temporal areas when certain foods are eaten
        auscultation ∖ô΄skal-tā΄shun∖ n (ca. 1828): the process of determining the condition of various parts of the body by listening to the sounds they emit
        autogenous ∖ô-tŏj΄a-nus∖ adj (1846): originating or derived from sources within the same individual; self-produced; self-generated; autologous
        autogenous graft ∖ô-tŏj΄a-nus grăft∖: a graft taken from the patient’s own body; syn, AUTOGRAFT
        autoglaze vb: the production of a glazed surface by raising the temperature of a ceramic material to create surface flow; comp, OVERGLAZE
        autograft ∖ô΄ta-grăft∖ n (ca. 1913): a graft of tissue derived from another site in or on the body of the organism receiving it; syn, autochthonous graft, AUTOGENOUS GRAFT, autologous graft, autoplast
        autologous ∖ô-tŏl΄ō-gŭs∖ adj (ca. 1921): related to self; designating products or components of the same individual organism; syn, AUTOGENOUS
        autonomic nervous system ∖ô΄ta-nŏm΄ĭk nûr΄vus sĭs΄tam∖: the part of the nervous system that innervates the cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, and respiratory organs; it operates outside of consciousness and controls basic life-sustaining functions, such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing; it includes the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
        autopolymer ∖ô΄tō-pŏl΄a-mer∖ n: a material that polymerizes by chemical reaction without external heat as a result of the addition of an activator and a catalyst
        autopolymerization ∖ô΄tō-pŏl΄a-mĕr-zā΄shun∖ n: in resins, the chemical reaction of smaller molecular chain molecules with an activator to form a larger molecular chain; e.g., a tertiary amine activates the benzoyl peroxide, an initiator, which will react with the methylmethacrylate monomer to form polymethylmethacrylate; syn, CHEMICALLY-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION, POLYMERIZATION
        autopolymerizing resin ∖ô΄tō-pŏl-a-mĕr-ī΄zing rĕz΄ĭn∖: a resin formed when polymerization occurs as a result of a chemical activator
        average axis facebow ∖ăv΄er-ĭj, ăv΄rĭj ăk΄sĭs fās bō∖: a device used to relate the maxillary cast to the condylar elements of an articulator by using average anatomic landmarks to estimate the position of the transverse horizontal axis; comp, ARBITRARY FACEBOW, KINEMATIC FACEBOW
        average axis facebow record: the registration of average anatomic landmarks to estimate the position of the transverse horizontal axis; syn, FACEBOW RECORD
        average value articulator ∖ăv΄rĭj văl΄yōō är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄ter∖: an articulator that is fabricated to permit motion based on mean mandibular movements; syn, Class III articulator
        avulsion ∖a-vŭl΄shun∖ n (1622): a forcible separation or detachment, as in a tearing away of a body part surgically or accidentally
        avulsion fracture ∖a-vŭl΄shun frăk΄cher∖: a tearing away or traumatic separation of a part of a bone
        axial contour: the shape of a body that is in its long axis
        axial inclination ∖ăk΄sē-al ĭn΄kla nā΄shun∖: 1. the relationship of the long axis of a body to a designated plane; 2. in dentistry, the alignment of the long axis of a tooth to a selected plane, often the horizontal plane
        axial loading ∖ăk΄sē-al lō΄dĭng∖: the force down the long axis of the tooth, dental implant, or other object being described
        axial reduction: the amount of tooth removal (alteration, preparation) along its long axis; comp, INCISAL REDUCTION, OCCLUSAL REDUCTION
        axial surface: the exterior of a body that is oriented in its long axis
        axial wall: 1. the side of a body that is in its long axis; 2. in dentistry, the surface of a tooth preparation that is in its long axis
        axis ∖ăk΄sĭs∖ n (14c): a line around which a body may rotate or about which a structure would turn if it could revolve; axes pl ∖ăk΄sĕz∖; comp, CONDYLAR AXIS, SAGITTAL AXIS, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS, VERTICAL AXIS
        axis of preparation ∖ăk΄sĭs ŭv prĕp΄a-rā΄shun∖: the planned line or path of placement and removal for a dental restoration
        axis orbital plane ∖ăk΄sĭs ôr΄bĭ tăl plān∖: the horizontal plane established by the transverse horizontal axis of the mandible with a point on the inferior border of the right or left bony orbit (orbitale); this plane can be used as a horizontal reference point

        B

        back pressure porosity ∖băk prĕsh΄er pa-rŏs΄ĭ-tē∖: porosity produced in dental castings thought to be the result of the inability of gases in the mold to escape during the casting procedure; syn, OCCLUDED GAS POROSITY, SHRINK-SPOT POROSITY, SOLIDIFICATION POROSITY, SUCK-BACK POROSITY
        backing ∖băk΄ĭng∖ n (1793): a metal support that attaches a veneer to a prosthesis
        backscatter or backscattering n (1940): syn, SCATTERED RADIATION
        balanced articulation ∖băl ansd är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: the bilateral, simultaneous occlusal contact of the anterior and posterior teeth in excursive movements; comp, CROSS-ARCH BALANCED ARTICULATION, CROSS-TOOTH BALANCED ARTICULATION
        balanced bite slang: syn, BALANCED ARTICULATION
        balanced occlusal contact: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        balanced occlusion: syn, BALANCED ARTICULATION
        balancing condyle obs: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        balancing contact: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        balancing interference ∖băl΄ans ĭng ĭn΄ter-fear΄ans∖ obs: syn, MEDIOTRUSIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT; NONWORKING-SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        balancing occlusal contact: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        balancing occlusal surfaces ∖băl΄ans ĭng a klōō΄zal sûr΄fas es∖: the working-side occlusal contacts (anteroposteriorly or laterally); these contacts with reciprocating nonworking-side occlusal contacts are developed for the purpose of stabilizing dentures (GPT-4); syn, LATEROTRUSIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT; comp, MEDIOTRUSIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        balancing side obs: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE
        bar ∖bär∖ n (12c): a straight or curvilinear piece of metal that is longer than it is wide. It may have several uses including a lever, barrier, fastener, handle, or support. In prosthodontics, it serves to connect two or more parts of a removable partial denture or fixed partial denture; syn, BAR CONNECTOR
        bar clasp ∖bär klăsp∖: a clasp retainer whose body extends from a major connector or denture base, passing adjacent to the soft tissues and approaching the tooth from a gingivo-occlusal direction
        bar clasp arm: syn, BAR CLASP
        bar connector ∖băr ka-nĕk΄tor∖: a metal component of greater length than width that serves to connect the parts of a removable complete denture, removable partial denture, or fixed dental prosthesis; comp, LABIAL BAR CONNECTOR, LINGUAL BAR CONNECTOR, MAJOR CONNECTOR, MESOSTRUCTURE, PALATAL BAR CONNECTOR, IMPLANT-SUPPORTED BAR CONNECTOR
        bar retainer ∖băr rĭ-tā΄ner∖ obs: a metal bar usually resting on lingual surfaces of teeth to aid in their stabilization and to act as indirect retainer (GPT-4); syn, BAR CONNECTOR
        basal ∖bā΄sal, -zal∖ adj (1828): pertaining to or situated near the base
        basal bone ∖bā΄sak bōn∖: the osseous tissue of the mandible and maxillae exclusive of the alveolar process
        basal seat obs: syn, DENTURE FOUNDATION AREA
        basal surface obs: syn, DENTURE BASE
        1base ∖bās∖ vt (1587): the act of placing a lining material under a dental restoration
        2base ∖bās∖ n (14c): any substance placed under a restoration that blocks out undercuts in the preparation, acts as a thermal or chemical barrier to the pulp, and/or controls the thickness of the overlying restoration; syn, BASE MATERIAL; Editorial note for usage: adjectives such as insulating base or therapeutic base may also be used
        3base ∖bās∖ n (19c): the portion of a denture that supports the artificial dentition and replaces the deficient alveolar anatomy and gingival tissues; comp, DENTURE BASE
        base material ∖bās mă-tîr΄ē-al∖ obs: any substance of which a denture base may be made, such as acrylic resin, vulcanite, polystyrene, or metal (GPT-4)
        base metal ∖bās mĕt΄l∖: any metallic element that does not resist tarnish and corrosion; comp, HIGH NOBLE METAL ALLOY, NOBLE METAL ALLOY
        base metal alloy ∖băs mĕt΄l ăl΄oi΄∖: an alloy composed of metals that are not noble; comp, HIGH NOBLE METAL ALLOY, NOBLE METAL ALLOY
        baseplate ∖bās΄plāt∖ n: a rigid, relatively thin layer of wax, shellac, or thermoplastic (heat-, chemically-, or light-activated) polymer adapted over edentulous surfaces of a definitive cast to form a base which, together with an attached occlusion rim made of wax or similar material, serves as the record base; syn, RECORD BASE
        baseplate wax ∖bās΄plāt wăks∖: a hard wax used for making occlusion rims, waxing dentures, and other dental procedures
        basket endosteal dental implant ∖băs΄kĭt ĕn΄da-stēl΄ dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt∖: a perforated, cylindric, endosteal dental implant, the implant body of which is designed in the form of single, double, and/or triple contiguous cylinder(s)
        bead-brush technique: a method of applying an auto polymerizing resin mix to a surface whereby a brush tip is first dipped in liquid monomer and then polymer powder forming a small bead that is incrementally applied to form the desired shape
        beading ∖bē΄dĭng∖ n: creating an irregular surface by means of stipples, dots, speckles, or the like; bead vb ∖bē΄d∖
        beam ∖bēm∖ n, obs: a term once used instead of bar with specific reference to the bar connector; comp, CANTILEVER, CONTINUOUS BEAM, simple beam (GPT-4)
        bees’ wax ∖bēz wăks΄∖ n (1676): a low-melting wax obtained from honeycomb and used as an ingredient of many dental impression waxes
        Beilby layer: eponym for the molecular disorganized surface layer of a highly polished metal; a relatively scratch-free microcrystalline surface produced by a series of abrasives of decreasing coarseness; orig, Sir George Thomas Beilby, chemist, United Kingdom,1850-1924
        Beilby GT. Aggregation and flow of solids; London Macmillan and Co., 1921
        bench set ∖bĕnch sĕt∖: 1. the time necessary for casting investment to crystallize; 2. a stage of resin processing that allows a chemical reaction to occur under the conditions present in the ambient environment; 3. to describe the continuing polymerization of impression materials beyond the manufacture’s stated set time
        Bennett angle ∖Bĕn΄ĕt ăng΄gal∖: eponym for the angle formed between the sagittal plane and the average path of the advancing nonworking-side condyle as viewed in the horizontal plane during lateral mandibular movements (GPT-4); orig, Sir Norman Godfrey Bennett, dental surgeon, United Kingdom, 1870-1947
        Bennett movement: orig, Sir Norman Godfrey Bennett, dental surgeon, United Kingdom, 1870-1947; syn, LATEROTRUSION
        Bennett NG. A contribution to the study of the movements of the mandible. Proc Roy Soc Med (Lond) 1908;1:79-98 (Odont Section)
        Bennett side shift: orig, Sir Norman Godfrey Bennett, dental surgeon, United Kingdom,1870-1947; syn, MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        Bennett NG. A contribution to the study of the movements of the mandible. Proc Roy Soc Med (Lond) 1908;1:79-98 (Odont Section)
        1bevel ∖bĕv΄al∖ n (1611): a slanting edge
        2bevel ∖bĕv΄al∖ vt: the process of slanting the finish line and curve of a tooth preparation
        beveled shoulder finish line: a shoulder finish line with the cavosurface angle modified with a bevel; comp, FINISH LINE
        Bezold-Brücke effect: the apparent change in hue that accompanies a change in luminance; orig, Hermann Helmholtz, physician/physicist, Germany, 1867
        BID: acronym for L. Bis In Di’e, twice a day
        bifid condyle ∖bī΄fĭd kŏn΄dīl΄∖: a condylar anomaly where an exaggerated central depression exists
        bifurcation ∖bī΄fur-kā΄shu∖ n (1615): 1. division into two branches; 2. the site where a single structure divides into two parts, as in two roots of a tooth
        bilaminar zone: syn, RETRODISCAL TISSUE
        bilateral ∖bī-lăt΄er-al∖ adj (1775): having or pertaining to two sides
        bilateral balanced articulation: the bilateral, simultaneous posterior occlusal contact of teeth in maximal intercuspal position and eccentric positions; syn, BALANCED ARTICULATION
        bilateral distal-extension removable partial denture ∖bī-lăt΄er-al dĭs΄tal ĭk-stĕn΄shun rĭ-mōō΄va-bal pär΄shal dĕn΄chur∖: a removable partial denture replacing the distal most tooth or teeth on each side of one arch of the mouth; syn, Kennedy Class I RPD; comp, KENNEDY CLASSIFICATION OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES
        bimanual manipulation technique: a method for manipulation of the mandible by using both thumbs on the chin and the fingers on the inferior border of the mandible to guide the jaw into centric relation
        bimaxillary protrusion ∖bī-măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē prō-trōō΄zhen∖: a simultaneous dental or skeletal protrusion of both the maxillary and mandibular jaws and/or teeth
        bimeter ∖bī-mē΄ter∖ n (20c): a gnathodynamometer equipped with a central bearing plate of adjustable height; orig, Ralph H. Boos, dentist, U.S.A.; syn, GNATHODYNAMOMETER
        Boos RH. Intermaxillary relation established by biting power. J Am Dent Assoc 1940;27:1192
        bio-col technique: the atraumatic extraction of a tooth and the multitude of techniques for the preservation of the residual ridge; org, Anthony G. Sclar, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, Florida, U.S.A., 1999
        bioacceptability ∖bī΄ō-ăk-sĕp΄ta-bĭl΄ĭ-tē΄∖ n (1998): the quality of compatibility in a living environment in spite of adverse or unwanted side effects
        bioactivity n: reactive potential of implant material that allows interaction and bond formation with living tissues; active potential depends on material composition, topography, and chemical or physical surface variations
        bioadhesion n: a chemical reactivity that results in attachment between biologic and other materials
        biocompatible ∖bī΄ō-kom-păt΄a-bal∖ adj: capable of existing in harmony with the surrounding biologic environment
        biofeedback ∖bī΄ō-fēd΄băk΄∖ n (1971): 1. the process of furnishing an individual information, usually in an auditory or visual mode, on the state of one or more physiologic variables such as blood pressure, skin temperature, muscle tonus, or heart rate; this procedure often enables an individual to gain some voluntary control over the variable being sampled; 2. the instrumental process or technique of learning voluntary control over automatically regulated body functions
        biofunctional orthopedics: syn, FUNCTIONAL JAW ORTHOPEDICS
        biologic width ∖bī΄a-lŏj΄ĭ-kal∖: the combined width of connective tissue and junctional epithelial attachment formed adjacent to a tooth and superior to the crestal bone. Garguilo described a “physiologic dentogingival junction” that he identified as being composed of an epithelial attachment that averaged 0.97 mm and a supracrestal connective tissue attachment that averaged 1.07 mm, creating an average total dimension of 2.04 mm; orig, D. Walter Cohen, periodontist, U.S.A.
        Gargiulo AW, Wentz FM, Orban B, (posthumous). Dimensions and relations of the dentogingival junction in humans. J Periodontol 1961;32:261-67
        The term “biologic width” was originated by D. W. Cohen in a lecture at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, June 3, 1962
        biomaterial ∖bī΄ō-ma-tîr΄ē-al∖ n (1966): any substance other than a drug that can be used for any period of time as part of a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body
        biomechanics ∖bī΄ō-mĭ-kăn΄iks∖ n, pl but sing or pl in constr (1933): 1. the application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically the locomotor systems of the body; 2. the study of biology from the functional viewpoint; 3. an application of the principles of engineering design as implemented in living organisms; syn, DENTAL BIOMECHANICS
        biometry ∖bī-ŏm΄ĭ-trē∖ n (1831): the science of the application of statistical methods to biologic facts, as the mathematical analysis of biologic data
        biopsy ∖bī΄ŏp΄sē∖ n (1895): the removal of tissue for histologic examination and diagnosis; -sies ∖-sēz∖ pl
        biostatistics ∖bī΄ō-sta-tĭs΄tĭks∖ n, pl but sing in constr (1950): the science of the application of statistical methods to biologic facts, as the mathematical analysis of biologic data; comp, BIOMETRY
        biphasic pin fixation ∖bī΄ō-fāz΄ĭk pĭn fĭk-sā΄shun∖: the use of external pin fixation in the treatment of bone fractures
        Bis-GMA: acronym for BISPHENOL-A GLYCIDYL DIMETHACRYLATE
        Bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate: a high molecular weight resin constituent of most dental composite resins; orig, Rafael L. Bowen, inventor, U.S.A., 1959
        bisque bake ∖bĭsk bāk∖: a series of stages of maturation in the firing of ceramic materials relating to the degree of pyro chemical reaction and sintering shrinkage occurring before vitrification (glazing); syn, biscuit bake
        bite ∖bīt∖ vb: the act of incising or crushing between the teeth; Editorial note for usage: Because bite refers to incising, it would be slang if used to relate to occlusion or occlusion registration records
        bite analysis slang: syn, OCCLUSAL ANALYSIS
        bite block slang: syn, OCCLUSION RIM, RECORD RIM
        bite closing slang: syn, DECREASED OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION
        bite guard slang: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        bite opening slang: syn, OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION
        bite plane slang: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        bite plate slang: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        bite raising slang: syn, OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION
        bite registration slang: MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD
        bite rim slang: syn, OCCLUSION RIM, RECORD RIM
        bite splint slang: OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        biting force: nonstand, OCCLUSAL FORCE
        biting pressure: nonstand, OCCLUSAL FORCE
        biting strength: nonstand, OCCLUSAL FORCE
        bitmap: syn, RASTER GRAPHICS IMAGE
        black triangle nonstand: syn, INTERDENTAL GINGIVAL SPACE
        blade endosteal dental implant ∖blād ĕn-dŏs-tē΄al dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt∖: a faciolingually narrowed, wedge-shaped dental implant body with openings or vents through which tissue may grow
        blade implant: syn, BLADE ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        block-out ∖blŏk out∖: 1. elimination of undesirable undercuts on a cast; 2. the process of applying wax or another similar temporary substance to undercut portions of a cast so as to leave only those undercuts essential to the planned construction of a prosthesis; a blocked out cast may also include other surface modifications needed relative to the construction of the prosthesis
        blowout fracture ∖blō΄out frăk΄chur∖ slang: expression for a fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase in intraorbital pressure due to traumatic force
        board-certified prosthodontist ∖bôrd-sûr΄ta-fīd prŏs΄tha-dŏn΄tĭst∖: in the United States, as defined by the American Board of Prosthodontics, a prosthodontist who has passed the certifying examination administered by the American Board of Prosthodontics
        board-eligible prosthodontist ∖bôrd-ĕl΄ĭ-ja-bal prŏs΄tha-dŏn΄tĭst∖: in the United States, as defined by the American Board of Prosthodontics, a prosthodontist whose application for examination for certification is current and has been accepted for examination by the American Board of Prosthodontics
        body porcelain: a porcelain blend used for the bulk of a ceramic restoration; comp INCISAL PORCELAIN, GINGIVAL PORCELAIN, SHOULDER PORCELAIN
        boil out: syn, WAX ELIMINATION
        Boley gauge: a caliper-type sliding gauge used for measuring thickness and linear dimension
        bolus ∖bō΄lus∖ n (1562): a rounded mass, as a large pill or soft mass of chewed food
        bond ∖bŏnd∖ n (12c): 1. the linkage between two atoms or radicals of a chemical compound; 2. the force that holds two or more units of matter together; comp, SECONDARY BONDS, VAN DER WAALS BOND
        bond strength ∖bŏnd strĕngkth, strĕngth∖: the force required to break a bonded assembly with failure occurring in or near the adhesive/adherent interface
        bonded bridge slang: syn, MARYLAND BRIDGE, RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS
        bonding ∖bŏn΄dĭng∖ n (1955): 1. joining together securely with an adhesive substance such as cement or glue; 2. an adhesive technique in dentistry involving the acid etching of tooth enamel and/or dentin so as to create tags of resin within the tooth structure that results in mechanical retention of the restorative material; comp, ADHESION
        Buonocore MG. Simple method of increasing the adhesion of acrylic filling materials to enamel surfaces. J Dent Res 1955;34:849-53
        bonding agent ∖bŏn΄dĭng ā΄jent∖: a material used to promote adhesion or cohesion between two different substances, or between a material and natural tooth structures; comp, ADHESIVE, ADHESIVE RESIN
        bone ∖bōn∖ n (bef. 12c): the hard portion of the connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton; it consists of an inorganic or mineral component and an organic component (the matrix and cells); the matrix is composed of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with minerals, chiefly calcium phosphate (approx. 85%) and calcium carbonate (approx. 10%), thus imparting the quality of rigidity; syn, osseous tissue; comp ALVEOLAR BONE, BASAL BONE, CANCELLOUS BONE, COMPACT BONE, CORTICAL BONE
        bone atrophy ∖bōn ă-trō΄fē∖: bone resorption noted internally by a decrease in density and externally by a reduction in dimension
        bone augmentation: syn, AUGMENTATION
        bone conduction ∖bōn kun-dŭk΄shun∖: the conduction of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull; syn, cranial conduction, osteotympanic conduction, and tissue conduction
        bone curettage ∖bōn kyōōr΄ĭ-tăzh∖: the surgical shaving or smoothing of the bone’s external surface
        bone expansion ∖bōn ik-spăn΄shun∖: manipulation of a bony ridge by placement of an osteotome to split the cortical ridge and hence enhance bone width
        bone factor ∖bōn făk΄tor∖: relative response of alveolar bone to stimulation or irritation; the ratio of osteogenesis to osteolysis
        bone graft: in prosthodontics, the augmentation or replacement of the portion of the maxillary or mandibular bone with an osteogenic material
        bone marrow ∖bōn măr΄ō∖: the soft vascular tissue that fills bone cavities and cancellous bone spaces, which consists primarily of fat cells, hematopoietic cells, and osteogenetic reticular cells
        bone sounding: a procedure to determine the location of underlying bone by inserting a needle or sharp caliper through the anesthetized tissues until it contacts the bone
        Bonwill triangle ∖Bŏn΄wĭl trī΄ăng΄gl∖: eponym for a 4-inch equilateral triangle bounded by lines connecting the contact points of the mandibular central incisor’s incisal edge (or the midline of the mandibular residual ridge) to each condyle (usually its midpoint) and from one condyle to the other; orig, William Gibson Arlington Bonwill, dentist, U.S.A., 1833-1899; first used by Bonwill in 1858 while introducing his Anatomical Articulator
        Bonwill WGA. Scientific articulation of the human teeth as founded on geometrical, mathematical and mechanical laws. Dent Items Int 1899;21:617-56, 873-80
        bony ankylosis ∖bō΄nē ăng΄ka-lō΄sĭs∖: the bony union of the components of a joint resulting in complete immobility
        boolean adj: as related to literature database searches, a computer binary logic that can recognize a search relationship of word associations; orig, George Boole, mathematician, Ireland, 1815-1864
        border ∖bôr΄der∖ n (14c): the circumferential margin, edge or surface; a bounding line, edge, or surface; comp, DENTURE BORDER
        border molding ∖bôr΄der mōl΄ding∖: 1. the shaping of impression material along the border areas of an impression tray by functional or manual manipulation of the soft tissue adjacent to the borders to duplicate the contour and size of the vestibule; 2. determining the extension of a prosthesis by using tissue function or manual manipulation of the tissues to shape the border areas of an impression material
        border movement ∖bôr΄der mōōv΄ment∖: mandibular movement at the limits dictated by anatomic structures, as viewed in a given plane
        border position: syn, POSTERIOR BORDER MOVEMENT
        border seal ∖bôr΄der sēl∖: the contact of the denture border with the underlying or adjacent tissues to prevent the passage of air or other substances
        border tissue movements ∖bôr΄der tish΄ōō∖: the action of the muscles and other tissues adjacent to the borders of a denture
        boxing an impression ∖bŏk΄sing ăn ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: the enclosure (box) of an impression to produce the desired size and form of the base of the cast and to preserve desired details
        boxing wax ∖bŏk΄sing wăks∖: wax used for boxing an impression
        bracing ∖brā΄sĭng∖ adj: the resistance to horizontal components of masticatory force
        bracing arm nonstand: syn, RECIPROCAL CLASP
        bracket ∖brăk΄ĭt∖ n: an orthodontic device attached to an individual tooth to hold arch wires
        braze ∖brāz∖ vt (1677): to join with a nonferrous alloy that melts at a lower temperature than that of the metals being joined; syn, SOLDER
        brazing investment ∖brā΄zing ĭn-vĕst΄ment∖: an investment having a binding system consisting of acidic phosphate, such as monoammonium phosphate, and a basic oxide, such as magnesium oxide
        brazing material ∖brā΄zing ma-tîr΄ē-al∖: an alloy suitable for use as a filler material in operations with which dental alloy(s) is/are joined to form a dental restoration
        breakdown potential ∖brāk΄doun΄ pa-tĕn΄shul∖: the last noble potential where pitting and/or crevice corrosion will initiate and propagate
        bridge n, slang: syn, FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE
        bridgework slang: syn, FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS, FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE
        brittle ∖brĭt΄l∖ adj: 1. easily broken or shattered; fragile or crisp; 2. prone to fracture or failure; the fracture that occurs when the proportional limit of a material is exceeded
        Broadrick occlusal plane analyzer: eponym for a flag-like component attached superiorly to the upper member of an articulator; the technique incorporates Monson's spherical theory of occlusion to develop the occlusal plane; a compass is used to scribe two intersecting arcs with a four-inch radius; centers of rotation are located at the canine cusp tip and the distobuccal cusp tip of the second molar; the point of bisection of the arcs that are scribed on the Broadrich analyzer determines the center of rotation for the arc with a four inch radius that determines the occlusal plane
        bruxism ∖brŭk-sĭz΄em∖ n (ca. 1940): 1. the parafunctional grinding of teeth; 2. an oral habit consisting of involuntary rhythmic or spasmodic nonfunctional gnashing, grinding, or clenching of teeth, in other than chewing movements of the mandible, which may lead to occlusal trauma; comp, nocturnal bruxism, occlusal neurosis, tooth grinding
        bruxomania ∖brŭks-ō-mā΄nē-a, -mān΄ya∖ vb, obs: the grinding of teeth occurring as a neurotic habit during the waking state (GPT-4); syn, BRUXISM
        buccal ∖bŭk΄al∖ adj (ca. 1771): pertaining to or adjacent to the cheek
        buccal flange ∖bŭk΄al flănj∖: the portion of the flange of a denture that occupies the buccal vestibule of the mouth
        buccal vestibule ∖bŭk΄al vĕs΄ti-byōōl∖: the portion of the oral cavity that is bounded on one side by the teeth, gingiva, and alveolar ridge (in the edentulous mouth, the residual ridge) and on the lateral side by the cheek posterior to the buccal frenula
        bucco-occlusal contrabevel: a tooth preparation feature that follows the buccal cusp ridge contour of a partial-veneer preparation, connecting the mesial and distal boxes or grooves
        buccolingual relationship ∖bŭk΄o-lĭng΄gwal rĭ-lā΄shun-shĭp∖: any position of reference relative to the tongue and cheeks
        buccoversion ∖bŭk΄kō-vûr΄shun∖ n: a deviation toward the cheek
        bulb ∖bŭlb∖ n, slang: syn, OBTURATOR, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        bulimia n: an eating disorder typified by binge eating and self-induced vomiting or laxative use; this life-threatening disorder can result in severe dental erosion, which may be the first sign of the disorder
        BULL: acronym for Buccal of the Upper, Lingual of the Lower (cusps); applies to Clyde H. Schuyler’s rules for occlusal adjustment of a normally related dentition in which those cusps contacting in maximal intercuspal position (mandibular buccal and maxillary lingual) are favored by adjustment of those cusps that are not in occlusal contact in maximal intercuspal position (maxillary buccal and mandibular lingual); syn,bull rule
        bur ∖bûr∖ n (14c): a steel or tungsten carbide rotary cutting instrument
        bur head ∖bûr hĕd∖ n (2005): the cutting portion of a dental bur
        bur head length ∖bûr hĕd lĕngkth, lĕngth∖ (2005): the axial dimension of the bur head
        bur head shape ∖bûr hĕd shāp∖ (2005): the geometrical outline form of the cutting surface edges, usually described successively by proximity from the shank to the tip end
        bur shank ∖bûr shăngk∖ n (2005): that component of a dental bur that fits into the hand piece; the shaft section of the dental bur that may be friction gripping or latch-type in form
        burn out ∖burn out∖ n: syn, WAX ELIMINATION
        burnish ∖bûr΄nĭsh∖ vt (14c): to make shiny or lustrous by rubbing; also to facilitate marginal adaptation of restorations by rubbing the margin with an instrument
        burnishability ∖bûr΄nĭsh-a-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖ n: the ease with which a material can be burnished
        butt ∖bŭt∖ vb (14c) obs: to bring any two flat-ended surfaces into contact without overlapping, as in a butt joint; comp, SHOULDER FINISH LINE
        butt margin nonstand: syn, PORCELAIN MARGIN
        button implant obs: syn, MUCOSAL INSERT

        C

        Ca: abbr for CArcinoma or CAncer
        CAD-CAM: acronym for COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN-COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (or Computer-Assisted Machining): the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) subtractive fabrication of a 3D object; in dentistry, it is a CAD-CAM technology used to produce different types of prostheses, including crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, fixed dental prostheses, removable dental prostheses, dental implant prostheses, and orthodontic and other devices; comp, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
        calcium hydroxide ∖kăl΄sē-um hī-drŏk΄sīd∖: an odorless white powder that is slightly soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol; aqueous and non-aqueous suspensions of calcium hydroxide are often used as cavity liners to protect the dental pulp from the irritant action of restorative materials and as an antibacterial agent (Bystrom,1985); also it has regenerative effects in pulp capping, pulpotomy, and apexification procedures
        calcium sulfate ∖kăl΄sē-um sŭl΄fāt΄∖: a product obtained by calcination of gypsum under steam pressure, the alpha form is composed of regularly shaped grains, with low porosity, and requiring little water for a satisfactory mix; forms include alpha, alpha-modified, and beta
        calculus n: in dentistry, a chalky or dark deposit attached to tooth structure, essentially made of mineralized microbial plaque; found on tooth structure in a supragingival and/or a subgingival location
        CAMBRA (2003): acronym for caries management by risk assessment; guidelines for evidence-based caries management by using risk assessment protocols for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
        cameo surface ∖kăm΄ē-ō sûr΄fas∖: the viewable portion of a removable denture prosthesis; the portion of the surface of a denture that extends in an occlusal direction from the border of the denture and includes the facial, lingual, and palatal surface; it is the part of the denture base that is usually polished, and includes the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth (GPT-7); syn, DENTURE POLISHED SURFACE, POLISHED DENTURE SURFACE
        Camper’s line: syn, ALA-TRAGUS LINE
        Camper’s plane ∖kăm΄perz plān∖: 1. a plane established by the inferior border of the ala of the nose (or the average between the two) and the superior border of the tragus of each ear; 2. a plane passing from the acanthion to the center of each bony external auditory meatus; also called acanthion-external auditory meatus plane; syn, ALA-TRAGUS LINE
        camphoroquinone n: a visible-light-sensitive chemical responsible for initiating free-radical polymerization
        cancellous bone ∖kăn-sĕl΄us, kăn΄se-lus bōn∖ (1836): the reticular, spongy or lattice-like portion of the bone; the spongy bone tissue located in the medulla of the bone; this bone is composed of a variable trabecular network containing interstitial tissue that may be hematopoietic
        candle ∖kăn΄dl∖ n (12c): a unit of luminous intensity, equal to 1/60 of the luminous intensity of a square centimeter of a black body heated to the temperature of the solidification of platinum (1773° C)
        candle power ∖kăn΄dl pou΄er∖: luminous intensity expressed in candles
        canine eminence ∖kā΄nīn΄ ĕm΄i-nans∖: the labial prominence on the maxillary alveolar process corresponding to the position of the root of the canine tooth
        canine guidance: syn, CANINE PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        canine protected articulation ∖kā΄nīn pra-tĕk΄tid är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: a form of mutually protected articulation in which the vertical and horizontal overlap of the canine teeth disclude the posterior teeth in the excursive movements of the mandible; syn, ANTERIOR PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        canine protection: syn, CANINE PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        cantilever ∖kăn΄tl-ē΄ver∖ n (1667): a projecting beam or member supported on one end
        cantilever bridge slang: syn, CANTILEVER FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS
        cantilever fixed dental prosthesis ∖kăn΄tl-ē΄ver fĭkst dĕn΄tl prŏs-thē΄sis∖: a fixed complete or partial denture in which the pontic is cantilevered and retained and supported by one or more abutments
        cap splint ∖kăp splĭnt∖: a plastic or metallic device used in the treatment of maxillary or mandibular fractures and designed to cover the clinical crowns of the teeth and usually luted to them
        capillary attraction ∖kăp΄a-lĕr΄ē a-trăk΄shun∖: that quality or state which, because of surface tension, causes elevation or depression of the surface of a liquid that is in contact with the solid walls of a vessel
        capsular ∖kăp΄su-ler∖ adj (ca. 1730): pertaining to a capsule
        capsular contracture: syn, CAPSULAR FIBROSIS
        capsular fibrosis ∖kăp΄su-ler fī-brō΄sĭs∖: fibrotic contracture of the capsular ligament of the temporomandibular joint
        capsular ligament ∖kăp΄su-ler lĭg΄a-ment∖: as it relates to the temporomandibular joint, a fibrous structure that separately encapsulates the superior and inferior synovial cavities of the temporomandibular articulation; a fibrous structure that surrounds the temporomandibular joint, attaching to the temporal bone, the articular disc, and the neck of the condyle of the mandible.
        capsule ∖kăp΄sal,-sōōl∖ n (1693): a fibrous sac or ligament that encloses a joint and limits its motion. It is lined with synovial membrane
        capsulitis ∖kăp΄sa-lī΄tĭs∖ n: the inflammation of a capsule, as that of the joint, lens, liver, or labyrinth
        carat ∖kăr΄at∖ n (15c): a standard of gold fineness; the percentage of gold in an alloy, stated in parts per 24; pure gold is designated 24 carat
        carbide bur: a rotary cutting instrument made from tungsten carbide
        carbon fiber: filaments made by high temperature carbonizing of acrylic fiber; used in the production of high strength composite materials
        caries n, singular: a dental disease causing the destruction of enamel, dentin, and/or cementum; the etiology is generally ascribed to acid-producing bacteria
        cartilage ∖kär΄tl-ĭj∖ n (15c): a derivative of connective tissue arising from the mesenchyme; typically, hyaline cartilage is a flexible, rather elastic material with a semitransparent glass-like appearance; its ground substance is a complex protein through which there is distributed a large network of connective tissue fibers
        case ∖kās∖ n, nonstand, chiefly dialect (13c): 1. the dental patient; 2. a particular instance of a disease, as a case of diphtheria; sometimes used incorrectly to designate the patient with the disease process
        case history nonstand: syn, PATIENT HISTORY
        case series nonstand: syn, PATIENT SERIES
        case study nonstand: syn, PATIENT STUDY
        1cast ∖kăst∖ vb (13c): to produce a desired form by pouring or injecting a molten liquid or plastic material into a mold
        2cast ∖kăst∖ n (14c): a life-size likeness of some desired form; it is formed from a material poured into a matrix or impression or from a CAM printed replica; comp, DENTAL CAST, DIAGNOSTIC CAST, FINAL CAST, PRELIMINARY CAST, REFRACTORY CAST, REMOUNT CAST
        cast clasp: a removable partial denture clasp fabricated by the lost-wax casting process
        cast connector: a cast metal union between the retainer(s) and/or between retainers and pontic(s) in a fixed partial denture
        cast metal core: the foundation restoration made of a metal alloy for a fixed dental prosthesis that is laboratory fabricated by lost-wax casting
        cast post-and-core: a one-piece foundation restoration for an endodontically treated tooth that comprises a post within the root canal and a core replacing missing coronal structure to form the tooth preparation
        cast relator ∖kăst rĭ-lā΄tor∖: a mechanical device that orients opposing casts to each other without reference to anatomic landmarks; comp, ARTICULATOR
        castable ∖kăst΄a-bl∖ adj (1998): any flowable material that can be solidified after it is poured or injected into a refractory mold
        castable ceramic ∖kăst΄a-bl se-răm΄ik∖: for dental applications, a glass-ceramic material that combines the properties of a restorative material for function with the capability to be cast using the lost-wax process
        1casting ∖kăs΄tĭng∖ n (14c): something that has been cast in a mold; an object formed by the solidification of a fluid that has been cast into a refractory mold
        2casting ∖kăs΄tĭng∖ vt: the action of pouring or injecting a flowable material into a refractory mold; comp, VACUUM CASTING
        casting flask ∖kăs΄tĭng flăsk∖: syn, CASTING RING
        casting ring ∖kăs΄tĭng rĭng∖: a metal or silicone tube in which a refractory mold is made for casting dental restorations
        casting wax ∖kăs΄tĭng wăks∖: a composition containing various waxes with desired properties for making wax patterns to be formed into metal castings
        CAT: acronym for Computerized Axial Tomography; comp, COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY
        catalyst ∖kăt΄l-ĭst∖ n (1902): a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction without affecting the properties of the materials involved
        cathode ∖kăth΄ōd∖ n (1834): the negative pole in electrolysis
        cautery ∖kô΄te-rē∖ n (15c): the application of a caustic substance, hot instrument, electric current, or other agent used to burn, scar, or destroy tissue; -teries ∖-ter-rēz∖ pl
        cavity varnish ∖kăv΄ĭ-tē∖: a combination of copal resin or other synthetic resins dissolved in an organic solvent such as chloroform or ether
        cavosurface angle: the angle formed by the junction of prepared and unprepared tooth surface
        CBCT: acronym for CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
        CD: acronym for COMPLETE DENTURE
        CDA: acronym for Certified Dental Assistant
        CDL: acronym for CERTIFIED DENTAL LABORATORY
        CDT: acronym for CERTIFIED DENTAL TECHNICIAN
        cellulitis ∖sĕl΄ya-lī΄tĭs∖ n (1861): diffuse and especially subcutaneous inflammation of connective tissue
        cellulose acetate: an ester of acetic acid; used as clear prefabricated crown forms for making interim restorations
        1cement ∖sĭ-mĕnt∖ n (14c): 1. a binding agent used to firmly unite two approximating objects; 2. a material that, on hardening, will fill a space or bind adjacent objects; comp, LUTING AGENT, ADHESIVE RESIN
        2cement ∖sĭ-mĕnt∖ vt (15c): to unite or make firm by or as if by cement; to lute
        cementation ∖sĕ΄mĕn-tā΄shun∖: 1. the process of attaching parts by means of cement; 2. attaching a restoration to natural teeth by means of a cement (GPT-4)
        cemented pin ∖sĭ-mĕn΄tĭd∖: a small metal rod luted into a hole drilled into dentin to enhance retention
        cemento-dentinal junction ∖sĕ΄mĕn-tō dĕn΄tĭ-năl jŭngk΄shun∖: the area of union of the dentin and cementum
        cemento-enamel junction ∖sĕ΄mĕn-tō ĭ-năm΄al jŭngk΄shun∖: that area where the enamel and cementum meet at the cervical region of a tooth
        cementoid ∖sĭ-mĕn΄toid΄∖ n: the uncalcified surface layer of cementum including incorporated connective tissue fibers
        cementum ∖sĭ-mĕn΄tum∖ n (1842): the thin calcified tissue of ectomesenchymal origin that covers the root of a tooth
        cementum fracture ∖sĭ-mĕn΄tum frăk΄chur∖: the tearing of fragments of the cementum from the tooth root
        center of the ridge ∖sĕn΄ter ŭv thē rĭj∖: the faciolingual or buccolingual midline of the residual ridge
        center of rotation: syn, ROTATION CENTER
        central bearing ∖sĕn΄tral bâr΄ĭng∖ obs: the application of forces between the maxillae and mandible (by means of a central bearing tracing device) at a single point that is located as near as possible to the center of the supporting areas of the maxillary and mandibular jaws; it is used for the purpose of distributing closing forces evenly throughout the areas of the supporting structures during the registration and recording of maxillomandibular relations and during the correction of occlusal errors (GPT-4)
        central bearing point ∖sĕn΄tral bâr΄ing point∖ obs: the contact point of a central bearing device (GPT-4)
        central bearing tracing ∖sĕn΄tral bâr΄ing trās΄ing∖: the pattern obtained on the horizontal plate used with a central bearing tracing device
        central bearing tracing device ∖sĕn΄tral bâr΄ing trās΄ing dĭ-vīs∖: a device that provides a central point of bearing or support between the maxillary and mandibular dental arches; it consists of a contacting point that is attached to one dental arch and a plate attached to the opposing dental arch; the plate provides the surface on which the bearing point rests or moves and on which the tracing of the mandibular movement is recorded; it may be used to distribute occlusal forces evenly during the recording of maxillomandibular relationships and/or for the correction of disharmonious occlusal contacts; orig, Alfred Gysi, prosthodontist, Switzerland, 1910; Editorial note for usage: EXTRAORAL TRACER (ING), INTRAORAL TRACER (ING), and TRACING DEVICE are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING, MANDIBULAR TRACER, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, STYLUS TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        centric check bite slang: syn, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD
        centric interocclusal record: syn, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD
        centric jaw record: syn, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD
        centric jaw relation: syn, CENTRIC RELATION
        centric occlusion ∖sĕn΄trĭk a-klōō΄zhen∖: the occlusion of opposing teeth when the mandible is in centric relation; this may or may not coincide with the maximal intercuspal position; comp, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        centric position ∖sĕn΄trĭk pa-zish΄en∖ obs: the position of the mandible when the jaws are in centric relation (GPT-1)
        centric record: syn, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD
        centric relation ∖sĕn΄trĭk rĭ-lā΄shun∖: acronym is CR; a maxillomandibular relationship, independent of tooth contact, in which the condyles articulate in the anterior-superior position against the posterior slopes of the articular eminences; in this position, the mandible is restricted to a purely rotary movement; from this unstrained, physiologic, maxillomandibular relationship, the patient can make vertical, lateral or protrusive movements; it is a clinically useful, repeatable reference position
        centric relation interocclusal record: syn, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD; comp, JAW RELATION RECORD
        centric relation occlusion: syn, CENTRIC OCCLUSION
        centric relation position: syn, CENTRIC RELATION
        centric relation record ∖sĕn΄trĭk rĭ-lā΄shun rĭ-kōrd∖: a registration of the relationship of the maxillae to the mandible when the mandible is in centric relation. The registration may be obtained either intraorally or extraorally
        centric slide ∖sĕn΄trĭk slīd∖ obs: the movement of the mandible while in centric relation, from the initial occlusal contact into maximal intercuspal position (GPT-4)
        centric stop ∖sĕn΄trĭk stŏp∖: opposing cuspal/fossae contacts that maintain the occlusal vertical dimension between the opposing arches
        cephalogram n: syn, CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPH
        cephalometer ∖sĕf΄a-lom΄a-ter∖ n: an instrument for measuring the head or skull; an orienting device for positioning the head for radiographic examination and measurement
        cephalometric radiograph ∖sĕf΄a-lo-mĕt΄rĭk rā΄dē-ō-grăf΄∖: a standardized radiograph of the skull
        cephalometric tracing ∖sĕf΄a-lo-mĕt΄rĭk trā΄sing∖: a line drawing of structural outlines of craniofacial landmarks and facial bones, made directly from a cephalometric radiograph
        cephalometry ∖sĕf΄a-lăm΄a trē΄∖ n: 1. the science of measurement of the dimensions of the head; 2. in dentistry, certain combinations of angular and linear measurements developed from tracing frontal and lateral radiographic head films used to assess craniofacial growth and development on a longitudinal basis and to determine the nature of orthodontic treatment response; cephalometric ∖sĕf΄a-lo-mĕt΄rĭk∖ adj
        cephalostat ∖sĕf΄a-lo-stăt∖ n: an instrument used to position the head to produce spatially oriented, reproducible radiographs or photographs
        ceram ∖sa-răm∖ vb: to apply a heat treatment process that converts a specially formulated glass into a fine-grained glass-ceramic material
        1ceramic ∖sa-răm΄ik∖ adj (1850): of or relating to the manufacture of any product made essentially from minerals by firing at a high temperature
        2ceramic ∖sa-răm΄ik∖ n (1859): syn, CERAMICS
        ceramic crown ∖sa-răm΄ik kroun∖: a ceramic fixed dental prosthesis that restores a clinical crown without a supporting metal framework
        ceramic flux ∖sa-răm΄ĭk flŭks∖: a glass modifier; metallic ions, such as calcium, potassium, or sodium, usually as carbonates, which interrupt the oxygen/silica bond, thus enhancing fluidity
        ceramic inlay: a ceramic intracoronal restoration
        ceramics ∖sa-răm΄iks∖ n (1859): 1. compounds of one or more metals with a nonmetallic element, usually oxygen; they are formed of chemical and biochemically stable substances that are strong, hard, brittle, and inert nonconductors of thermal and electrical energy; 2. the art of making porcelain dental restorations; syn, ceramic restorations
        ceramist ∖sa-răm΄ist∖ or ceramicist ∖sa-răm΄ĭ-sist΄∖ n (1855): one who has proficiency in ceramics
        ceramometal restoration: syn, METAL-CERAMIC RESTORATION
        cermet ∖sûr΄mĕt∖ (1998): fused glass powder with silver particles formed through high temperature sintering of a mixture of the two minerals
        Certified Dental Laboratory: acronym is CDL; in the United States, a dental laboratory that has met established specific standards for personnel skills, laboratory facilities, and infection control and is certified by the National Board for Certification of Dental Laboratories
        Certified Dental Technician: acronym is CDT; in the United States, a dental technician who has met established specific standards and is certified by the National Board for Certification of Dental Laboratories
        cervical ∖sûr΄vĭ-kel∖ adj (1681): 1. in anatomy, pertaining to the cervix or neck; 2. in dentistry, pertaining to the region at or near the cemento-enamel junction
        cervix ∖sûr΄viks∖ n (15c): 1. the neck; 2. a constricted portion of a part or organ; cervices ∖sûr΄vĭ-sis∖ pl
        1chamfer ∖chăm΄fer∖ n: 1. a finish line design for tooth preparation in which the gingival aspect meets the external axial surface at an obtuse angle; 2. a small groove or furrow; 3. the surface found by cutting away the angle of intersection of two faces of a piece of material; a beveled edge; chamfers pl
        2chamfer ∖chăm΄fer∖ vb: 1. to prepare a furrow in; 2. to make a chamfer on; to prepare or reduce to a chamfer; bevel; 3. generally thought of as producing a curve from the axial wall to the cavosurface; chamfered; chamfering vt
        chamfer angle ∖chăm΄fer ăng΄gel∖ n: the angle between a chamfered surface and one of the original surfaces from which the chamfer is prepared; syn, CAVOSURFACE ANGLE
        characterization n: the application of unique markings, indentations, coloration, and similar custom means of delineation on a tooth or dental prosthesis, thus enhancing natural appearance
        characterize ∖kăr΄ak-ta-rīz∖: to distinguish, individualize, mark, qualify, singularize, or differentiate something
        characterized denture base ∖kăr΄ak-ter΄īzd dĕn΄chur bās∖: a denture base with coloring that simulates the color and shading of natural oral tissues; syn, TINTED DENTURE BASE; comp, DENTOGENICS
        check bite slang: syn, INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        cheilitis ∖kī-lī΄tĭs∖: inflammation of the lip in the area of the modiolus
        cheiloplasty: plastic surgery of the lip
        cheilorrhaphy: surgical correction of the cleft lip deformity
        cheiloschisis (1927): congenital cleft lip
        cheilosis ∖kī-lō΄sĭs∖: a fissured condition of the lips and angles of the mouth; often associated with riboflavin deficiency
        chemically-activated polymerization: a chemical reaction in which a tertiary amine activates an initiator, such as benzoyl peroxide, which will react with the methylmethacrylate monomer to form polymethylmethacrylate; syn, AUTOPOLYMERIZATION
        chew-in record nonstand: syn, FUNCTIONALLY GENERATED PATH, STEREOGRAPHIC RECORD
        chewing cycle: syn, MASTICATORY CYCLE
        chewing force: syn, MASTICATORY FORCE
        Christensen phenomenon ∖Krĭs΄chen-senz fĭ-nŏm΄a-nŏn΄, -nen∖: eponym for the space that occurs between opposing posterior occlusal surfaces during mandibular protrusion; orig, Carl Christensen, dentist/professor, Denmark;
        Christensen C. The problem of the bite. D Cosmos 1905;47:1184-95
        chroma ∖krō΄ma∖ n (1889): 1. the purity of a color, or its departure from white or gray; 2. the intensity of a distinctive hue; saturation of a hue; 3. chroma describes the strength or saturation of the hue (color); comp, SATURATION
        Munsell AH. A color notation. Baltimore, MD: Munsell Color Co.; 1975:14-17
        chromatic stimulus ∖krō-măt΄ik stĭm΄ya-lus∖: a stimulus that under prevailing conditions of adaptation gives rise to a perceived chromatic color
        chromaticity coordinates ∖krō΄ma-tĭs΄ĭ-tē kō-ôr΄dĭ-nĭtz∖: the two dimensions of any color order system that exclude the lightness dimension and describe the chromaticity. Unless otherwise specified, the term refers to the CIE coordinates x, y, and z for Illuminant C and 2 degrees (1931) Standard Observer; syn, color coordinates
        chromaticity diagram ∖krō΄ma-tĭs΄ĭ-tē dī΄a-grăm∖: a plane diagram in which each point represents a different combination of dominant wavelength and purity and which is usually constructed in some form of a triangle with colorimetric primaries represented at the corners; the CIE standard chromaticity diagram is essentially a right-angle triangle representing hypothetical primaries and the complete chromaticity gamut of the CIE standard observer
        chromaticness ∖krō΄măt΄ĭk-nĕs∖ n: the intensity of hue as expressed in the Natural Color System
        chromatopsia ∖krō΄ma-tŏp΄zha∖ n: an abnormal state of vision in which colorless objects appear colored; a visual defect in which colored objects appear unnaturally colored and colorless objects appear color tinged
        chronic ∖krŏn΄ik∖ adj (1601): marked by long duration or frequent recurrence; not acute; always present; chronically adj, chronicity n
        chronic closed lock ∖krŏn΄ik klōzd lŏk∖: with respect to the temporomandibular joint, a restriction in motion of the joint caused by an anteriorly displaced intra-articular disc and usually characterized by pain, especially during function
        chronic pain ∖krŏn΄ik pān∖: pain marked by long duration or frequent recurrence
        CIE: acronym for Commission Internationale d’Eclairage
        CIELab system ∖C I E Lăb sĭs΄tem∖: CIE LAB relates the tristimulus values to a color space; this scale accounts for the illuminant and the observer; by establishing a uniform color scale, color measurements can be compared and movements in color space defined
        CIE standard illuminant ∖C I E stăn΄dard ĭ-lōō΄ma-nent∖: the illuminants A, B, C, D65 and other illuminants, defined by the CIE in terms of relative spectral power distributions; A = Planckion radiation (a theoretical body that absorbs all incident optical radiant energy) a temperature of about 2856° K; B = direct solar radiation, 48,000° K; C = average daylight; D65 = daylight, including the ultraviolet region, 6500° K
        cinefluoroscopy ∖sĭn ē΄flō răh skă΄ko pē∖ n: dynamic fluoroscopic images recorded as a movie file
        cineradiography ∖sĭn΄a-rā΄dē-ō-gră΄fē∖ n: the making of a movie file of successive radiographs with contrast medium in a fluoroscopic image appearing on a monitor
        cingulum ∖sĭng΄gya-lum∖ n (1845): the lingual convexity of many anterior teeth; a convex protuberance at the lingual cervical one third of the anterior tooth’s anatomic crown; cingula pl
        cingulum rest ∖sĭng΄gya-lum rĕst∖: a portion of a removable partial denture that contacts the prepared recess in the cingulum of the tooth or artificial crown; comp, REST SEAT
        circumferential clasp ∖ser-kŭm-fa-rĕn΄shal klăsp∖: a retainer that encircles a tooth by more than 180 degrees, including opposite angles, and which generally contacts the tooth throughout the extent of the clasp, with at least one terminal located in an undercut area
        circumferential clasp arm: syn, CIRCUMFERENTIAL CLASP
        clamping force: the compressive force that a fastener exerts on a bolted joint. The stability of a bolted joint depends on the maintenance of the clamping force; syn, PRELOAD, comp, EMBEDMENT RELAXATION
        clasp ∖klăsp∖ n (14c): the component of the clasp assembly that engages a portion of the tooth surface and either enters an undercut for retention or remains entirely above the height of contour to act as a reciprocating element; generally it is used to stabilize and retain a removable partial denture; syn, AKERS CLASP, BAR CLASP, CIRCUMFERENTIAL CLASP, COMBINATION CLASP, CONTINUOUS CLASP, INFRABULGE CLASP, SUPRABULGE CLASP, WROUGHT WIRE CLASP
        clasp arm: syn, CLASP
        clasp assembly ∖klăsp a-sĕm΄blē∖: the part of a removable partial denture that acts as a direct retainer and/or stabilizer for a prosthesis by partially encompassing or contacting an abutment tooth; Editorial note for usage: components of the clasp assembly include the RETENTIVE CLASP, RECIPROCAL CLASP, CINGULUM, INCISAL or OCCLUSAL REST, and MINOR CONNECTOR
        clasp guideline: syn, SURVEY LINE
        classification system: syn, PROSTHODONTIC DIAGNOSTIC INDEX
        clearance ∖klîr΄ens∖ n (1563): a condition in which bodies may pass each other without hindrance. Also, the distance between bodies (GPT-4)
        1cleft ∖klĕft∖ n: 1. a space or opening made through splitting; 2. a hollow between ridges or protuberances
        2cleft ∖klĕft∖ adj: partially split or divided
        cleft palate ∖klĕft păl΄ĭt∖ n (1841): 1. a congenital fissure or elongated opening in the soft and/or hard palate; 2. an opening in the hard and/or soft palate as a result of improper union of the maxillary process and the median nasal process during the second month of intrauterine development; syn, PALATAL CLEFT; comp, COMPLETE CLEFT PALATE, OCCULT CLEFT PALATE
        cleft palate prosthesis: syn, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        cleft palate speech aid prosthesis: syn, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        clenching ∖klĕn΄chĭng∖ vt (13c): the pressing and clamping of the jaws and teeth together frequently associated with acute nervous tension or physical effort
        click ∖klĭk∖ n: a brief, sharp sound, such as the snapping, cracking, or noise evident on excursions or opening of the mandible; a distinct snapping sound or sensation, usually audible (or by stethoscope) or on palpation, which emanates from the temporomandibular joint(s) during jaw movement; it may or may not be associated with internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint; clicking ∖klĭ΄kĭng∖ n; comp, EARLY CLOSING CLICK, EARLY OPENING CLICK, LATE CLOSING CLICK, LATE OPENING CLICK, MID OPENING CLICK, RECIPROCAL CLICK
        clinical ∖klĭn΄ĭ-kel∖ adj (ca. 1755): 1. of or related to or conducted in or as if within a clinic; 2. analytical or detached; clinically adv
        clinical crown ∖klĭn΄ĭ-kel kroun∖: the portion of a tooth that extends from the occlusal table or incisal edge to the free gingival margin
        clinical remount: syn, REMOUNT PROCEDURE
        clinometer n (1811): a device for measuring angles of elevation, inclination or declination; clinometric adj; clinometry n
        clip ∖klĭp∖ n: 1. any of numerous devices used to grip, clasp, or hook; 2. a device used to retain a removable dental prosthesis or a maxillofacial prosthesis to a fixed tooth- or implant-supported restoration, i.e., a bar connector, coping, or other retainer
        closed bite slang: syn, DECREASED OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION
        closed lock ∖klōzd lŏk∖: an internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint in which the disc is dislocated anteriorly and usually medial to the condyle; displacement or dislocation of the disc without spontaneous reduction on mouth opening; comp, ACUTE CLOSED LOCK, CHRONIC CLOSED LOCK, DISC DISPLACEMENT WITHOUT REDUCTION
        closed reduction of a fracture ∖klōzd rĭ-dŭk΄shun ŭv ā frăk΄chur∖: reduction (repositioning) and fixation of fractured bones without making a surgical opening to the fracture site
        closest speaking space ∖klō΄sĕst spē΄king spās∖: the space between the anterior teeth when the patient is speaking; according to Dr Earl Pound, the space should not be more or less than 1 to 2 mm of clearance between the incisal edges of the teeth when the patient is unconsciously repeating the letter “S.” Dr Meyer M. Silverman termed this speaking centric, which was defined as the closest relationship of the occlusal surfaces and incisal edges of the mandibular teeth to the maxillary teeth during function and rapid speech; this was later called closest speaking level by Dr Silverman and finally the closest speaking space
        Silverman MM. Speaking centric. Dent Digest 1950;55:106-11
        Silverman MM. Accurate measurement of vertical dimension by phonetics and speaking centric space. Dent Digest 1951;57:261-65
        Silverman MM. The speaking method in measuring vertical dimension. J Prosthet Dent 1953;3:193-99
        Pound E. Esthetics and phonetics in full denture construction. J Calif Dent Assoc 1950;20:179-85
        Pound E. The mandibular movements of speech and their seven related values. J Prosthet Dent 1966;16:835-43
        Pound E. The vertical dimension of speech, the pilot of occlusion. J Calif Dent Assoc 1975;6:42-47
        Pound E. Let /s/ be your guide. J Prosthet Dent1977;38:482-89
        clutch ∖klŭch∖ n: a device placed in both the maxillary and mandibular arches for the purpose of supporting components used to record mandibular movement
        coadapted ∖kō-a-dăp΄tĭd∖ adj (1836): 1. mutually adapted, especially by natural selection; 2. in medicine, the proper realignment of displaced parts; coadaptation n
        cobalt chromium alloy: abbr, CoCr; a low-density, large-grained base metal dental casting alloy with prominent dendritic structure, composed from 60% to 75% Cobalt and up to 30% Chromium with trace elements that may include small amounts of Mo, Mn, Si, and N; chromium, by its passivation effect, ensures corrosion resistance of the alloy; orig, Elwood Hayes, metallurgist, industrialist, 1900
        coblation therapy: contr, cold ablation; passing a radiofrequency bipolar electrical current through saline with the production of a plasma field of sodium ions; this resultant ion field can separate intracellular bonds at a low temperature (60° C); a therapy applied in treating obstructive sleep apnea and tonsillectomy
        Coble balancer ∖Kō΄bel băl΄an-ser∖: eponym for 1. an intraoral balancing device used to determine centric relation and obtain the centric relation record; 2. used to equilibrate fixed or removable complete dentures intraorally; orig, Lucian G. Coble, dentist, North Carolina, U.S.A.; comp, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, TRACING DEVICE
        Coble LG. Correct centric position must be established for good denture fit and function. Dent Survey 1951;27:1391-93
        Coble LG. A complete denture technique for selecting and setting up teeth. J Prosthet Dent 1960;10:455-8.
        cohesion ∖kō-hē΄zhun∖ n (1660): 1. the act or state of sticking together tightly; 2. the force whereby molecules of matter adhere to one another; the attraction of aggregation; 3. molecular attraction by which the particles of a body are united throughout their mass
        cohesive failure ∖kō-hē΄sĭv fāl΄yur∖: bond failure within a dental material as a result of a tensile or shearing force; comp, ADHESIVE FAILURE
        cold curing resin nonstand: syn, AUTOPOLYMERIZING RESIN
        collarless metal ceramic restoration ∖kŏl΄er-lĕs mĕ΄l sa-răm΄ĭk rĕs΄ta-rā΄shun∖: a metal ceramic restoration with the extension of ceramic material onto the finish line of the preparation without visible metal substructure in the marginal area; porcelain crown margin is directly in contact with the prepared finish line; comp, PORCELAIN MARGIN
        collateral ligaments ∖ka-lăt΄er-al∖: two or more ligaments paired to a single joint for the specific purpose of restricting extension and flexion within one plane only. Relative to the temporomandibular joint, there are two collateral (discal) ligaments, medial and lateral, which attach the articular disc to the medial and lateral poles of the condyle of the mandible. These ligaments have also been termed polar ligaments
        colloid ∖kŏl΄oid∖ n: a material in which is suspended a constituent in a finely divided state that is invisible to the eye but capable of scattering light
        colloidal silica: submicroscopic fumed silica frequently used as a suspension in a liquid and mixed with many phosphate-bonded casting investments to improve casting smoothness and control expansion
        color ∖kŭl΄or∖ n (13c): 1. a phenomenon of light or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects; 2. the quality of an object or substance with respect to light reflected or transmitted by it. Color is usually determined visually by measurement of hue, saturation, and luminous reflectance of the reflected light; 3. a visual response to light consisting of the three dimensions of hue, value, and chroma; comp, PERCEIVED COLOR, PSYCHOPHYSICAL COLOR
        color blindness ∖kŭl΄or blīnd΄nĭs∖: abnormal color vision or the inability to discriminate certain colors, most commonly along the red-green axis
        color constancy ∖kŭl΄or kŏn΄stan-sē∖: relative independence of perceived color to changes in color of the light source
        color deficiency ∖kŭl΄or dĭ-fĭsh΄en-sē∖: a general term for all forms of color vision that yield chromaticity discrimination below normal limits, such as monochromatism, dichromatism, and anomalous trichromatism
        color difference ∖kŭl΄or dĭf΄er-ens∖: magnitude and character of the difference between two colors under specified conditions; referred to as ΔE
        color difference equations ∖kŭl΄or dĭf΄er-ens ĭ-kwā΄zhanz, -shanz∖: equations that transform Commission Internationals d’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates into a more uniform matrix such that a specified distance between two colors is more nearly proportional to the magnitude of an observed difference between them regardless of their hue
        color notation ∖kŭl΄or nō-tā΄shun∖: the use of symbols in some orderly fashion by which the attributes of color may be defined or may be set down in written formula
        color rendering index ∖kŭl΄or rĕn΄der-ing ĭn΄dĕks∖: a number from 1 to 100 given to a light source to indicate its relative equivalence to pure white light, which has a color rendering index (CRI) of 100. The closer the number is to 100, the more it resembles pure white light
        color scale ∖kŭl΄or skāl∖: an orderly arrangement of colors showing graduated change in some attribute or attributes of color as a value scale
        color solid ∖kŭl΄or sŏl΄ĭd∖: a symbolic figure in three dimensions that represents the relations of all possible colors with respect to their primary attributes of hue, value, and chroma. Usually, value appears as the vertical axis of the figure with hue and chroma represented in polar coordinates about the value axis, chroma being radial. The boundaries of the solid are actually irregular, but it is sometimes represented as a cylinder, a sphere, or a cube
        color standard ∖kŭl΄or stăn΄dard∖: a color whose psychophysical dimensions have been accurately measured and specified
        color stimulus ∖kŭl΄or stĭm΄yu-lus∖: visible radiation entering the eye and producing a sensation of color, either chromatic or achromatic
        color temperature ∖kŭl΄or tĕm΄per-a-chōōr΄, tĕm΄pra-∖: the temperature in degrees Kelvin (Celsius plus 273°) of a totally absorbing or black body (object) that produces colors as the temperature changes; the range is from a dull red to yellow to white to blue; this term is sometimes used incorrectly to describe the color of “white” light sources; the correct term to describe the color of light sources is correlated color temperature
        colorimeter ∖kŭl΄a-rĭm΄ĭ-ter∖ n (ca. 1863): a device that analyzes color by measuring it in terms of a standard color, scale of colors, or certain primary colors; an instrument used to measure light reflected or transmitted by a specimen
        coloring ∖kŭl΄or-ĭng∖ n (14c): 1. the act of applying colors; 2. something that produces color or color effects; 3. the effect produced by applying or combining colors; comp, EXTRINSIC COLORING, INTRINSIC COLORING
        combination clasp ∖kŏm΄bi-nā΄shun klăsp∖: a circumferential retainer for a removable partial denture that has a cast reciprocal arm and a wrought wire retentive clasp
        combination syndrome ∖kŏm΄bi-nā΄shun sĭn΄drōm∖: the characteristic features that occur when an edentulous maxillae is opposed by natural mandibular anterior teeth and a mandibular bilateral extension-base removable partial denture, including loss of bone from the anterior portion of the maxillary ridge, hyperplasia of the tuberosities, papillary hyperplasia of the hard palate’s mucosa, supraeruption of the mandibular anterior teeth, and loss of alveolar bone and ridge height beneath the mandibular removable partial denture bases; syn, anterior hyperfunction syndrome
        Kelly E. Changes caused by a mandibular removable partial denture opposing a maxillary complete denture. J Prosthet Dent 1972;27:140-50
        comminute ∖kŏm΄a-nōōt∖ (1626): to reduce food into small parts (GPT-4); -nuted; -nuting vt; comminution ∖kŏm΄a-nōō΄shun∖ n
        comminuted fracture ∖kŏm΄a-nōō΄tĭd frăk΄chur∖: a fracture in which the bone is broken in several places in the same region; a fracture in which the bone is crushed and splintered
        commissure ∖kŏm΄a-shōōr∖ n (15c): a point of union or junction especially between two anatomic parts, i.e., corner of the mouth; commissural ∖kŏm΄ĭz-ŭr΄l∖ adj; syn, MODIOLUS
        commissure splint ∖kŏm΄a-shōōr splĭnt∖: a device placed between the lips that assists in achieving increased opening between the lips; use of such devices enhances opening where surgical, chemical, or electrical alterations of the lips has resulted in severe restriction or contractures; syn, lip splint; comp, interocclusal expansion device, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        compact bone ∖kŏm΄pakt΄ bōn∖: any osseous substance that is dense or hard; syn, CORTICAL BONE
        compensation curve ∖kŏm΄pen-sā΄shun kûrv∖: 1. the anteroposterior curving (in the median plane) and the mediolateral curving (in the frontal plane) within the alignment of the occluding surfaces and incisal edges of artificial teeth that is used to develop balanced occlusion; 2. the arc introduced in the construction of complete removable dental prostheses to compensate for the opening influences produced by the condylar and incisal guidance’s during lateral and protrusive mandibular eccentric movements; syn, compensating curvature, compensating curve
        complementary colors ∖kom΄pla-mĕn΄ta-rē, -trē kŭl΄orz∖: 1. two colors that, when mixed together in proper proportions, result in a neutral color; colored lights that are complementary when mixed in an additive manner form white light and follow the laws of additive color mixture; colorants that are complementary when mixed together form black or gray and follow the laws of subtractive colorant mixture; 2. colors located in directly opposite positions on the color wheel
        complete arch subperiosteal implant ∖kŏm-plēt΄ ärch sŭb-pĕr΄ē-ŏs-tēl ĭm-plănt∖: a device placed under the periosteum on the residual ridge to provide abutments for supporting a removable or fixed complete denture in a fully edentulous arch; Editorial note for usage: such implants should be described by means of their relationship to their bases of support, the alveolar bone; as such, at placement, the implant is described as an eposteal dental implant; comp, EPOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        complete cleft palate ∖kŏm-plēt΄ klĕft păl΄ĭt ∖: an opening extending through the anterior alveolar ridge, and primary and secondary palates; syn, PALATAL CLEFT
        complete crown ∖kŏm-plēt kroun∖: syn, ARTIFICIAL CROWN
        complete denture ∖kŏm-plēt dĕn΄chur∖: a fixed or removable dental prosthesis that replaces the entire dentition and associated structures of the maxillae or mandible; syn, FIXED COMPLETE DENTURE, REMOVABLE COMPLETE DENTURE
        complete denture prosthetics ∖kŏm-plēt dĕn΄chur prŏs-thĕt΄iks∖ obs: 1. the replacement of the natural teeth in the arch and their associated parts by artificial substitutes; 2. the art and science of the restoration of an edentulous mouth (GPT-4); syn, COMPLETE DENTURE PROSTHODONTICS
        complete denture prosthodontics ∖kŏm-plēt dĕn΄chur prŏs΄tho-dŏn΄tĭks∖: refers to that body of knowledge and skills pertaining to the restoration of the edentulous arch with a complete denture; Editorial note for usage: complete denture prosthodontics generally refers to the complete fixed and complete removable denture
        complete facial moulage ∖kŏm-plēt fā΄shal mōō-läzh∖: an impression procedure used to record the soft tissue contours of the whole face
        complete mouth rehabilitation n: this term applies to the restoration of teeth, with or without dental implants, with fixed dental protheses in the maxillae and mandible
        completed denture base: syn, DEFINITIVE DENTURE BASE
        complicated fracture ∖kŏm΄plĭ-kā΄tĭd frăk΄chur∖: a fracture with significant injury to adjacent soft tissues (i.e., neurovascular injury)
        compomer ∖kŏm΄pō-mĕr∖ n (1998): a poly-acid modified composite resin, composed of non-reactive glass filler, acid-modified dimethacrylate resin, and an initiator; compomers do not have the capacity to chemically bond to tooth surfaces, therefore, they need primer/bonding resin agents for tooth bonding applications; comp, GLASS IONOMER, RESIN-MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER
        components of mastication ∖kŏm-pō΄nentz uv măs΄tĭ-kā΄shun∖: those factors of food manipulation and comminution that precede deglutition
        components of occlusion ∖kŏm-pō΄nentz uv a-klōō΄zhun∖: the various elements that are involved in occlusion, such as the temporomandibular joints, the associated musculature, the teeth, their contacting surfaces and investing tissues, and/or the dental supporting structures; syn, DETERMINANTS OF MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT
        composite resin: a highly cross-linked polymeric material reinforced by a dispersion of amorphous silica, glass, crystalline, or organic resin filler particles and/or short fibers bonded to the matrix by a coupling agent; comp, FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE
        composite resin laminate veneer: a thin, bonded composite resin restoration that restores the facial, incisal, and part of the proximal surfaces of teeth requiring esthetic restoration; comp, FACING
        composite resin veneer: laboratory fabrication of a prosthesis with layered composite resin bonded to a framework; comp, FACING
        compound n, slang (19c): syn, IMPRESSION COMPOUND, MODELING PLASTIC IMPRESSION COMPOUND
        compound joint ∖kŏm-pound΄ joint∖: a joint involving three or more bones
        compression molding ∖kom-prĕs΄shun mōl΄ding∖: the act of pressing or squeezing together to form a shape within a mold; the adaptation, under pressure, of a plastic material into a mold
        compression of tissue: syn, TISSUE DISPLACEMENT
        compressive stress ∖kŏm-prĕs΄ĭv strĕs∖: the internal induced force that opposes the shortening of a material in a direction parallel to the direction of the stresses; any induced force per unit area that resists deformation caused by a load that tends to compress or shorten a body
        computer-aided engineering: acronym is CAE; incorporates mathematical algorithms to control and assist the design and manufacturing of dental prostheses; comp, COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN
        computer numerical control: acronym is CNC; a seamless integration of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing programs for making 3D objects; this could be subtractive or additive technique
        computer tomography guided surgery: a surgical procedure that uses a device (surgical guide) that was printed from a digital file of the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT); comp, STEREOTACTIC SURGERY, SURGICAL GUIDE
        computerized tomography ∖kom-pyōō΄ta-rīzd tō-mŏg΄ra-fē∖: acronym is CT; the technique by which multidirectional x-ray transmission data through a body is mathematically reconstructed by a computer to form an electrical cross-sectional representation of a patient’s anatomy; CT is used as an acronym to designate any technical field associated with these techniques; comp, CBCT
        concrescence ∖kon-krĕs΄ens∖ n: the union of roots of approximating teeth via deposition of cementum
        concretion ∖kon-krē΄shun∖ n: any inorganic mass in a natural cavity or organ
        condensation n: 1. amalgam condensation: the compaction of dental amalgam by using force to remove excess mercury and ensure continuity of the matrix phase; 2. porcelain condensation: the process of increasing the density of dental porcelains during processing by removing excess water with vibration and blotting
        condensation reaction ∖kŏn΄dĕn-sā΄shun rē-ăk΄shun∖: any chemical reaction between two molecules to form a larger molecule, with the elimination of a smaller molecule
        conditional color match ∖kon-dĭsh΄a-nal kŭl΄or măch∖: a pair of colors that appear to match only under limited conditions, such as a particular light source and a particular observer; a metameric match
        condylar agenesis ∖kŏn΄da-lar ā-jĕn΄ĭ-sĭs∖: a developmental abnormality characterized by the absence of the condyle
        condylar articulator ∖kŏn΄da-lar är-tĭk΄ya-la-tôr∖: an articulator with the condylar path components as part of the upper member and whose condylar replica components are part of the lower member; syn, ARCON ARTICULATOR; comp, NONARCON ARTICULATOR
        condylar axis ∖kŏn΄da-lar ăk΄sĭs∖: a hypothetical line through the mandibular condyles around which the mandible may rotate
        condylar dislocation ∖kŏn΄da-lar dĭs΄lō-kā΄shun∖: a non-self-reducing displacement of the mandibular condyle usually forward of the articular eminence
        condylar displacement: positioning of the condyle out of its normal location in the glenoid fossa
        1condylar guidance ∖kŏn΄da-lar gīd΄ns∖ vt: mandibular guidance generated by the condyle and articular disc traversing the contour of the articular eminence
        2condylar guidance ∖kŏn΄da-lar gīd΄ns∖ n: the mechanical form located in the posterior region of an articulator that controls movement of its mobile member
        condylar guide assembly ∖kŏn΄da-lar gīd a-sĕm΄blē∖: the components of an articulator that guide movement of the condylar analogues
        condylar guide inclination ∖kŏn΄da-lar gīd ĭn΄kla-nā΄shun∖: the angle formed by the inclination of a condylar guide control surface of an articulator and a specified reference plane; comp, LATERAL CONDYLAR INCLINATION
        condylar hinge position ∖kŏn΄da-lar hĭnj pa-zĭsh΄an∖ obs: the position of the condyles of the mandible in the glenoid fossae at which hinge axis movement is possible (GPT-4)
        condylar inclination ∖kŏn΄da-lar ĭn΄kla-nă΄shun∖: the direction of the condyle path (GPT-4)
        condylar path ∖kŏn΄da-lar păth∖: that path traveled by the mandibular condyle in the temporomandibular joint during various mandibular movements
        condylar path element ∖kŏn΄da-lar păth ĕl΄a-ment∖: the member of a dental articulator that controls the direction of condylar movement
        condylar path tracing ∖kŏn΄da-lar păth trā΄sĭng∖: a graphic registration of the movement of the condyle; syn, MANDIBULAR TRACING
        condylar slant nonstand: syn, CONDYLAR PATH, LATERAL CONDYLAR PATH
        condylar subluxation ∖kŏn΄da-lar sŭb΄lŭk-sā΄shun∖: a self-reducing incomplete or partial dislocation of the condyle
        condylarthrosis ∖kŏn΄da-lar-thrō΄sĭs∖ n: an ellipsoidal articulation; a modification of the ball/socket type of synovial joint in which the articular joint surfaces are ellipsoid rather than spheroid; owing to the arrangement of the muscles and ligaments around the joint, all movements are permitted except rotation about a vertical axis; syn, articulation ellipsoidea, condylar articulation, condylar joint, condyloid joint, or ellipsoidal joint
        condyle ∖kŏn΄dīl, -dl∖ n (1634): an articular prominence of a bone, i.e., in the mandible; an ellipsoidal projection of bone that articulates with the articular eminence of the temporal bone, having a mediolateral dimension that is greater than its anteroposterior dimension; condylar adj; comp, CONDYLAR PATH, LATERAL CONDYLAR PATH, MANDIBULAR CONDYLE, NECK OF THE CONDYLE
        condyle chord: syn, CONDYLAR AXIS
        condyle head: syn, CONDYLE
        condyle path: syn, CONDYLAR PATH
        condylectomy: surgical removal of the condyle
        condylotomy: surgical cut through the neck of the condyloid process; also refers to surgical removal of a portion of the articulating surface of the mandibular condyle (called a condylar shave)
        cone ∖kōn∖ n (1562): one of the receptors of color vision found in the retinal layer of the eye and concentrated in the macula lutea
        cone beam computed tomography (CBCT): a dispersion of x-rays in a divergent pattern and captured for a digital volumetric data or voxels for anatomic imaging
        confluent defect of the sinus: an oronasal or oroantral communication as a result of an anatomic defect of the maxillae
        conformer: the portion of a maxillofacial prosthesis that serves to fill a defect as a part of the prosthesis; syn, SECTION
        congenital ∖kon-jĕn΄ĭ-tl∖ adj (1796): existing at, and usually before, birth; referring to conditions that are present at birth, irrespective of their causation
        connecting bar: syn, BAR CONNECTOR; comp, MAJOR CONNECTOR
        connective tissue ∖ka-nĕk΄tĭv tĭsh΄ōō∖: a tissue of mesodermal origin rich in interlacing processes that supports or binds together other tissues
        1connector ∖ka-nĕk΄tor∖ n (15c): in removable prosthodontics, the portion of a removable partial denture that unites its components; comp, BAR CONNECTOR, CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR, MAJOR CONNECTOR, MINOR CONNECTOR
        2connector ∖ka-nĕk΄tor∖ n: in fixed prosthodontics, the portion of a fixed partial denture that unites the retainer(s) and pontic(s); comp, INTERNAL CONNECTOR, NONRIGID CONNECTOR, RIGID CONNECTOR, SUBOCCLUSAL CONNECTOR
        connector bar: syn, BAR CONNECTOR
        consultation ∖kŏn-sŭl΄tā΄shun∖ n (15c): a deliberation between those who render health care regarding patient diagnosis and/or their treatment
        1contact ∖kŏn΄tăkt∖ n (1626): the union or junction of surfaces; the apparent touching or tangency of bodies; comp, PROXIMAL CONTACT
        2contact ∖kŏn΄tăkt∖ vi (1834): to make contact; to bring into contact; to enter or be in contact with; comp, BALANCING OCCLUSAL CONTACT, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT, INITIAL OCCLUSAL CONTACT, OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        contact angle: the angle formed by a tangent to the drop of liquid and the solid surface; a measure of WETTABILITY
        contact area ∖kŏn΄tăkt âr΄ē-a∖: the region on the proximal surface of a tooth that touches an adjacent tooth; syn, INTERPROXIMAL CONTACT AREA
        contact scanner: a 3D-scanner acquisition of the surfaces of an object by mechanical contact and by using line tracings; comp, coordinate measuring machine
        continuous bar connector ∖kon-tĭn΄yōō-us bär ka-nĕk΄tor∖: a metal bar usually resting on the lingual surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth to aid in their stabilization and act as an indirect retainer in an extension-base removable partial denture
        continuous bar indirect retainer: syn, CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR
        continuous bar retainer: syn, CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR; comp, INDIRECT RETAINER
        continuous clasp ∖kon-tĭn΄yōō-us klăsp∖: 1. in removable prosthodontics, a circumferential retainer (clasp) whose body emanates from an occlusal rest and extends across the buccal or lingual surface of more than one tooth (hence, continuing on) before engaging an undercut on the proximal wall farthest from the occlusal rest; 2. any one of several early 20th-century designs for clasping natural teeth to retain a removable partial denture
        Kennedy E. Partial denture construction. Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing; 1928:377-90
        continuous loop wire clasp ∖kon-tĭn΄yōō-us lōōp wīr klăsp∖ obs: this clasp assembly was used to completely encircle a tooth, particularly “a straight sided” tooth, by means of one wire. If the retainer was not continuous, it was described as an open loop wire clasp; orig, J. Wright Beach, dentist, Toronto, Canada
        Roach FE. Partial dentures. The Dental Summary 1915:35:203-10
        continuous spectrum ∖kon-tĭn΄yōō-us spěk΄trum∖: a spectrum or section of the spectrum in which radiations of all wavelengths are present; opposed to line spectra or band spectra
        1contour ∖kŏn΄tōōr∖ n (1662): an outline, especially of a curving or irregular figure: the line representing this outline; the general form or structure of something; comp, HEIGHT OF CONTOUR, TRANSITIONAL CONTOUR
        2contour ∖kŏn΄tōōr∖ adj (1844): following contour lines or forming furrows or ridges along them; made to fit the contour of something
        3contour ∖kŏn΄tōōr∖ vt (1871): to shape the contour of; to shape so as to fit contours; to construct in conformity to a contour
        contour graft: syn, ONLAY GRAFT
        contrabevel ∖kŏn΄tra-bĕv΄el∖ n (20c): 1. an external bevel arising from the occlusal surface or edge of a tooth preparation and placed at an angle that opposes or contrasts the angle of the surface from which it arises; 2. an external bevel arising from the occlusal surface or edge of a preparation; syn, BEVEL
        contraction ∖kon-trăk΄shun∖ n (15c): in muscle physiology, the development of tension in a muscle in response to a stimulus; comp, ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION, ISOTONIC CONTRACTION, POSTURAL CONTRACTION
        contracture ∖kon-trăk΄chur∖ n (1658): a permanent shortening of a muscle; syn, MUSCLE CONTRACTURE, MYOFIBROTIC CAPSULAR CONTRACTURE, MYOSTATIC CONTRACTURE
        contralateral ∖kŏn΄tra-lăt΄er-al∖ adj (1882): occurring on or acting in conjunction with similar parts on an opposite side
        contralateral condyle: comp, NONWORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        convergence angle ∖kon-vûr΄jens ăng΄gel∖: the angle, measured in degrees as viewed in a given plane, formed by the axial walls when a tooth or machined surface on a metal or ceramic material is prepared for a fixed dental prosthesis; Editorial note for usage: the term total occlusal convergence applies to the angle formed between two opposing axial walls; the term taper applies to the angle formed between an axial wall and the path of placement onto the tooth or machined surfaces of a metal or ceramic material; syn, angle of convergence, TOTAL OCCLUSAL CONVERGENCE; comp, TAPER
        coordination ∖kō-ôr΄dn-ā΄shun∖ n (1643): smooth, controlled symmetrical movement
        1cope ∖kōp∖ n (bef.12c): the upper half of any flask used in casting; the upper or cavity side of a denture flask used in conjunction with the drag or lower half of the flask; comp, DRAG
        2cope ∖kōp∖ vb: to dress, cover, or furnish with a cope; to cover, as if with a cope or coping
        coping ∖kō΄pĭng∖ n (ca. 1909): a thin covering or crown made of metal alloy or ceramic that is luted to an abutment supporting an overdenture, fixed partial denture, or fixed complete denture; Editorial note for usage: the metal casting for a metal-ceramic crown or fixed partial denture is referred to as a FRAMEWORK; comp, COPING IMPRESSION, FRAMEWORK, TRANSFER COPING
        coping impression ∖kō΄pĭng ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: an impression, usually encompassing an entire dental arch, that uses metal or resin copings placed on prepared teeth. The copings are repositioned before the pouring of a working cast; comp, PICK-UP IMPRESSION
        coping pick-up impression: syn, COPING IMPRESSION; comp, PICK-UP IMPRESSION
        coping prosthesis obs: syn, OVERDENTURE
        copolymer resin ∖kō-pŏl΄a-mer∖: polymers formed from more than one type of molecular repeat unit
        copper band ∖kŏp΄er bănd∖: a copper cylinder used as a matrix for making an impression
        copy milling: also termed computer numeric controlled (CNC)-milling; computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) without computer-aided design (CAD) by using the direct scan of an object
        coralliform ∖kŏr΄al-ĭ΄fŏrm∖ adj: having the form of coral; branched like a coral; often with reference to certain types of hydroxylapatite implant materials
        core ∖kôr, kōr∖ n (14c): 1. the center or base of a structure, 2. the foundation restoration which restores sufficient coronal anatomy of a vital or endodontically treated tooth
        coronal ∖kôr΄a-nal, kōr΄-, ka-rō΄nal∖ adj (15c): 1. of or relating to a corona or crown; 2. relating to any longitudinal plane or section that passes through a body at right angles to the median plane; 3. pertaining to the crown of a tooth
        coronal plane ∖ka-rō-nal plān∖: lying in the direction of the coronal suture, of or relating to the frontal plane, which passes through the long axis of a body
        coronectomy: resection of the crown of a tooth while intentionally retaining the root in the alveolar bone; syn, DECORONATION
        coronoid maxillary space ∖kôr΄a-noid΄, kŏr΄- măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē spās∖: the region between the medial aspect of the coronoid process of the mandible and the buccal aspect of the tuberosity of the maxillae, bounded anteriorly by the zygomatic arch
        coronoid process ∖kôr΄a-noid΄, kŏr΄- pro-sĕs∖: the thin triangular rounded eminence originating from the anterosuperior surface of the ramus of the mandible; comp, HYPERPLASIA OF THE CORONOID PROCESS
        coronoidectomy: surgical removal of the coronoid process
        coronoplasty ∖kŏr΄a-nō-plăs΄tē∖ n (20c): syn, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING, ESTHETIC RESHAPING
        corrected cast: syn, ALTERED CAST
        corrective wax: syn, DENTAL IMPRESSION WAX
        correlated color temperature ∖kôr΄a-lā΄tid kŭl΄er tĕm΄per-a-chōōr∖: the term describing the color of white light sources; specifically, it is the temperature of the Planckion (black body) light source that produces the chromaticity; it is measured in degrees Kelvin, to which a black body must be raised to provide the closest match, in chromaticity, to a particular light source
        corrode ∖ka-rōd∖ vt (15c): 1. deterioration of a metal as a result of an electrochemical reaction within its environment; 2. to eat away by degrees as if by gnawing; 3. to wear away gradually usually by chemical action
        corrosion ∖ka-rō΄zhen∖ n (15c): the action, process, or effect of corroding; a product of corroding; the loss of elemental constituents to the adjacent environment
        corrosive ∖ka-rō΄sĭv∖ adj (14c): tending or having the power to corrode
        cortical bone ∖kôr΄tĭ-kal∖: the peripheral layer of compact osseous tissue
        Costen’s syndrome: eponym for TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS; orig, James Bray Costen, physician/otolaryngologist, U.S.A., 1895-1962
        Costen JB. A syndrome of ear and sinus symptoms dependent upon disturbed functions of the temporomandibular joint. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1934;43:1-15
        coupling ∖kŭp΄lĭng∖ n: a device that serves to link or connect the ends of adjacent parts or objects
        coupling agent: chemical agent enhancing surface covalent bonding between organic and inorganic components; related to dental ceramics and nanoparticles in composite resins; silane is commonly used in dentistry for this purpose
        coupling lug ∖kŭp΄lĭng lŭg∖: a small projecting part of a larger member; a projection or a casting to which a bolt or other part may be attached
        covalent bond ∖kō-vā΄lĕnt bŏnd∖ n (1939): a chemical bond between two atoms or radicals formed by the sharing of a pair (single bond), two pairs (double bond), or three pairs (triple bond) of electrons; syn, primary bond
        cover screw: syn, HEALING SCREW
        Craddock mounting: eponym for a technique for articulating dental casts by using Bonwill’s four-inch equilateral triangle, such that equal distances exist between the condylar elements and the mandibular incisors at the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD)
        Craddock FW, Symmons HF. Evaluation of facebow. J Prosthet Dent 1952:633
        cranial base ∖krā΄nē-al bās∖: the inferior part of the skull that is thought to be relatively stable throughout life and is used in cephalometrics as a landmark from which to measure changes as a result of growth, time, or treatment
        cranial prosthesis ∖krā΄nē-al prŏs-thē-sĭs∖: a biocompatible, permanently implanted replacement (maxillofacial prosthesis) for a portion of the skull bones; an artificial replacement for a portion of the skull bones; comp, cranial implant, cranioplasty prosthesis, skull plate
        craniofacial defects ∖krā΄nē-ō-fā΄shal dē΄fĕkts, dĭ΄fĕkts∖: malformations associated with the head and face as a result of congenital, acquired, traumatic injury.
        craniomandibular articulation ∖krā΄nē-ō-măn-dĭb΄ya-lar är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: both temporomandibular joints functioning together as a bilateral sliding hinge joint connecting the mandible to the cranium; comp, ARTHRODIAL JOINT, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTS
        crater n: in periodontics, a saucer-shaped defect of soft tissue or bone
        1craze ∖krāz∖ vb (14c): to produce minute cracks on the surface; to develop a mesh of fine cracks; crazed ∖krāzd∖; crazing ∖krā΄zĭng∖ vt
        2craze ∖krāz∖ n (1534): a crack in a surface or coating (as of glaze or enamel)
        1creep ∖krēp∖ vi (12c): to slip or gradually shift position; to change shape permanently as a result of prolonged stress or exposure to high temperature; crept ∖krĕpt∖; creeping ∖krēp΄ĭng∖
        2creep ∖krēp∖ n (1818): the slow change in dimensions of an object as a result of prolonged exposure to high temperature or stress
        crepitation ∖krĕp΄ĭ-tā΄shun∖ n: a crackling or grating noise in a joint during movement; the noise made by rubbing together the ends of a fracture
        crepitus n: syn, CREPITATION, JOINT CREPITUS
        crest ∖krĕst∖ n (14c): a ridge or prominence on a part of a body; in dentistry, the most coronal portion of the alveolar process
        crest of the ridge ∖krĕst ŭv tha rĭj∖: the most prominent continuous surface of the residual ridge; not necessarily coincident with the center of the ridge; syn, RESIDUAL RIDGE CREST; comp, RESIDUAL RIDGE
        crevicular epithelium ∖krĕ΄vĭ-kyōō΄lar ĕp΄a-thē΄lē-um∖ nonstand: syn, SULCULAR EPITHELIUM
        crevicular fluid ∖krĕ΄vĭ-cyōō΄lar flōō΄id∖: syn, GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID
        cribriform plate ∖krĭb΄ra-fôrm∖ obs: in dentistry, the alveolar bone proper
        cristobalite ∖krĭs΄tō-bă΄līt∖ n: an allotropic form of crystalline silica used in dental casting investments
        cross-arch balance: syn, CROSS-ARCH BALANCED ARTICULATION
        cross-arch balanced articulation ∖krôs, krŏs ärch băl΄ansd är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: the simultaneous contact of the buccal (excluding buccal cusp contact in LINGUALIZED OCCLUSION) and lingual cusps of the working-side maxillary denture teeth with the opposing buccal and lingual cusps of the mandibular teeth, concurrent with denture tooth contact of the nonworking-side maxillary lingual cusps with the mandibular buccal cusps in excursive movements
        cross-arch stabilization ∖krŏs, krôs ärch stā΄ba-lī΄zā-shun∖: resistance against dislodging or rotational forces obtained by using a fixed or removable partial denture design that uses natural teeth on the opposite side of the dental arch from the edentulous space to assist in stabilization
        cross bite: syn, REVERSE ARTICULATION
        cross-bite occlusion: syn, REVERSE ARTICULATION
        cross-bite teeth: syn, REVERSE ARTICULATION TEETH
        cross-mounting: the interchangable mounting on an articulator of two or more maxillary and mandibular cast relationships
        cross pinning ∖krôs, krŏs pĭn΄ing∖: the augmentation achieved in retention of a cast restoration by the placement of a pin through the axial wall of a dental casting into tooth dentin
        cross-tooth balance: comp, BALANCED ARTICULATION, CROSS-TOOTH BALANCED ARTICULATION
        cross-tooth balanced articulation ∖krôs, krŏs tōōth băl΄ansd är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: the harmonious contact of opposing working-side buccal and lingual cusps with simultaneous denture tooth contact on the nonworking-side in excursive movements
        1crown ∖kroun∖ n (12c): 1. the highest part, as the topmost part of the skull, head, or tooth; the summit; that portion of a tooth occlusal to the cementoenamel junction or an artificial substitute for this; 2. an artificial replacement that restores missing tooth structure by surrounding part or all of the remaining structure with a material such as cast metal alloy, metal-ceramics, ceramics, resin, or a combination of materials
        2crown ∖kroun∖ vt (12c): to place on the head, as to place a crown on a tooth, dental implant, or tooth substitute; Editorial note for usage: implies fabrication of a restoration for a natural tooth, dental implant, and/or dental implant abutment
        crown flask ∖kroun flăsk∖: a sectional, box-like case in which a sectional mold is made of artificial stone or plaster for the purpose of processing dentures or other resinous restorations
        crown fracture ∖kroun frăk΄chur∖: micro- or macroscopic cleavage in the coronal portion of a tooth
        crown-implant ratio: the physical relationship between the portion of the implant-supported restoration not within alveolar bone compared with the portion of the implant within alveolar bone, frequently determined by radiographic examination
        crown lengthening: a surgical procedure designed to increase the extent of supragingival tooth structure for restorative or esthetic purposes; syn, apical repositioning surgery, LENGTHENING OF CLINICAL CROWN
        crown-root ratio ∖kroun-rōōt rā΄shō, rā΄shē-ō΄∖: the physical relationship between the portion of the tooth not within the alveolar bone, as determined by a radiograph, compared with the portion of the tooth within alveolar bone
        crown slitter or splitter ∖kroun slĭt΄er∖: a mechanical device used to debond the luting agent at the axial surface of an artificial crown to facilitate its removal (GPT-4)
        crucible ∖krōō΄sa-bal∖ n (15c): a vessel or container made of any refractory material (frequently ceramics) used for melting or calcining any substance that requires a high degree of heat
        crucible former ∖krōō΄sa-bal fôr΄mer∖: the base to which a sprue former is attached while the wax pattern is being invested in refractory investment; a convex rubber, plastic, or metal base that forms a concave depression or crucible in the refractory investment
        crypt ∖krĭpt∖ n (1789): 1. a chamber wholly or partly underground; 2. in anatomy, a pit, depression, or simple tubular gland
        CT: acronym for COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY
        cuff ∖kŭf∖ n (14c): something that encircles; a band about any body
        cul-de-sac ∖kŭl-dĭ-săk∖ n (1738): a blind pouch or tubular cavity closed at one end
        cumulative dose ∖kyōōm΄ya-lā΄tĭv, -ya-la-tĭv dōs∖: the total accumulated dose resulting from a single or repeated exposure to radiation of the same region or of the whole body; if used in area monitoring, it represents the accumulated radiation exposure over a given period of time
        cure vb (14c) slang: syn, POLYMERIZE
        curve ∖kûrv∖ vb (1594): to take a turn, change, or deviation from a straight line or planar surface without angularity or sharp breaks; a non-angular deviation from a straight line or surface; curved ∖kûrvd∖ adj; curving ∖kûrv΄ing∖ vi; comp, REVERSE CURVE
        curve of Monson ∖kûrv ŭv Mŏn-son∖: eponym for a proposed ideal curve of occlusion in which each cusp and incisal edge touches or conforms to a segment of the surface of a sphere 8 inches in diameter with its center in the region of the glabella; orig, George S. Monson, dentist, Minnesota, U.S.A., 1869-1933
        Monson GS. Occlusion as applied to crown and bridgework. J Nat Dent Assoc 1920;7:399-417
        Monson GS. Some important factors which influence occlusion. J Nat Dent Assoc 1922;9:498-503
        curve of occlusion ∖kûrv ŭv a-klōō΄shun∖: the average curve established by the incisal edges and occlusal surfaces of the anterior and posterior teeth in either arch
        curve of Pleasure ∖kûrv ŭv Plĕzh΄er∖: 1. eponym for a helicoid curve of occlusion that, when viewed in the frontal plane, conforms to a mediolaterally convex curve in which the lingual surfaces of the teeth are more coronal to the buccal surfaces, except for the last molars, which reverse that pattern; 2. in excessive wear of the teeth, the obliteration of the cusps and formation of either flat or cupped-out occlusal surfaces, associated with reversal of the occlusal plane of the premolar, first and second molar teeth (the third molars being generally unaffected), whereby the occlusal surfaces of the mandibular teeth slope facially instead of lingually and those of the maxillary teeth incline lingually; orig, Max A. Pleasure, dentist, New York, U.S.A., 1903-1965; syn, ANTIMONSON CURVE, REVERSE CURVE
        Pleasure MA. Prosthetic occlusion—a problem in mechanics. J Am Dent Assoc and Dent Cosmos 1937;24:1330-38
        Pleasure MA. Practical full denture occlusion. J Am Dent Assoc and Dent Cosmos 1938;25:1606-17
        curve of Spee: eponym for ANTEROPOSTERIOR CURVE; orig, Ferdinand Graf Spee, Prosector of Anatomy, Kiel, Germany, 1855-1937
        Spee FG. Die Verschiebrangsbahn des Unterkiefers am Schadell. Arch Anat Physiol (Leipz) 1890;16:285-94
        curve of Wilson: 1. eponym for the MEDIOLATERAL CURVE; 2. in the theory that occlusion should be spherical, the curvature of the cusps as projected on the frontal plane expressed in both arches; the curve in the mandibular arch being concave and the one in the maxillary arch being convex; orig, George H. Wilson, dentist, Ohio, U.S. A., 1855-1922
        Wilson GH. A manual of dental prosthetics. Philadelphia Lea & Febiger, 1911:22-37
        curvilinear ∖kûr΄va-lĭn΄ē-er∖ adj (1710): consisting of or bounded by curved lines; represented by a curved line
        cusp n: cone-shaped protuberance on the crown of a tooth
        cusp angle ∖kŭsp ăng΄gal∖: the angle made by the average slope of a cusp with the cusp plane measured mesiodistally or buccolingually
        cusp-fossa articulation scheme: an occlusal arrangement where the maxillary and mandibular centric cusps articulate with the opposing fossae in maximal intercuspal position
        cusp height ∖kŭsp hīt∖: the perpendicular distance between the tip of a cusp and its base plane
        cusp-marginal ridge articulation scheme: an occlusal arrangement where the mandibular second premolar buccal cusp and mandibular molar mesiobuccal cusp articulate with the opposing occlusal embrasures in maximal intercuspal position
        cusp plane ∖kŭsp plān∖: the plane determined by the two buccal cusp tips and the highest lingual cusp of a molar
        cusp plane angle ∖kŭsp plān ăng΄gal∖: the incline of the cusp plane in relation to the plane of occlusion
        cuspal interference: syn, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        cuspid nonstand: comp, cuspid guidance, cuspid lift, cuspid lifted articulation, cuspid protected occlusion, cuspid rise, cuspid rise articulation; Editorial note for usage: refers to terms relating to CANINE
        cuspless teeth ∖kŭsp΄les tēth∖: teeth designed without cusp height; syn, NONANATOMIC TEETH, ZERO-DEGREE TEETH
        custom anterior guide table: used for transferring to an articulator the contacts of anterior teeth when determining their influence on border movements of the mandible. Acrylic resin is molded by using the articulator pin to record and preserve this information; comp, MECHANICAL ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE, ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE
        Hobo S. Twin-tables technique for occlusal rehabilitation. Part II- Clinical procedures. J Prosthet Dent 1991;66:471-77
        custom dental implant abutment: syn, DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT, comp, UCLA CROWN
        custom tray ∖kŭs΄tum trā∖: an individualized impression tray made from a cast recovered from a preliminary impression; it is used in making a final impression
        custom tray relief: an agent applied onto a preliminary cast in fabrication of a custom tray to aid in reduction or elimination of undesirable pressure or force from a specific region while making a definitive impression; comp, RELIEF
        custom tray spacer: an agent applied onto a preliminary cast in fabrication of a custom tray to provide space for the impression material in order to make a definitive impression; comp, CUSTOM TRAY RELIEF
        cyanoacrylate ∖sī΄a-nō-ăk΄ra-lāt∖ n (20c): a single component, moisture-activated, thermoplastic group of adhesives characterized by rapid polymerization and excellent bond strength; mildly cytotoxic and absorbs water in wet environment

        D

        Davis crown obs: eponym for a dental restoration supported by a post in the root canal over which was cemented a porcelain artificial crown in direct contact with the root face of the tooth; a later modification involved a gold casting that improved the fit between the root and artificial tooth; orig, Wallace Clyde Davis, dentist, Nebraska, U.S. A.,1866-1950
        Davis WC. Essentials of operative dentistry. 1st ed. Lincoln, NE: Author; 1911
        Davis WC. Essentials of operative dentistry. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1916
        debridement ∖dā΄brēd-mäN΄, dĭ-brēd΄ment∖ n (ca. 1842): the removal of inflamed, devitalized, contaminated tissue or foreign material from or adjacent to a lesion
        deciduous dentition: syn, PRIMARY DENTITION
        decoronation: syn, CORONECTOMY
        decortication ∖dē-kôr΄tĭ-kā΄shun∖ n (ca. 1623): 1. a process of removing the outer covering (as in enamel, bark, husks, etc.) from something; 2. surgical removal of the cortex of an organ, an enveloping membrane or fibrinous covering; decorticate ∖dē-kôr΄tĭ-kāt∖ vt; decorticator ∖dē-kôr΄tĭ-kā΄tor∖ n
        decreased occlusal vertical dimension ∖dĭ-krēsd a-klōō΄sal vûr΄tĭ-kal dĭ-mĕn΄shun∖: a reduction in the distance measured between two anatomic points when the teeth are in occlusal contact
        deep bite nonstand: excessive vertical overlap; comp, VERTICAL OVERLAP
        deep heat therapy: syn, DIATHERMY
        defective color vision ∖dĭ-fĕk΄tĭv kŭl΄er vĭzh΄un∖: the condition in which color discrimination is significantly reduced in comparison with the normal trichromat; the forms of color defective vision can be divided into three main groups: dichromatic vision, anomalous trichromatic vision, and monochromatic vision; comp, COLOR BLINDNESS, COLOR DEFICIENCY
        defective occlusal contact ∖dĭ-fĕk΄tĭv a-klōō΄sal kŏn΄tăkt΄∖ obs: syn, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        definitive cast ∖dĭ-fĭn΄ĭ-tĭv kăst∖: a replica of the tooth surfaces, residual ridge areas, and/or other parts of the dental arch and/or facial structures used to fabricate a dental restoration or prosthesis; syn, final cast, MASTER CAST
        definitive denture base: refers to the polymerized removable base that will be incorporated into the definitive prosthesis (removable complete denture, removable partial denture, obturator); it covers the oral mucosa of the maxillae and/or mandible; it can be used to record jaw relations and allow try-in of artificial teeth, which will be attached by means of a second processing; syn, COMPLETED DENTURE BASE, PROCESSED DENTURE BASE
        definitive obturator ∖dĭ-fĭn΄ĭ-tĭv ŏb΄ta-rā΄ter∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis that replaces a portion or all of one or both maxillae and associated anatomy as a result of surgery or trauma; a definitive obturator is made when tissue changes or recurrence of tumor are unlikely and a more long-term prosthetic rehabilitation can be achieved
        definitive palatal lift prosthesis: syn, PALATAL LIFT PROSTHESIS
        definitive prosthesis ∖dĭ-fĭn΄ĭ-tĭv prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: any dental or maxillofacial prosthesis designed for long-term use
        definitive speech aid prosthesis: syn, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        deflection ∖dĭ-flĕk΄shun∖ n (1605): 1. a turning aside or off course; 2. a continuing eccentric displacement of the mandibular midline incisal path symptomatic of restriction in movement
        deflective occlusal contact ∖dĭ-flĕk΄tĭv a-klōō΄sal kŏn΄tăkt∖: a contact that displaces a tooth, diverts the mandible from its intended movement or displaces a removable denture from its basal seat; comp, OCCLUSAL DISHARMONY, OCCLUSAL INTERFERENCE, OCCLUSAL PREMATURITY
        deformation ∖dē΄fôr-mā΄shun, dĕf΄-er-∖ n (15c): the change of form or shape of an object
        degas ∖dē-găs΄∖ vt (1920): 1. to remove gas from an object or substance; 2. the name commonly used to denote the first heat cycle (oxidation cycle) in fabrication of a metal ceramic restoration that removes surface impurities from the metallic component and produces surface oxides prior to the application of opaque porcelain; degassed ∖dē-găsd΄∖; degassing ∖dē-găs΄ing∖
        degenerative arthritis: syn, OSTEOARTHRITIS
        degenerative joint disease: syn, OSTEOARTHRITIS
        deglutition ∖dē΄glōō-tĭsh΄un∖ n (1650): the coordination of voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions at the initiation of digestion; the act of swallowing
        dehisce ∖dĭ-hĭs΄∖ vt (1658): to split or peel down along a natural line; to discharge the contents by so splitting; dehisced ∖dĭ-hĭsd∖; dehiscing ∖dĭ-hĭs΄sing∖
        dehiscence ∖dĭ-hĭs΄sens∖ n (ca. 1828): an act or instance of dehiscing, i.e., separation of wound margins
        delayed dentition ∖dĭ-lād΄ dĕn-tĭsh΄en∖: the eruption of the first teeth of the primary dentition or the permanent dentition considerably later than the normally expected time (after the 13th month of life for the primary dentition and after the 7th year of life for the permanent dentition in humans)
        delayed dis-occlusion nonstand: syn, DELAYED DISCLUSION
        delayed disclusion ∖dĭ-lād΄ dĭs-klōō΄shun∖: deferred separation of the posterior teeth as a result of the anterior guidance
        delivery nonstand: syn, INSERTION, PLACEMENT
        delta E (ΔE) ∖dĕl΄ta Ē∖: total color difference computed by use of a color difference equation; it is generally calculated as the square root of the sums of the squares of the chromaticity difference and the lightness difference; it signifies the difference between a specimen and standard
        demineralization ∖dē-mĭn΄er-ă-lī-zā΄shun∖ n (ca. 1903): 1. loss of minerals (as salts of calcium) from the body; 2. in dentistry, decalcification, usually related to the dental caries process
        denasality ∖dē-nā-zăl΄ĭ-tē∖ n: the quality of the voice when the nasal passages are obstructed to prevent adequate nasal resonance during speech; syn, HYPONASALITY
        denervation ∖dē-nûr-vā΄shun∖ n (1905): resection of or removal of the nerves to an organ or part
        dental ∖dĕn΄tl∖ adj (1594): of or pertaining to the teeth
        dental arch ∖dĕn΄tl arch∖: the composite structure of the natural teeth and alveolar bone
        dental articulation ∖dĕn΄tl är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: the contact relationships of maxillary and mandibular teeth as they move against each other; Editorial term for usage: this is a dynamic process
        dental biomechanics ∖dĕn΄tl bī΄ō-mĭ-kăn΄iks∖: the relationship between the biologic behavior of oral structures and the physical influence of a dental restoration; syn, dental biophysics
        dental cast ∖dĕn΄tl kăst∖: a positive life-size reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity; syn, CAST
        dental casting investment ∖dĕn΄tl kăs΄tĭng ĭn-vĕst΄ment∖: a material consisting principally of an allotrope of silica and a bonding agent; the bonding substance may be gypsum (for use in lower casting temperatures) or phosphates and silica (for use in higher casting temperatures)
        dental dysfunction ∖dĕn΄tl dĭs-fŭngk΄shun∖: abnormal functioning of dental structures; partial disturbance or functional impairment of a dental organ
        dental engineering ∖dĕn΄tl ĕn΄ja-nîr΄ing∖ obs: 1. the application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles to dentistry; 2. the application of engineering principles to dentistry (GPT-4)
        dental esthetics ∖dĕn΄tl ĕs-thĕt΄ĭks, ĭs∖: the application of the principles of esthetics to the natural or artificial teeth and restorations
        dental geriatrics ∖dĕn΄tl jĕr΄ē-ăt΄rĭks∖: 1. the branch of dental care involving problems peculiar to advanced age and aging; 2. dentistry for the aged patient; syn, geriatric dentistry, GERODONTICS, GERODONTOLOGY
        dental implant ∖dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt∖: 1. a prosthetic device made of alloplastic material(s) implanted into the oral tissues beneath the mucosal and/or periosteal layer and on or within the bone to provide retention and support for a fixed or removable dental prosthesis; a substance that is placed into and/or on the jaw bone to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis; 2. the portion of an implant that provides support for the dental implant abutment(s) through adaptation on (eposteal), within (endosteal), or through (transosteal) the bone; Editorial note for usage: although dental implants may be classified by their silhouette or geometrical form (i.e., fin, screw, cylinder, blade, basket, root form, etc.) generally dental implants are classified based on their anchorage component as it relates to the bone that provides support and stability. Thus, there are three basic types of dental implants: eposteal dental implants, endosteal dental implants, and transosteal dental implants. Some dental implants possess both eposteal and endosteal components (by design or subsequent anchorage change); the decision as to what anchorage system provides the most support at initial placement determines which category is used to best describe the dental implant; the dental implant(s) provide bony support via the dental implant attachment while the dental implant abutment(s) connect the dental implant to the fixed or removable dental prosthesis; syn, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, EPOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, TRANSOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT; comp, MUCOSAL INSERT
        dental implant abutment ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ a-bŭt΄ment∖: the supplemental component of a dental implant that is used to support and/or retain any fixed or removable dental prosthesis; Editorial note for usage: an interim dental implant abutment (syn, healing abutment, temporary abutment), used with endosteal dental implants, is changed to alter abutment design before a definitive dental prosthesis is fabricated; a definitive dental implant abutment (syn, custom abutment, prefabricated abutment, stock abutment) is used to support and/or retain the definitive prosthesis; dental implant abutments are frequently described by their form (i.e., cylindrical, with diameter and height specifications), material (i.e., ceramic, titanium, zirconia ceramic), or special design factors (i.e., internal hex lock, external hex lock, spline)
        dental implant abutment analog: a replica of the dental implant abutment platform, not intended for patient intraoral procedures
        dental implant analog: a replica of the entire dental implant, not intended for human implantation
        dental implant attachment ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ a-tăch΄ment∖: 1. the biochemical/mechanical interconnection between the dental implant and the connective tissue complex to which it is attached; 2. the biochemical/mechanical interconnection between the dental implant and the bone to which it is attached; 3. expression describing the mechanism for the retention of the dental implant abutment to the dental implant
        dental implant loading: the process of placing axial or tangential force on a dental implant usually associated with the intentional exposure of the dental implant either at the time of initial surgical placement of the dental implant or subsequent to surgical exposure; such forces may come from any of a variety of sources including intentional and/or unintentional occlusal loading, unintentional forces from the tongue or other oral tissues, food bolus, as well as alveolar/osseous deformation; generally application of intentional occlusal forces may be termed immediate loading, progressive loading, or delayed loading; comp, AXIAL LOADING
        dental implant system ∖ĭm΄plănt sĭs΄tem∖ (1993): dental implant components that are designed to connect mechanically; an implant system can represent a specific concept, inventor, or patent; it consists of the necessary parts and instruments to complete the implant placement and abutment components
        dental impression ∖dĕn΄tl ĭm-prĕsh΄en∖: a negative imprint or a positive digital image display of intraoral anatomy; used to cast or print a 3D replica of the anatomic structure that is to be used as a permanent record or in the production of a dental restoration or prosthesis; syn IMPRESSION
        dental impression wax ∖dĕn΄tl ĭm-prĕsh΄en wăks∖: any thermoplastic wax used to make impressions for dental use
        dental midline: the reference to a vertical line drawn through the tip of the incisal embrasure between the two maxillary central incisors and parallel to the vertical lines of the esthetic frame of the face; comp, FACIAL MIDLINE
        dental pellicle: a film of salivary proteins that covers enamel soon after a tooth surface is cleaned; it is a component in diffusion of enamel minerals and in the attachment of primary bacterial colonizers
        dental plaster ∖dĕn΄tl plăs΄ter∖: the beta-form of calcium sulfate hemihydrate; a fibrous aggregate of fine crystals with capillary pores that are irregular in shape and porous in character
        dental prosthesis ∖dĕn΄tl prŏs-thē΄sis∖: an artificial replacement (prosthesis) of one or more teeth (up to the entire dentition in either arch) and associated dental/alveolar structures; dental prostheses usually are subcategorized as either fixed dental prostheses or removable dental prostheses; syn, FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS, REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESIS; comp, MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESIS
        dental prosthetic laboratory procedures ∖dĕn΄tl prŏs-thĕt΄ik lăb΄ra-tôr΄ē pra-sē΄jerz∖: the steps in the fabrication of a dental prosthesis without the presence of the patient for their completion
        dental senescence ∖dĕn΄tl sĭ-nĕs΄enz∖: that condition of the teeth and associated structures in which there is deterioration as a result of aging or premature aging processes
        dental shade selection: syn, TOOTH COLOR SELECTION
        dental stone ∖dĕn΄tl stōn∖: the alpha-form of calcium sulfate hemihydrate with physical properties superior to the beta-form (dental plaster); the alpha-form, α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate, is created when the dihydrate of gypsum is heated under steam pressure resulting in the formation of dense rods or prisms, and is, therefore, more dense than the β-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (dental plaster); syn, GYPSUM
        dentate ∖dĕn΄tāt΄∖adj (1760): having teeth or pointed conical, anatomic projections of multi-layered, hard tissues; syn, DENTULOUS
        dentin ∖dĕn΄tĭn∖ n (1840): a calcareous material similar to but harder and denser than bone that comprises the principle mass of the tooth; dentinal ∖dĕn-tē΄nal∖ adj; also spelled dentine ∖dĕn΄tēn∖
        dentin porcelain obs: syn, BODY PORCELAIN; comp, GINGIVAL PORCELAIN, INCISAL PORCELAIN, SHOULDER PORCELAIN
        dentition ∖dĕn-tĭsh΄on∖ n (1615): the teeth in the dental arch
        dentofacial orthopedics ∖dĕn΄tō-fā΄shal ôr΄tha-pē΄dĭks∖: the branch of dentistry that treats abnormal jaw and tooth relationships
        dentoform ∖dĕn΄tō-fôrm∖: having the likeness of a tooth; a tooth-like substitute
        dentogenics: a concept of using gender, personality, and age as factors in denture tooth arrangement and anatomy; orig, John (Jack) Pollard Frush and Roland D. Fisher, dentists, U.S.A.; comp, SMILE DESIGN
        Frush JP, Fisher RD. How dentogenics interprets the personality factor. J Prosthet Dent 1956;6:441; “over characterization is artistically necessary because we are forced to use artificial media to create the illusion of reality”
        dentulous ∖dĕn΄cha-lus∖ adj (1926): a condition in which natural teeth are present in the mouth; syn, DENTATE
        denture ∖dĕn΄chur∖ n (1874): an artificial substitute for missing natural teeth and adjacent tissues; comp, COMPLETE DENTURE, DIAGNOSTIC DENTURE, DUPLICATE DENTURE, EXTENSION-BASE REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE, IMMEDIATE DENTURE, INTERIM DENTURE, OVERDENTURE, PARTIAL DENTURE, PROVISIONAL DENTURE, ROTATIONAL PATH REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, TRANSITIONAL DENTURE, TREATMENT DENTURE, TRIAL DENTURE
        denture adhesive ∖dĕn΄chur ăd-hē΄sĭv∖: a material used to adhere a denture to the oral mucosa
        denture basal surface: syn, INTAGLIO; comp, DENTURE BASE
        denture base ∖dĕn΄chur bās∖: the part of a denture that rests on the foundation tissues and to which teeth are attached; comp, CHARACTERIZED DENTURE BASE, DEFINITIVE DENTURE BASE, TINTED DENTURE BASE
        denture base material ∖dĕn΄chur bās mă-tîr΄ē-al∖: any substance of which a denture base may be made
        denture bearing area: syn, DENTURE FOUNDATION
        denture border ∖dĕn΄chur bôr΄der∖: 1. the margin of the denture base at the junction of the cameo surface and the intaglio surface; 2. the peripheral border of a denture base at the facial, lingual, and posterior limits
        denture characterization ∖dĕn΄chur kăr΄ak-ter-ĭ-zā΄shun∖: modification of the form and color of the denture base and teeth to produce a more lifelike appearance
        denture curing ∖dĕn΄chur kyōōr΄ing∖ nonstand: syn, DENTURE PROCESSING; comp, POLYMERIZATION
        denture design ∖dĕn΄chur dĭ-zīn∖ obs: a planned visualization of the form and extent of a dental prosthesis arrived at after study of all factors involved (GPT-4)
        denture esthetics ∖dĕn΄chur ĕs-thĕt΄ĭks∖: the effect produced by a dental prosthesis that affects the beauty and attractiveness of the person; syn, DENTOGENICS
        denture flange ∖dĕn΄chur flănj∖: the part of the denture base that extends from the cervical ends of the teeth to the denture border
        denture flask: a metal or fiberglass vessel to support the gypsum mold used in the polymerization of a denture; comp, CASTING FLASK, COPE, CROWN FLASK, DRAG
        denture foundation ∖dĕn΄chur foun-dā΄shun∖: the oral anatomy available to support a denture
        denture occlusal surface ∖dĕn΄chur a-klōō΄săl sûr΄fas∖: the portion of the surface of a denture that makes contact with its antagonist
        denture packing ∖dĕn΄chur păk΄ing∖ nonstand: the act of pressing a denture base material into a refractory mold within a flask; syn, DENTURE RESIN PACKING
        denture placement: syn, INSERTION, PLACEMENT
        denture polished surface ∖dĕn΄chur pŏl΄ĭsht∖ obs: syn, CAMEO SURFACE
        denture processing ∖dĕn΄chur pro-sĕs΄ing∖: 1. the means by which the denture base materials are polymerized to the form of a denture; 2. the conversion of the wax pattern of a denture or a portion of a denture into resin or other material
        denture prognosis ∖dĕn΄chur prŏg-nō΄sĭs∖: an opinion or judgment given in advance of treatment for the prospects for success in the fabrication of dentures and for their usefulness (GPT-4)
        denture prosthetics ∖dĕn΄chur prŏs-thĕt΄iks∖ obs : 1. the replacement of the natural teeth in the arch and their associated parts by artificial substitutes; 2. the art and science of the restoration of an edentulous mouth (GPT-4); syn, COMPLETE DENTURE PROSTHODONTICS
        denture reline: syn, RELINE; comp, TISSUE CONDITIONING
        denture resin packing ∖dĕn΄chur rĕz΄ĭn păk΄ing∖: filling and pressing a denture base material into a mold within a refractory flask
        denture retention ∖dĕn΄chur rĭ-tĕn΄shun∖: 1. the resistance in the movement of a denture away from its tissue foundation especially in a vertical direction; 2. a quality of a denture that holds it to the tissue foundation and/or abutment teeth; comp, DENTURE STABILITY
        denture service ∖dĕn΄chur sûr΄vĭs∖: the procedures that are involved in the diagnosis and subsequent fabrication and maintenance of artificial substitutes for missing natural teeth and associated structures
        denture space ∖dĕn΄chur spās∖: 1. the portion of the oral cavity that is or may be occupied by the maxillary and/or mandibular denture(s); 2. the space between and around the residual ridges that is available for dentures; 3. the area occupied by dentures where formerly the teeth, alveolar bone, and surrounding soft and hard tissues were located
        denture stability ∖dĕn΄chur sta-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖: 1. the resistance of a denture to movement on its tissue foundation, especially to lateral (horizontal) forces as opposed to vertical displacement (termed denture retention); 2. a quality of a denture that permits it to maintain a state of equilibrium in relation to its tissue foundation and/or abutment teeth; comp, DENTURE RETENTION
        denture supporting area: syn, DENTURE FOUNDATION AREA
        denture supporting structures ∖dĕn΄chur sa-pôr΄tĭng strŭk΄churz∖ obs: the tissues (teeth and/or residual ridges) that serve as the foundation for removable partial or complete dentures (GPT-4)
        denture surfaces: syn, DENTURE POLISHED SURFACE, POLISHED DENTURE SURFACE; comp, CAMEO SURFACE, INTAGLIO SURFACE
        denture tooth: a term commonly referring to an artificial tooth used in the fabrication of a resin base prosthesis
        denturism ∖dĕn΄chur-izum∖ n: the fabrication and delivery of removable dentures by non-dentists
        denturist ∖dĕn΄chur-ist∖ n (1965): anyone without an accredited dental school degree who makes, fits, and repairs removable dentures directly for the public
        depassivation ∖dē-păs΄sĭ-vā΄shun∖ n: loss of corrosion protection as a result of damage or removal of the protective oxide surface film on a passivated metal
        deprogrammer ∖dē-prō΄grăm΄er∖ n: various types of devices or materials used to alter the proprioceptive mechanism during mandibular closure
        determinants of mandibular movement ∖dĭ-tûr΄ma-nent∖: those anatomic structures that dictate or limit the movements of the mandible; the anterior determinant of mandibular movement is the dental articulation; the posterior determinants of mandibular movement are the temporomandibular articulations and their associated structures
        detrusion ∖dē-trōō΄shun∖ n: downward movement of the mandibular condyle
        deuteranomalous vision ∖dōō΄ter-a-nŏm΄a-lus, dyōō΄-ter-a-nŏm΄a-lus vĭzh΄on∖: a form of anomalous trichromatism in which the viewer requires more green in a mixture of red and green to match spectral yellow than does a normal trichromat; the relative spectral visual sensitivity does not differ noticeably from normal; hue discrimination is poor in the red to green region of the spectrum
        deuteranopia ∖dōō΄ter-a-nō΄pē-a, dyōō΄-∖ n (ca. 1901): green color blindness
        developmental anomaly ∖dĭ-vĕl΄op-mĕn΄tl a-nŏm΄a-lē∖: unusual sequelae of development; a deviation from normal shape or size
        developmental dysmorphia ∖dĭ-vĕl΄op-mĕn΄tl dĭs΄môr΄fē-a∖: anomaly of growth seemingly related to extrinsic interference from contiguous or adjacent structures
        developmental dysplasia ∖dĭ-vĕl΄op-mĕn΄tl dĭs-plā΄zha,-sē-a∖: any abnormality of growth or disharmony between parts as a result of growth
        developmental hyperplasia ∖dĭ-vĕl΄op-mĕn΄tl hī΄per-plā΄zha∖: excessive growth development
        developmental hypoplasia ∖dĭ-vĕl΄op-mĕn΄tl hī΄pō-plā΄zha∖: diminution in growth development
        devest ∖dĭ-vĕst∖ vb: the retrieval of a casting or prosthesis from an investing medium
        deviation ∖dē΄vē-ā΄shun∖ n (15c): with respect to movement of the mandible, a lateral path of movement that ends in the centered position
        device ∖dĭ-vīs∖ n: something developed by the application of ideas or principles that are designed to serve a special purpose or perform a special function; most devices are intended for short term or special use; comp, CARRIER, CONFORMER, GUIDE, SPLINT, STENT
        devitrification ∖dē-vĭt΄ra-fĭ-kā΄shun∖ n (1832): to eliminate vitreous characteristics partly or wholly; to crystallize
        diagnosis ∖dī΄ag-nō΄sis∖ n (ca. 1861): the determination of the nature of a disease; diagnoses ∖dī΄ag-nō΄sez∖ pl
        1diagnostic ∖dī΄ag-nŏs΄tik∖ n (1625): the practice of diagnosis
        2diagnostic ∖dī΄ag-nŏs΄tik∖ adj (1625): relating to or used in diagnosis
        diagnostic cast ∖dī΄ag-nŏs΄tik kăst∖: a life-size reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity and/or facial structures for the purpose of study and treatment planning
        diagnostic denture ∖dī΄ag-nŏs΄tik dĕn΄chur∖: an interim removable dental prosthesis placed for the purpose of evaluation and planning later therapy
        diagnostic denture wax-up: syn, TOOTH ARRANGEMENT, TRIAL DENTURE, WAX TRY-IN, WAXING, WAX TRIAL DENTURE
        diagnostic index: syn, PROSTHODONTIC DIAGNOSTIC INDEX
        diagnostic mounting: syn, MOUNTING
        diagnostic occlusal adjustment: an evaluation of the process and implications of subtractive tooth preparation on articulator-mounted casts for the determination of the benefits and consequences of an occlusal adjustment
        diagnostic prosthesis: a removable complete or partial denture, overdenture, or occlusal device, usually made of acrylic resin that may include an overlay of the occlusal surfaces designed to evaluate a patient’s response to extensive restorative intervention; syn, DIAGNOSTIC DENTURE, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        diagnostic radiation ∖dī΄ag-nŏs΄tik rā΄dē-ā΄shun∖: the use of radiographs for the determination of the nature of a disease
        diagnostic setups slang: syn, TOOTH ARRANGEMENT
        diagnostic splint: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        diagnostic study cast: syn, DIAGNOSTIC CAST, PRELIMINARY CAST, PREOPERATIVE CAST
        diagnostic tooth preparation: preparations on dental casts performed to evaluate and optimize definitive tooth preparations
        diagnostic waxing: a waxing of intended restorative contours on dental casts for the purpose of evaluation and planning restorations; a wax replica of a proposed treatment plan; syn, WAX-UP; comp, TRIAL DENTURE
        diarthrodial joint ∖dī΄är-thrō-dē-al∖: a freely moving joint
        diarthrosis ∖dī΄är-thrō΄sĭs∖ n (1578): a specialized articulation permitting more or less free movement; a synovial joint
        diastema ∖dī΄a-stē΄ma∖ n (1854): a space between two adjacent teeth in the same dental arch; -mata ∖-ma-ta∖ pl
        diathermy ∖dī΄a-thûr΄mē∖ n (1909): tissue resistance-generated heat resulting from high-frequency electric current
        diatoric ∖dī΄a-tôr΄ik∖ adj: a channel placed in the ridge lap surface of denture teeth to serve as a mechanical means of retaining the teeth in a chemically dissimilar denture base material
        dichromatic vision ∖dī΄krō-măt΄ĭk vĭzh΄en∖: defective color vision characterized by the absence of one of three cone pigments
        dichromatism ∖dī-krō΄ma-tĭz΄um∖ n (1884): a form of defective color vision in which the spectrum is seen as comprising only two regions of different hues separated by an achromatic band; a color blindness with the perception of only two out of the three primary colors; it can be subdivided into three types: protanopia, deuteranopia, and tritanopia
        DICOM: acronym for DIGITAL IMAGING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN MEDICINE
        die ∖dī∖ n (14c): the positive reproduction of the form of a prepared tooth in any suitable substance
        die relief: an agent applied to a die to provide space for the luting agent in the finished casting; syn, DIE SPACER
        die spacer ∖dī spās΄er∖: syn, DIE RELIEF
        differential diagnosis ∖dĭf΄a-rĕn΄shal dī΄ag-nō΄sĭs∖: the process of identifying a condition by comparing the signs and symptoms of all pathologic processes that may produce similar signs and symptoms
        differential treatment planning: the process of evaluating dentist-based and patient-based considerations in determining the most appropriate treatment from the field of alternatives, given the risk–benefit estimation for the patient
        digital denture nonstand: commonly refers to a removable complete denture created with automation by using CAD, CAM, and CAE in lieu of conventional processes; a removable partial denture may also be digitally fabricated; Editorial note for usage: a denture is not a digital device; syn, DIGITALLY FABRICATED DENTURE, comp, PROSTHESIS, REMOVABLE COMPLETE DENTURE, REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE
        digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM): a standard for storage and distribution of medical images. It includes a compressible file format definition for communication of images over networks; DICOM enables the archiving system
        digital impression slang: Editorial note for usage: a digital impression is not a negative likeness or copy in reverse of the surface of an object; syn, DIGITAL SCAN
        digital scan: 1. capturing the computer numerical format of raster images (bitmap) of a geometric object that can be viewed on a monitor screen (two-dimensional [2D]) or hologram (3D); 2. in dentistry, capturing the optical image directly of the patient’s anatomy or indirectly of a definitive cast of the anatomy
        digitally fabricated denture: a removable complete or partial denture created with automation by using CAD, CAM, and CAE in lieu of conventional processes; comp, PROSTHESIS, REMOVABLE COMPLETE DENTURE, REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE
        dilaceration ∖dĭl-ăs΄a-rā΄shun∖: 1. a tearing apart; 2. in dentistry, a condition resulting from injury to a tooth during its development and characterized by a band or crease at the junction of the crown and root, or alternatively, by tortuous roots with abnormal curvatures
        dimensional stability ∖dĭ-mĕn΄shun-l sta-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖: the ability of a material to retain its size and form
        dimensions of color ∖dĭ-mĕn΄shunz ŭv kŭl΄er∖: terms used to describe the three dimensional nature of color; in the Munsell color order system, the dimensions are named hue, value, and chroma, which are used to describe the color family (hue), the lightness/darkness (value), and the saturation (chroma)
        direct bone impression ∖dĭ-rĕkt, dī- bōn ĭm-prĕsh΄on∖: a negative likeness of bone from which overlying tissues have been reflected
        direct lift technique: a means of fabricating porcelain labial margins whereby porcelain is condensed directly onto the die; comp, PORCELAIN WAX TECHNIQUE
        direct metal laser sintering: acronym is DMLS; an additive CAM technique which uses a sintering of metal alloy powder to develop 3D objects; comp, SELECTIVE LASER MELTING, SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
        direct pulp capping ∖dĭ-rĕkt, dī- pŭlp kăp΄ing∖: application of a material to exposed vital pulpal tissue to protect it and promote healing
        direct retainer ∖dĭ-rĕkt, dī- rĭ-tā΄ner∖: that component of a removable partial denture used to retain and prevent dislodgment, consisting of a clasp assembly or precision attachment
        direct retention ∖dĭ-rĕkt, dī- rĭ-tĕn΄shun∖: retention obtained in a removable partial denture by the use of clasps or attachments that resist removal from the abutment teeth
        disarticulation ∖dĭs΄är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖ n: separation of joint parts
        disc ∖dĭsk∖ n (1664): with respect to the temporomandibular joint, the avascular intra-articular tissue
        disc-condyle complex ∖dĭsk-kŏn΄dīl, -dl kŏm΄plĕks΄∖: the condyle and its disc articulation that functions as a simple hinge joint
        disc degeneration ∖dĭsk dĭ-jĕn΄a-rā΄shun∖: degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint articular disc
        disc derangement ∖dĭsk dĭ-rănj΄ment∖: syn, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DERANGEMENT
        disc detachment: a peripheral separation of the disc from its capsular, ligamentous, or osseous attachments
        disc dislocation: syn, DISC DERANGEMENT
        disc displacement: syn, DISC DERANGEMENT
        disc displacement with reduction ∖dĭsk dĭs-plās΄ment wĭth rĭ-dŭk΄shun∖: disc displacement in which the temporomandibular joint disc is displaced at rest (usually in an anterior-medial direction) but resumes a normal position on mandibular movement, usually accompanied by a clicking sound
        disc displacement without reduction ∖dĭsk dĭs-plās΄ment wĭth-out rĭ-dŭk΄shun∖: disc displacement in which the temporomandibular joint disc is displaced at rest and does not resume a normal position on mandibular movement ; syn, CLOSED LOCK
        disc interference ∖dĭsk ĭn΄ter-fîr΄ens∖: interference with mandibular movement because of disc-related pathosis and/or dysfunction
        disc locking ∖dĭsk lŏk΄ing∖: disc derangement that will not reduce or restore to its normal place or relationship
        disc perforation ∖dĭsk pûr΄fa-rā΄shun∖: a circumscribed tear in the articular disc, generally as the result of degenerative thinning in the central portion, usually with long-standing increased compressive forces, permitting communication between the superior and inferior joint spaces; there is no disruption at the peripheral attachments to the capsule, ligaments, or bone
        disc prolapse ∖dĭsk prō-lăps∖: rotation of the disc forward on the condyle
        disc space ∖dĭsk spās∖: the radiolucent area on a temporomandibular joint radiograph between the mandibular condyle and the articular fossa
        disc thinning ∖dĭsk thĭn΄ing∖: degenerative decrease in disc thickness, usually as the result of long-standing increased compressive forces
        discal ligaments: relative to the temporomandibular joint, there are two discal ligaments, medial and lateral, which attach the articular disc to the medial and lateral poles of the condyle of the mandible; these ligaments have also been termed polar ligaments; syn, COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS
        discectomy n: excision of the intra-articular disc
        disclude ∖dĭs΄ klōōd∖ vb: to separate the opposing teeth during eccentric movements of the mandible
        disclusion ∖dĭs΄ klōō΄zhen∖ n: the separation of opposing teeth during eccentric movements of the mandible; syn, DISOCCLUSION
        disjunctor ∖dĭs-jŭngk΄tor∖ n: any component of a prosthesis that serves to allow movement between two or more parts
        dislocated fracture ∖dĭs΄lō-kā΄tĭd frăk΄chur∖: a fracture of a bone near an articulation, with displacement of the condyloid process out of the articular fossa
        dislocation ∖dĭs΄lō-kā΄shun∖ n (15c): the state or act of being dislocated, as displacement of one or more bones at a joint; comp, CONDYLAR DISLOCATION, FUNCTIONAL DISLOCATION, MANDIBULAR DISLOCATION, PARTIAL DISLOCATION
        disocclude ∖dĭs΄a-klōōd∖ vb: syn, DISCLUDE
        disocclusion ∖dĭs΄a-klōō΄zhen∖ n, nonstand: comp, DELAYED DISOCCLUSION, DISCLUSION, IMMEDIATE DISOCCLUSION
        displacement of the mandible ∖dĭs-plās΄ment ŭv tha măn΄da-bl∖: any abnormal relationship of the mandible when at rest
        distal ∖dĭs΄tal∖ adj (1808): remote; farther from the point of reference; away from the median sagittal plane of the face following the curvature of the dental arch
        distal-extension partial denture: syn, EXTENSION-BASE REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE
        disto-occlusion: comp, ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION OF OCCLUSION
        distoversion ∖dĭs΄tō-vûr΄zhun∖ n: a deviation toward the distal
        distraction of the condyle ∖dĭ-străk΄shun ŭv tha kŏn΄dīl, -dl∖: displacement of the condyle in an inferior direction
        distraction osteogenesis: a procedure whereby a segment of the jaw is sectioned by osteotomy and gradually displaced by a controlled movement to increase the height of an edentulous ridge
        distributed mandibular lateral translation: syn, PROGRESSIVE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        disuse atrophy ∖dĭs-yōōs΄ ăt΄ra-fē∖: diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part as a result of inactivity
        divergence ∖dĭ-vûr΄jens, dī-∖ n (1656): 1. a drawing apart as a surface extends away from a common point; 2. the reverse taper of walls of a preparation for a restoration
        divergence angle ∖dĭ-vûr΄jens ăng΄gl∖ (1998): the sum of the angles of taper of opposing walls of a tooth preparation that diverge away from each other
        docking device: syn, RADIATION CONE LOCATOR
        Dolder bar: eponym for one of many bar attachments that splint teeth or dental implants together while acting as an abutment for removable partial and complete dentures; the bar is straight with a round top; the sleeve or clip that fits over the bar gains retention by friction only; the bar may be of variable size and is pear-shaped in cross section, as is its accompanying sleeve; this clip allows for some measure of rotational movement about the bar and, therefore, is a resilient anchor attachment; orig, Eugene J. Dolder, prosthodontist, Switzerland
        Dolder EJ. The bar joint mandibular denture. J Prosthet Dent 1961;11:689-707
        donor site ∖dō΄ner sīt∖: an area of the body from which a graft is taken
        dopant: contr of doping agent; an element incorporated into a dental material to alter its mechanical properties; e.g., yttria incorporated in a small amount into zirconia, resulting in stabilization
        double lip: hyperplasia of the mucosa of the upper lip producing a fold of tissue that gives the appearance of duplication of the lip
        double wire clasp ∖dŭb΄al wīr klăsp∖ obs: a back-to-back wire circumferential clasp
        dovetail ∖dŭv΄tāl΄∖ n (1565): a widened portion of a prepared cavity used to increase retention and/or resistance
        dowel ∖dou΄al∖ n, obs, nonstand (13c): syn, POST
        dowel core crown n, obs, nonstand: syn, RICHMOND CROWN
        dowel crown n, obs, nonstand: syn, DAVIS CROWN, RICHMOND CROWN
        dowel pin ∖dou΄al pĭn∖: a metal pin used in stone casts to remove die sections and replace them accurately in the original position
        drag ∖drăg∖ n: the lower or cast side of a refractory flask to which the cope is fitted
        draw ∖drô∖ vt, slang (bef. 12c): the taper or convergence of walls of a preparation for a restoration; syn, path of draw, PATH OF INSERTION, PATH OF WITHDRAWAL, PATH OF PLACEMENT, TOTAL OCCLUSAL CONVERGENCE
        dross ∖drŏs, drôs∖ n: 1. the solid scum formed on the surface of a metal when molten or melted, often formed from oxides of various metals but sometimes arising from impurities and waste materials; 2. waste matter; refuse
        ductility ∖dŭk-tĭl΄ĭ-tē∖ n (14c): the ability of a material to withstand permanent deformation under a tensile load without rupture; ability of a material to be plastically strained in tension; a material is brittle if it does not have appreciable plastic deformation in tension before rupture
        duplicate denture ∖dōō΄plĭ-kĭt dĕn΄chur∖: a second denture intended to be a replica of the first
        durometer ∖dōō΄rŏm-ĭ-ter∖ n: an instrument for measuring hardness of elastic materials (i.e., polymers, biological tissues); measured by scales A (softer) to D (harder) with each scale value of 0 (softest) to 100 (hardest); ASTM D2240; syn, Shore Hardness Scale orig, Albert F. Shore, inventor, U.S.A., 1908
        dwt: abbr [denarius + weight] pennyweight; a measurement of weight in the troy system equal to 24 grains, or 0.05 ounce; its metric equivalent is 1.555 grams
        dye ∖dī∖ n: a colorant that does not scatter light but absorbs certain wavelengths and transmits others
        dynamic bite opener slang: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        dynamic relations ∖dī-năm΄ĭk rĭ-lā΄shunz∖ obs: relations of two objects involving the element of relative movement of one object to another, as the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae (GPT-4)
        dynamic splint: syn, INTERARCH EXPANSION DEVICE, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        dysesthesia ∖dĭs-ĕs-thē΄zha, -zhē-a, ĭs-∖ n: an unpleasant abnormal sensation
        dysfunction ∖dĭs-fŭngk΄shun∖ n (ca. 1916): the presence of functional disharmony between the morphologic form (teeth, occlusion, bones, joints) and function (muscles, nerves) that may result in pathologic changes in the tissues or produce a functional disturbance
        dysgeusia ∖dĭs-gyōō΄zha, -zhē-a∖ n: any disturbance in the sense of taste
        dyskinesia ∖dĭs-kĭn΄ĭs-zha, -ahē-a∖ n (ca. 1706): impairment of the power of voluntary movement resulting in fragmentary or incomplete movement; comp, INCOORDINATION
        dyslalia ∖dĭs-lă΄lē-a∖ n: defective articulation as a result of faulty learning or abnormality of the external speech organs and not because of lesions of the central nervous system
        dysmasesis ∖dĭs-măs΄ĭ-sĭs∖ n: difficulty in mastication
        dysostosis ∖dĭs-ŏs΄ta-sĭs∖ n: imperfect ossification
        dysphagia ∖dĭs-plā΄zha∖ n: dysfunction in swallowing
        dysphonia ∖dĭs-fō΄nē-a∖ n (ca. 1706): impairment in the voice; difficulty in creating sound and phonation with the vocal cords
        dysplasia ∖dĭs-plā΄zha∖ n (ca. 1923): abnormality of development; comp, MANDIBULAR DYSPLASIA, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR DYSPLASIA
        dystonia ∖dĭs-tōn΄ya∖ n: acute irregular tonic muscular spasms, often with contortions of the tongue, jaw, eyes, neck, and sometimes the entire body

        E

        earbow ∖îr-bō∖ n (20c): a type of facebow that indexes to the external auditory meatus and registers the relation of the maxillary dental arch to the external auditory meatus and a horizontal reference plane; this instrument is used to transfer the maxillary cast to the articulator; it provides an average anatomic dimension between the external auditory meatus and the horizontal axis of the mandible; syn, FACEBOW
        early closing click ∖ûr΄lē klōs΄ing klĭk∖: a click emanating from the temporomandibular joint that occurs at the initiation of retrusive translation
        early mandibular lateral translation ∖ûr΄lē măn-dĭb΄ya-lar∖: the translatory portion of lateral movement in which the greatest portion occurs early in the forward movement of the nonworking-side condyle as it leaves centric relation; comp, IMMEDIATE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION, PROGRESSIVE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        early opening click ∖ûr΄lē ō΄pen-ing klĭk∖: a temporomandibular joint click that occurs at initiation of the translation of the condyle(s)
        EBA cement: acronym for ethoxybenzoic acid cement; reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement with part of the eugenol replaced by 2-ethoxybenzoic acid
        eccentric ∖ĭk-sĕn΄trĭk∖ adj (14c): 1. not having the same center; 2. deviating from a circular path; 3. located elsewhere than at the geometric center; 4. any position of the mandible other than that which is its normal position
        eccentric checkbite nonstand: syn, ECCENTRIC INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        eccentric interocclusal record ∖ĭk-sĕn΄trĭk ĭn΄ter-a-klōō΄sal rĕk΄erd∖: a registration of any maxillomandibular position other than centric relation
        eccentric jaw record: syn, ECCENTRIC INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        eccentric jaw relation ∖ĭk-sĕn΄trĭk jô rĭ-lā΄shun∖ obs: any relationship of the mandible to the maxillae other than centric relation (GPT-4)
        eccentric occlusion ∖ĭk-sĕn΄trĭk a-klōō΄shun∖: an occlusion other than maximal intercuspal position
        eccentric position: syn, ECCENTRIC RELATION
        eccentric record: syn, ECCENTRIC INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        eccentric relation ∖ĭk-sĕn΄trik rĭ-lā΄shun∖ n: any relationship of the mandible to the maxillae other than centric relation; comp, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        ectopic ∖ĕk-tŏp΄ĭk∖ adj (1873): occurring in an abnormal position or in an unusual manner or form; ectopically ∖ĕk-tŏ΄pĭk-lē∖ adv
        ectopic eruption ∖ĕk-tŏp΄ik ĭ-rŭp΄shun∖: eruption of a tooth out of its normal place or position
        edema ∖ĭ-dē΄ma∖ n (15c): abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues
        edentulate ∖ē-dĕn΄cha-lāt∖ vb: to remove all teeth
        edentulism ∖ē-dĕn΄cha-lĭz-um∖ (1998): the state of being edentulous; without natural teeth
        edentulous ∖ē-dĕn΄cha-lus∖ adj (1782): without teeth, lacking teeth
        edge-to-edge articulation ∖ĕj tōō ĕj är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: articulation in which the opposing anterior teeth meet along their incisal edges when the teeth are in maximal intercuspal position
        edge-to-edge bite nonstand: syn, EDGE-TO-EDGE ARTICULATION
        edge-to-edge occlusion: syn, EDGE-TO-EDGE ARTICULATION
        educationally qualified prosthodontist ∖ĕj΄a-kā΄shun-a-lē kwŏl΄a-fīd prŏs΄tha-dŏn΄tĭs∖: in the United States as defined by the American Board of Prosthodontics, a prosthodontist who has successfully completed an advanced educational program accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation and is eligible to apply for examination by the American Board of Prosthodontics
        elastic ∖ĭ-lăs΄tĭk∖ adj (1653): susceptible to being stretched, compressed, or distorted and then tending to resume the original shape
        elastic limit ∖ĭ-lăs΄tĭk lĭm΄it∖: the greatest stress to which a material may be subjected and still be capable of returning to its original dimensions when such forces are released
        elastic modulus ∖ĭ-lăs΄tĭk mŏj΄a-lus∖: the stiffness or flexibility of a material within the elastic range; within the elastic range, the material deforms in direct proportion to the force applied as represented by Hooke’s law
        elasticity ∖ĭ-lă-stĭs΄ĭ-tē∖ n (1664): the quality that allows a structure or material to return to its original form on removal of an external force; comp, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
        elastomer ∖ĭ-lăs΄ta-mer∖ n (ca. 1934): a polymer that has a glass transition temperature that is below its service temperature (usually room temperature); these materials are characterized by low stiffness and extremely large elastic strains; elastomeric adj
        elastomeric impression material: a group of flexible chemical polymers that are either chemically or physically cross-linked; generally, they can be easily stretched and rapidly recover their original dimensions when applied stresses are released
        electrical discharge machining ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trĭ-kal dĭs-chärj ma-shēn΄ing∖: 1. the process by which metal(s) is (are) altered in form by using electrical current through conductive objects brought into physical contact with the metal surface; 2. a precision metal removal process using an accurately controlled electrical discharge (a spark) to erode metal, usually performed in a liquid dielectric medium; syn, SPARK EROSION
        electrode ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trōd∖ n (1834): 1. a medium used between an electric conductor and the object to which it is to be applied; 2. an x-ray tube component from which electrons emanate or to which they are attracted; the positive electrode is the anode; the negative electrode is the cathode
        electromagnetic spectrum ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trō-măg-nĕt΄ĭk spĕk΄trŭm∖: the range of energy waves that extend from gamma rays to radio waves; the eye is sensitive to a very narrow band of wavelengths between about 380 and 760 nm
        electromagnetic wave ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trō-măg-nĕt΄ĭk wāv∖: a disturbance that propagates outward from any electric charge that oscillates or is accelerated; far from the charge, it consists of vibrating electric and magnetic fields that move at the speed of light and are at right angles to each other and to the direction of motion
        electromyographic biofeedback ∖ĭ-lĕk-trō-mī-ō΄gra-fĭk bī΄ō-fēd΄băk∖: an instrumental process that helps patients learn control over muscle tension levels previously under automatic control
        electromyography ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trō-mī-ŏg΄ra-fē∖ n (1948): the graphic recording of the electrical potential of muscle; comp, NOCTURNAL ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
        electron ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trŏn∖ n (1891): the elemental unit of electricity; a stable elementary particle that is the negatively charged constituent of ordinary matter, having a mass of approximately 9.11 × 10-28 g (equivalent to 0.511 MeV) and a charge of approximately –1.602 × 10-19 Coulomb; comp, negative electron, negatron
        electron accelerator ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trŏn ăk-sĕl΄a-rā΄ter∖: a device used in radiation treatment that accelerates electrons to high energies
        electron beam therapy ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trǒn bēm thĕr΄a-pē∖: treatment by electrons accelerated to high energies by a machine such as the betatron
        electron volt ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trŏn vōlt∖: abbr, eV; a unit of energy equal to the energy acquired by an electron when it passes through a potential difference of 1 volt in a vacuum; it is equal to (1.602192 + 0.000007) × 10-19 volt
        electroplating ∖ĭ-lĕk΄tro-plā΄tĭng∖ vt (ca. 1864): the process of covering the surface of an object with a thin coating of metal by means of electrolysis
        electropolishing ∖ĭ-lĕk΄trō-pŏl΄ĭsh-ĭng∖ vt: the electrolytic removal of a thin layer of metal to produce a bright surface
        elements ∖ĕl΄a-ment∖ n (1993): when used in reference to dental implants, component parts of a dental implant structure, such as the dental implant, dental implant abutment, and abutment screw
        elevator muscle ∖ĕl΄a-vā΄ter mŭs΄el∖: one of the muscles that, on contracting, elevates or closes the mandible
        elongation ∖ĭ-lông΄gā΄shun∖ n (14c): 1. deformation as a result of tensile force application; 2. the degree to which a material will stretch before breaking; 3. the overeruption of a tooth
        embedment ∖ĕm-bĕd-ment∖ n (1794): 1. the process of using a ceramic powder mixed with water to surround a glass-ceramic casting; the purpose of the procedure is to prevent distortion and limit the shrinkage of the casting; 2. with reference to the physics of threaded unions, localized plastic deformation that occurs in screw threads or the mated components when applying preload; comp, EMBEDMENT RELAXATION; INVEST
        embedment relaxation: the settling effect on a screw connection as microscopic rough spots on the threads begin to flatten causing a reduction in the preload
        embouchure ∖äm΄bōō-shōōr∖ n (1760): the position and use of the lips, tongue, and teeth in playing a wind instrument
        embrasure ∖ĕm-brā΄zher∖ n (1702): 1. the space formed when adjacent surfaces flair away from one another; 2. in dentistry, the space defined by surfaces of two adjacent teeth; there are four embrasure spaces associated with each proximal contact area: occlusal or incisal, mesial, distal, and gingival
        emergence angle ∖ĭ-mûr΄jens ăng΄gel∖ (1993): the angle between the average tangent of the transitional contour relative to the long axis of a tooth, dental implant, or dental implant abutment; comp, EMERGENCE PROFILE
        emergence profile ∖ĭ-mûr΄jens prō΄fīl∖: the contour of a tooth or restoration, such as the crown on a natural tooth, dental implant, or dental implant abutment, as it relates to the emergence from circumscribed soft tissues; syn, translational contour; comp, PINK SCORE
        EMG: acronym for ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
        eminence ∖ĕm΄i-nens∖ n (15c): an anatomic prominence or projection, especially one on the surface of a bone; comp, CANINE EMINENCE, ARTICULAR EMINENCE
        empty mouth movement ∖ĕmp΄tē mouth mōōv΄ment∖: voluntary or reflex movements of the mandible when not engaged in incision or mastication
        enamel ∖ĭ-năm΄el∖ n (15c): in dentistry, the hard, thin, translucent layer of calcified substance that envelopes and protects the dentin of the coronal aspect of the tooth; it is the hardest substance in the body; syn, adamantine layer
        enamel projection ∖ĭ-năm΄el pro-jĕk΄shun∖: an apical extension of enamel, usually toward a furcation in the roots.
        enameloplasty n: syn OCCLUSAL RESHAPING, ESTHETIC RESHAPING
        enarthrosis ∖ĕn΄är-thrō΄sĭs∖ n (1634): joints characterized with a ball and socket anatomy (e.g., hip)
        endodontic-endosteal dental implant ∖ĕn΄dō-dŏn΄tĭks ĕn-dŏs΄tē-l dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt΄∖ obs: a smooth and/or threaded pin implant that extends through the root canal of a tooth into periapical bone and is used to stabilize a mobile tooth; syn, endodontic stabilizer
        endodontic implants obs: syn, ENDODONTIC-ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        endodontic pin ∖ĕn΄dō-dŏn΄tĭk pĭn∖ obs: syn, ENDODONTIC-ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        endodontic stabilizer obs: syn, ENDODONTIC-ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        endogenous ∖ĕn-dŏj΄a-nus∖ adj (1830): developing or originating within the organism
        endoscope ∖ĕn΄da-skōp∖ n (1861): a flexible or rigid thin tube used for examining the interior of a structure
        endosseous blade implant: syn, BLADE ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        endosseous implant: syn, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        endosteal dental implant ∖ĕn-dŏs΄tē-l dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt΄∖: a device placed into the alveolar and/or basal bone of the mandible or maxillae and transecting only one cortical plate; the endosteal dental implant is composed of an anchorage component, termed the endosteal dental implant, which, ideally, is within the bone, and a retentive component, termed the endosteal dental implant abutment; the dental implant abutment connects to the dental implant (by means of screws, thread/screw interfacing, compression/luting agent, etc., which can be termed elements), passes through the oral mucosa, and serves to support and/or retain the prosthesis (fixed prosthesis, removable prosthesis, maxillofacial prosthesis); descriptions of the dental implant and/or the dental implant abutment that use silhouette or geometric forms, such as cylinder, conical, pre-angled, angled, blade, basket, or endodontic, may be used as adjectives to enhance understanding of the geometry of any endosteal dental implant; descriptive adjectives may be used to delineate the materials from which they are made, such as, a ceramic dental implant abutment. Interim or definitive dental implant abutments may be composed of one or more individual component parts, each of which is termed an element; the dental implant abutment element(s) usually is (are) described by means of their geometric form, function or means of adaptation, such as, screw, coping, cylinder, lug, friction fitting, press-fit; hence, multiple adjectives may be used to describe both the endosteal dental implant and abutment; comp, BASKET ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, BLADE ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, DENTAL IMPLANT, ENDODONTIC ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, EPOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, SCREW ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, TRANSOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        endosteal dental implant abutment ∖ĕn-dŏs΄tē-l dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt΄ a-bŭt΄ment∖ (1998): that element of the dental implant that passes through the oral mucosa and provides connection between the endosteal dental implant body and the prosthesis; the dental implant abutment may be for interim or definitive application; comp, interim abutment, definitive abutment
        endosteal dental implant abutment element(s) ∖ĕn-dŏs΄tē-l dĕn-tl ĭm-plănt a-bŭt΄ment ĕl΄a-ment∖ (1998): any component used to secure either the dental implant abutment to the dental implant or the prosthesis to the dental implant abutment; comp, ELEMENTS
        engram: synaptic maps in the motor cortex for skilled, somatic movement patterns; orig, John Hughlings Jackson, 1884
        entrance port ∖ĕn-trăns port∖: the area of the surface of a patient on which a radiation beam is incident
        enucleation n: The surgical removal of the eye globe after severing the optic muscles and optic nerve
        envelope of function ∖ĕn΄va-lōp ŭv fŭngk΄shun∖: the 3D space contained within the envelope of motion that defines mandibular movement during masticatory function and/or phonation; comp, ENVELOPE OF MOTION, POSSELT’S ENVELOPE OF MOTION
        envelope of motion ∖ĕn΄va-lōp ŭv mō΄shun∖: the 3D space circumscribed by mandibular border movements within which all unstrained mandibular movement occurs; ENVELOPE OF MOTION is known as Posselt’s Envelope of Motion, orig, Ulf Posselt who first demonstrated this 3D space, Denmark, 1952
        Posselt U. Studies in the mobility of the Human mandible, Acta Odontol Scand, 1952:10:19-160
        Pouselt U. Movement areas of the mandible. J Prosthet Dent 1957;7:375-85
        Posselt U. Physiology of occlusion and rehabilitation. Philadelphia, PA: Davis; 1962
        epithelial attachment: syn, JUNCTIONAL EPITHELIUM
        epithelial cuff ∖ĕp΄a-thē΄lē-al kŭf∖: a term used to describe the relationship between the mucosa and the dental implant and/or dental implant abutment; the use of this term implies a close adherence, but not necessarily a biochemical attachment, between the implant and mucosa
        epithelium ∖ĕp΄a-thē΄-lē-um∖ n (1748): the mucosal tissue serving as the lining of the intraoral surfaces. It extends into the gingival crevice and adheres to the tooth at the base of the crevice; –lia ∖-lē-a∖ pl; comp, JUNCTIONAL EPITHELIUM, SULCULAR EPITHELIUM
        epithelization ∖ĕp΄a-thē΄lĭ-zā΄shun∖ n (ca. 1934): the process of becoming covered with or converted to epithelium; epithelize ∖ĕp΄a-thē΄līz∖ vt
        eposteal dental implant ∖ĕp΄ŏs΄tē-al dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt΄∖: any dental implant that receives its primary support by means of resting upon the bone; Editorial note for usage: a subperiosteal dental implant that conforms to the superior surface of an edentulous area of alveolar bone is an eposteal dental implant; any retaining screws or other elements that may secure the eposteal framework to the alveolar bone and pass through the bone represent endosteal dental implant components; should the eposteal framework penetrate the alveolar bone, technically, the framework becomes an endosteal dental implant; an eposteal dental implant’s support system has, heretofore, been termed the implant frame, implant framework, or implant substructure; this is an integral component of that dental implant’s form and is not subservient to any other component; comp, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, SUBPERIOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, TRANSOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        epoxy resin ∖ĕp΄ŏk΄sē, ĭ-pŏk΄- rĕz΄ĭn∖: a resin characterized by the reactive epoxy or ethyloxyline groups that possess unique characteristics in terms of adhesion to metals, woods, and glasses
        epoxy resin die ∖ĕp΄ŏk΄sē, ĭ-pŏk΄- rĕz΄ĭn dī∖: the reproduction in the form of epoxy resin of the prepared surfaces of a tooth or dental implant abutment
        epulis fissuratum: overgrowth of intraoral tissue resulting from chronic irritation
        equalization of pressure ∖ĭ-kwĭl΄a-zā΄shun ŭv prĕsh΄ur∖: the act of equalizing or uniformly distributing pressure
        equilibrate ∖ĭ-kwĭl΄a-brāt∖ vb (1635): to bring or to place in equilibrium; -brated ∖-brā΄tĭd∖ ; -brating ∖-brā΄tĭng∖ vt
        equilibration ∖ĭ-kwĭl΄a-brā΄shun∖ n (1635): 1. the act or acts of placing a body in a state of equilibrium; 2. the state or condition of being in equilibrium; comp, MANDIBULAR EQUILIBRATION, OCCLUSAL EQUILIBRATION
        equilibrator ∖ĭ-kwĭl΄a-brā΄tor∖ n (19c) obs: an instrument or device used in achieving or helping maintain a state of equilibrium (GPT-4)
        equilibrium ∖ē΄kwa-lĭb΄rē-um, ĕk΄wa-∖ n (1608): 1. a state of even adjustment between opposing forces; 2. that state or condition of a body in which any forces acting on it are so arranged that their product at every point is zero; 3. a balance between active forces and negative resistance
        erosion ∖ĭ-rō΄zhun∖ n (1541): 1. an eating away; a type of ulceration; 2. in dentistry, the progressive loss of tooth substance by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action, producing defects that are wedge-shaped depressions often in occlusal, facial and cervical areas; comp, ABFRACTION, ABRASION, ATTRITION, NONCARIOUS CERVICAL LESION
        Essig splint: eponym for a stainless steel wire passed labially and lingually around a segment of the dental arch and held in position by individual ligature wires around the contact areas of the teeth; it is used to stabilize fractured or repositioned teeth and the involved alveolar bone; variously ascribed to V. H. Jackson, dentist, NY, U.S.A., C. J. Essig and N. S. Essig, dentists, PA, U.S.A., or W. H. Atkinson, dentist
        Essig CJ, ed. The American textbook of prosthetic dentistry. Philadelphia, PA: Lea Brothers; 1896:187, 208
        Essig NS. Prosthetic dentistry. Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing; 1937
        esthetic ∖ĕs-thĕt΄ĭk∖ adj: 1. pertaining to the study of beauty and the sense of beautiful; descriptive of a specific creation that results from such study; objectifies beauty and attractiveness, and elicits pleasure; 2. pertaining to sensation; esthetically adj; syn, aesthetic
        esthetic frame of the face: the area on the human face, within which items of esthetic interest such as midlines, cants, and smile parameters are sensitively perceptible and objectively verifiable
        esthetic reshaping ∖ĕs-thĕt΄ĭk rē-shāp΄ĭng∖: the physical modification of the surfaces of teeth to improve appearance; comp, AXIAL REDUCTION, OCCLUSAL REDUCTION
        esthetics ∖ĕs-thĕt΄ĭks∖ n (1798): 1. the branch of philosophy dealing with beauty; 2. in dentistry, the theory and philosophy that deal with beauty and the beautiful, especially with respect to the appearance of a dental restoration, as achieved through its form and/or color; those subjective and objective elements and principles underlying the beauty and attractiveness of an object, design, or principle; comp, DENTAL ESTHETICS, DENTOGENICS, DENTURE ESTHETICS
        Estlander’s operation: eponym for a lip switch operation; a triangular flap of tissue taken from the lower lip is transferred to the upper lateral lip; orig, Jakob August Estlander, surgeon, Finland, 1831-1881
        1etch ∖ĕch∖ vb,vt (1634): 1. to produce a retentive surface; in dentistry on tooth enamel, glass or metal; ad modem corrosive action of an acid (etchant) to create a retentive surface; 2. to delineate or impress clearly
        2etch ∖ĕch∖ n (1896): the effect or action of an etching acid on a surface
        etchant ∖ĕch΄ănt∖ n: a chemical agent that is capable of selective dissolution of a surface
        etching ∖ĕch΄ing∖ vt (1632): 1. the act or process of selective dissolution; 2. in dentistry, the selective dissolution of the surface of tooth enamel, dentin, metal, or porcelain through the use of acids or other chemical agents (etchants) to create a retentive surface
        ethylene oxide ∖ĕth΄a-lēn ŏk΄sīd΄∖: a bactericidal agent occurring as a colorless gas with a pleasant ethereal odor; the chemical in gas sterilization systems used for many items that cannot be sterilized in a high heat system
        etiologic factors ∖ē΄tē-ō-lŏj΄ĭk făk΄tors∖: the elements or influences that can be assigned as the cause or reason for a disease; comp, LOCAL ETIOLOGIC FACTORS, SYSTEMIC ETIOLOGIC FACTORS
        etiology ∖ē΄tē-ŏl΄a-jē∖ n (1555): 1. the factors implicated in the cause or origin of a disease or disorder; 2. the study or theory of the factors causing disease
        evidence-based dentistry: acronym is EBD; an approach to oral healthcare that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinically relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient’s oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist’s clinical expertise and the patient’s treatment needs and preferences; American Dental Association, 2001
        evisceration ∖ĭ-vĭs΄a-rā΄shun∖ n: 1. removal of the viscera or contents of a cavity; 2. in ophthalmology, the removal of the contents of the eye globe, but leaving the sclera
        evulsion ∖ĭ-vŭl΄shun∖ n (1611): extraction; removed, usually of a sudden nature
        examination ∖ĭg-zăm΄a-nā΄shun∖ n (14c): scrutiny or investigation for the purpose of making a diagnosis or assessment
        excoriate ∖ex-skor-ee-ayt∖ vb: to wear off the skin; to abrade
        excoriation: a scratch or abrasion of the skin
        excursion ∖ĭk-skûr΄shun∖ n (1577): 1. a movement outward and back or from a mean position or axis; also, the distance traversed; 2. in dentistry, the movement occurring when the mandible moves away from maximal intercuspal position
        excursive ∖ĭk-skûr΄sĭv∖ adj (1673): constituting a digression; characterized by digression
        excursive movement ∖ĭk-skûr΄sĭv mōōv΄ment∖: movement occurring when the mandible moves away from maximal intercuspal position
        exenteration ∖ĭk-zĕn΄ta-rā΄shun∖ n: 1. removal of an organ; 2. used in connection with the eye, an orbital exenteration denotes the removal of the entire eye globe and surrounding structures; comp, EVISCERATION
        exostosis n: bony projection extending beyond the normal contour of a bony surface
        expansion prosthesis ∖ĭk-spăn΄shun prŏth΄ĭ-sĭs∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis used to expand the lateral segment of the maxillae in a unilateral or bilateral cleft of the soft and hard palates and alveolar processes; comp, NASOALVEOLAR MOLDING
        explant vb: to extract a dental implant
        exposure ∖ĭk-spō΄zher∖ n (1606): 1. the act of laying open, as a surgical or dental exposure; 2. in radiology, a measure of the roentgen rays or gamma radiation at a certain place based on its ability to cause ionization; the unit of exposure is the roentgen (R) ; comp, RAD
        extension ∖ĭk-stĕn΄shun∖ n (15c): 1. the movement by which the two elements of any jointed part are drawn away from each other, the process of increasing the angle between two skeletal levers having end-to-end articulation with each other; the opposite of flexion; 2. in maxillofacial prosthetics, that portion of a prosthesis added to fill a defect or provide a function not inherent in a dental restoration, e.g., palatal extension, pharyngeal extension; comp, CONFORMER, SECTION
        extension-base removable partial denture ∖ĭk-stĕn΄shun bās pär΄shal rĭ-mōō΄va-bal pär΄shal dĕn΄chur∖: a removable partial denture that is supported and retained by natural teeth anterior to the denture base and in which a portion of the functional force vector of the base is carried by the residual ridge; syn, REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE
        extension bridge slang: syn, CANTILEVER FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS
        extension outline ∖ĭk-stĕn΄shun out΄līn∖ obs: 1. the outline of the area of the entire basal seat of a denture; 2. the outline on the surface of a cast or mucous membrane that includes the entire area to be covered by a denture (GPT-1)
        external oblique ridge ∖ĭk-stûr΄nal ō-blēk΄ rĭj∖: a smooth ridge on the buccal surface of the body of the mandible that extends from the anterior border of the ramus, with diminishing prominence, downward and forward to the region of the mental foremen; this ridge changes very little in size and direction throughout life
        extirpate ∖ĕk΄stir-pāt΄∖ vt (1539): 1. to pull up or out, to destroy completely; 2. to cut out by surgery; extirpation ∖ĕk΄stir-pā΄shun∖ n, -pated ∖-pā΄tĭd∖; -pating ∖-pā΄tĭng∖
        extracapsular ankylosis ∖ĕk΄stra-kăp΄sa-lar ăng΄ka-lō΄sĭs∖: ankylosis because of rigidity of any structure external to the joint capsule
        extracapsular disorder ∖ĕk΄stra-kăp΄sa-lar dĭs-ôr΄der∖: a problem associated with the masticatory system in which the etiological factors are located outside of the temporomandibular joint capsule
        extracoronal ∖ĕk΄stra-kôr΄a-nal, kŏr΄-, ka-rō΄nal∖ adj: that which is outside or external to the crown portion of a natural tooth
        extracoronal attachment: any prefabricated attachment for support and retention of a removable dental prosthesis; the retentive components (the matrix and patrix components or clasp) are positioned outside the normal contour of the abutment tooth; comp, INTRACORONAL ATTACHMENT, PRECISION ATTACHMENT
        extracoronal retainer ∖ĕk΄stra-kôr΄a-nal, kŏr΄-, ka-rō΄nal rĭ-tā΄ner∖: that part of a fixed or removable partial denture uniting the abutment to the other elements of a prosthesis that surrounds all or part of the prepared crown
        extraoral tracing ∖ĕk΄stra-ôr΄al, ōr΄- trā΄sĭng∖: a tracing of mandibular movements made by means of devices that extend outside the oral cavity; a tracing made outside the oral cavity; Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms
        extrinsic ∖ĭk-strĭn΄sĭk∖ adj (1613): external, extraneous, as originating from or on the outside; extrinsically adv
        extrinsic coloring ∖ĭk-strĭn΄sĭk kŭl΄or-ĭng∖: coloring from without; applying color to the external surface of a prosthesis
        extrusion ∖ĭk-strōō΄zhun∖ n (1540): the movement of teeth beyond the natural occlusal plane that occurs without accompanied movement of their supporting tissues
        exudate ∖ĕks΄yōō-dāt΄∖ n: 1. exuded molten material; 2. any fluid that gradually passes through tissues; inflammatory exudate is a fluid with a high content of serum proteins and leukocytes, formed as a reaction to tissue injury.

        F

        fabrication ∖făb΄rĭ-kā΄shun∖ n (1670): the building, making, or constructing of a restoration
        face form ∖fās form∖ obs: 1. the outline form of the face; 2. the outline form of the face from an anterior view, sometimes described geometrically as square, tapering, ovoid, or by various combinations of these basic forms (GPT-4); syn, ESTHETIC FRAME OF THE FACE, FACIAL FORM; comp, FACIAL MIDLINE
        facebow ∖fās bō∖: an instrument used to record the spatial relationship of the maxillary arch to some anatomic reference point or points and then transfer this relationship to an articulator; it orients the dental cast in the same relationship to the opening axis of the articulator; customarily the anatomic references are the mandibular transverse horizontal axis and one other selected anterior reference point; syn, EARBOW, HINGE BOW, KINEMATIC FACEBOW, AVERAGE AXIS FACEBOW, STEREOTACTIC FACEBOW
        facebow fork ∖fās bō fork∖: that component of the facebow used to attach the occlusion rim and/or natural teeth to the facebow
        facebow preservation: the maxillary occlusal registration record affixed to the mandibular member of an articulator useful in facilitating subsequent transfers of other maxillary casts or prostheses to the articulator; syn, REMOUNT RECORD INDEX
        facebow record ∖fās bō rĕk΄erd∖: the registration obtained by means of a facebow; AVERAGE AXIS FACEBOW RECORD, KINEMATIC FACEBOW RECORD, STEREOTACTIC FACEBOW RECORD
        facebow transfer: the process of transferring the facebow record of the spatial relationship of the maxillary arch and related anatomic reference point or points to an articulator
        facet ∖făs΄ĭt∖ n (1625): a small, planar surface on any hard body; Editorial note for usage: the French spelling of facet, facette, has continued to confuse the profession regarding pronunciation; syn, WEAR FACET
        facial ∖fā΄shal∖ adj: the surface of a tooth or other oral structure approximating the face (either the lips or the cheek); comp, BUCCAL, LABIAL
        facial augmentation implant prosthesis ∖fā΄shal ôg΄mĕn-tā΄shun ĭm-plănt prŏth΄ĭ-sĭ∖: 1. a maxillofacial prosthesis made of implantable biocompatible material generally onlayed on an existing bony area beneath the skin tissue to fill in or selectively raise portions of the overlaying facial skin tissues to create acceptable contours; although some forms are pre-made, the facial augmentation implant prosthesis is usually custom made for surgical implantation for each individual patient because of the irregular or extensive nature of the facial deficit; 2. an implantable biocompatible material generally laid on an existing bony area beneath the skin tissues to fill in or selectively raise portions of the overlaying facial skin tissues to create acceptable contours (GPT-7); syn, facial implant
        facial form ∖fā΄shal form∖: the outline form of the face from an anterior view; syn, FACE FORM
        facial midline: the vertical line bisecting a horizontal line originating at the exocanthion of one eye and meeting the exocanthion of the other eye; the facial midline is the midline of the esthetic frame of the face
        Bidra AS, Uribe F, Taylor TD, Agar JR, Rungruanganunt P, Neace WP. The relationship of facial anatomic landmarks with midlines of the face and mouth. J Prosthet Dent 2009;102:94-103
        facial moulage ∖fā΄shal mōō-läzh∖: a negative reproduction (impression) of the face that records soft tissue and bony contours of the face; used for diagnostic purposes or to fabricate a prosthesis; comp, COMPLETE FACIAL MOULAGE, MOULAGE, SECTIONAL FACIAL MOULAGE
        facial profile ∖fā΄shal prō΄fīl∖: the outline form of the face from a lateral view
        facial prosthesis ∖fā΄shal prŏth΄ĭ-sĭs∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis that artificially replaces a deficient anatomy of the face as a result of surgery, trauma, or congenital absence; syn, EXTRAORAL PROSTHESIS
        facial prosthetic adhesive ∖fā΄shal prŏs-thĕt΄ĭk ăd-hē΄sĭv∖: a material used to adhere a facial prosthesis to the skin
        facing ∖fā΄sĭng∖ n (1566): a veneer of any restorative material used on a natural tooth or prosthesis as a restoration to simulate a natural tooth; comp, COMPOSITE RESIN LAMINATE VENEER, COMPOSITE RESIN VENEER, PORCELAIN LAMINATE VENEER, PORCELAIN VENEER
        failure ∖fa-tēg΄ fāl΄yer∖ n: in dental materials, fracture of any physical material as a result of cyclic loading and unloading characterized by fracture below its ultimate tensile strength; in prosthodontics, the inability of a prosthesis to produce the expected desired outcome
        Farrar appliance: syn, FARRAR DEVICE
        Farrar WB. A clinical outline of temporomandibular joint diagnosis and treatment. 7th ed. Montgomery, AL: Walker Printing; 1983
        Farrar device: eponym for a type of occlusal device used to position the mandible anteriorly; used in the treatment of some types of temporomandibular joint disc disorders; C. L. Goddard includes descriptions and illustrations of several devices used to retract teeth and “ … for many other purposes”; orig, William B. Farrar, dentist, Alabama, U.S.A., who also is credited with various “push- and pull-jacks” for tooth movement, and devices for orthodontic tooth movement
        Essig CJ, ed. The American textbook of prosthetic dentistry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea Brothers; 1986:153-209
        fatigue ∖fa-tēg΄∖: vb 1. to break or fracture a material caused by repeated cyclic or applied loads below the yield limit; n 2. usually viewed initially as minute cracks followed by tearing and rupture; also termed brittle failure or fracture; comp, FAILURE, FRACTOGRAPHY
        feather-edge finish line: the demarcation between prepared and unprepared tooth structure created by minimal tooth preparation without a defined visible line of reference for the cavosurface finish line such as a shoulder or chamfer finish line; comp, KNIFE-EDGE FINISH LINE
        feeding aid ∖fē΄dĭng ād∖ obs: a medically prescribed prosthesis that closes the oronasal cavity defect, thus enhancing sucking and swallowing, and maintains the right and left maxillary segments of infants with cleft palates in their proper orientation until surgery is performed to repair the cleft; syn, FEEDING PROSTHESIS
        feeding appliance obs, nonstand: syn, FEEDING AID, FEEDING PROSTHESIS
        feeding prosthesis ∖fē΄dĭng prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖ obs: a prosthesis indicated for newborns with cleft palates to permit normal sucking and feeding; syn, FEEDING AID
        Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm: a back-projection algorithm for CT reconstruction
        feldspar ∖fĕld΄spär, fĕl΄-∖ n (1757): 1. any one of a group of minerals, principally aluminosilicate of sodium, potassium, calcium, or barium, which are essential constituents of nearly all crystalline rocks; 2. a crystalline mineral of aluminum silicate with sodium, potassium, barium, and/or calcium; a major constituent of some dental porcelains
        feldspathic ∖fĕld-spăth΄ĭk, fĕl΄-∖ adj (ca. 1828): related to or containing feldspar; used especially with reference to porcelain glaze
        feldspathic porcelain: porcelain fabricated from the natural mineral group feldspar; the material is composed of compounds of oxygen with lighter metals and nonmetals and is predominantly an amorphous (non-crystalline) matrix with one or more crystalline phases (such as leucite K2O∙Al2O3∙4SiO2)
        ferroelastic domain switching: toughening mechanism for zirconium
        ferrule ∖fĕr΄al∖ n (15c): 1. a band or ring used to encompass the root or crown of a tooth; 2. any short tube or bushing for making a tight joint
        1festoon ∖fĕ-stōōn∖ n (1630): 1. any decorative chain or strip hanging between two points; 2. in dentistry, carvings in the base material of a denture that simulate the contours of the natural tissues that are being replaced by the denture
        2festoon ∖fĕ-stōōn∖ vt (1800): to shape into festoons
        FGP: acronym for FUNCTIONALLY GENERATED PATH
        fiber-reinforced composite resin: acronym is FRC; composite resin impregnated with glass, carbon, or polyethylene fiber; fibers may be composite resin impregnated by the provider or pre-impregnated by the manufacturer; dental application includes resin-bonded prostheses and posts; comp, COMPOSITE RESIN
        Goldberg AJ, Burstone CJ. The use of continuous fiber reinforcement. Dental Mater 1992;8(3):197-202
        fiber-reinforced composite resin post: acronym is FRC post; composite resin-impregnated glass, carbon, or polyethylene fiber posts; these fibers may be composite resin impregnated by the provider or pre-impregnated by the manufacturer; comp, POST
        fiber-reinforced composite resin prosthesis: syn, RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS
        fibrointegration ∖fī΄brō-ĭn΄tĭ-grā΄shun∖ n (1982): syn, FIBROUS INTEGRATION
        fibroosseous integration obs: syn, FIBROUS INTEGRATION
        fibrosis ∖fī-brō΄sĭs∖ n (1873): the formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration
        fibrous ∖fī΄brus∖ adj (1626): composed of or containing fibers
        fibrous adhesion ∖fī΄brus ăd-hē΄zhun∖: a fibrous band or structure by which parts abnormally adhere
        fibrous ankylosis ∖fī΄brus ăng΄ka-lō΄sĭs∖: reduced mobility of a joint as a result of proliferation of fibrous tissue
        fibrous integration ∖fī΄brus ĭn΄tĭ-grā΄shun∖: the presence of a layer of intervening fibrous connective tissue between a dental implant and the adjacent bone indicative of failed osseointegration
        fibula free graft: an autogenous composite graft that can include bone, muscle, connective tissue, and skin for the reconstruction of the maxillae or mandible; objectives include a microvascular free tissue transfer of the fibula and blood supply, which does not need to be staged like previous bone grafting procedures of this magnitude
        fiducial marker registration: an object placed into an image and used as a reference; in radiology, a marker placed in a CBCT scan
        field ∖fēld∖ n (bef. 12c): 1. an area or open space, as an operative field or visual field; 2. a range of specialization or knowledge, study, or occupation
        filter ∖fĭl΄ter∖ n (1563): in radiology, a solid screen insert, usually of varying thicknesses and different metals (aluminum, copper, tin) placed to filter out photons of longer wavelengths
        final flask closure ∖fī΄nal flăsk klō΄zher∖: the last closure of a dental flask before polymerizing and after trial packing of the mold with a restorative material
        final impression ∖fī΄nal ĭm-prĕsh΄on∖: the impression that represents the completion of the registration of the surface or object
        fine ∖fīn∖ adj (13c): 1. free from impurities; 2. of a metal, having a stated proportion of pure metal in its composition, expressed in parts per thousand
        fineness ∖fīn΄nĕs΄∖ n: the proportion of pure gold in a gold alloy; the parts per 1000 of gold; e.g., a gold coin may have a fineness of 0.9265
        finish ∖fĭn΄ĭsh∖ n (1779): to put a final coat or surface on; the refinement of form prior to polishing
        finish line ∖fĭn΄ĭsh līn∖ n (1899): 1. a line of demarcation determined by two points; 2. in dentistry, the junction of prepared and unprepared tooth structure with the margin of a restorative material; 3. the planned junction of different materials; syn, MARGIN; comp, BEVELED SHOULDER FINISH LINE, CHAMFER FINISH LINE , FEATHER-EDGE, SHOULDER FINISH LINE, KNIFE-EDGE FINISH LINE
        firing ∖fīr΄ĭng∖: the process of porcelain fusion; in dentistry, specifically to produce porcelain restorations
        first stage dental implant surgery ∖fûrst dĕn΄tal ĭm-plănt sûr΄ja-rē∖: the initial surgical procedure in dental implant placement; comp, SECOND STAGE DENTAL IMPLANT SURGERY
        Fischer’s angle: eponym for the angle formed by the intersection of the protrusive and nonworking-side condylar paths as viewed in the sagittal plane when a recording of mandibular movement is made by using a device located lateral to the temporomandibular joints; however, Lundeen determined that when the nonworking and protrusive movements are recorded at the condyles, the nonworking and protrusive movements share the same opening and closing course during most of the movements, indicating there is no Fischer’s angle present at the condylar level from a sagittal view; orig, Rudolf Fischer, dentist, Zurich, Switzerland
        Fischer R. Beziehungen zwischen den Kieferbewegungen und der Kauflachenform der Zuhne. Schweizerische Monataschrift fur Zahnheilkunde Zurich; 1926:74
        Fischer R. Die Offnungsbewegungen des Unterkiefers und ibre Wiedergabe am Artikulator. Schweizerische Monateschrift fur Zahnheilkunde 1935;45:867-99
        Lundeen HC, Gibbs CH. The function of teeth. The physiology of mandibular function related to occlusal form and esthetics. L and G Publishers, Earleton, FL, U.S.A.; 2005:40-75
        fissure ∖fĭsh΄ur∖ n (15c): any cleft or groove, normally present or otherwise; a non-coalesced groove in the surface of a tooth, usually because of imperfect fusion of adjoining enamel lobes; distinguished from a groove or sulcus; syn, enamel fissure
        fissured fracture ∖fĭsh΄urd frăk΄shur∖: a fracture that extends partially through a bone with displacement of the bony fragments
        fistula ∖fĭs΄cha-la∖ n (14c): a pathologic or abnormal passage resulting from incomplete healing; a communication between two internal organs or one that leads from an internal organ to the surface of a body; usually designated according to the parts that it communicates with, as oronasal fistula;las ∖-lăs∖ or –lea ∖lēa∖ pl
        fit ∖fĭt∖ vb (1586): 1. to be suitable or to be in harmony; 2. to conform correctly to the shape or size by means of inserting and adjusting until correctly in place; to adapt one structure to another, as the adaptation of any dental restoration to its site, in the mouth; fitted ∖fĭt΄ĭd∖, also fit ∖fĭt∖; fitting ∖fĭt΄ĭng∖ vt
        fix ∖fĭks∖ vt (14c): to make firm, stable, or stationery, to attach to another object so that separation of the parts cannot be accomplished without breaking of the mechanical and/or chemical bonds that hold the parts in spatial relationship with each other; to repair
        fixed ∖fĭkst∖ adj (14c): securely placed or fastened; stationary; not subject to change; immobile
        fixed bridge obs, slang: syn, FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE
        fixed complete denture: a fixed dental prosthesis that replaces the entire dentition and associated structures of the maxillae or mandible; it cannot be removed by the patient; descriptive terminology (modifiers) expressed as adjectives to each fixed dental prosthesis may include such items as the method of retention, composition, nature of support, design characteristics, and/or form of anchorage
        Simon H, Yanase RT. Terminology for implant prostheses. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003;18:539-43
        fixed dental prosthesis ∖fĭkst dĕn΄tl prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: the general term for any prosthesis that is securely fixed to a natural tooth or teeth, or to one or more dental implants/implant abutments; it cannot be removed by the patient; syn, ARTIFICIAL CROWN, FIXED COMPLETE DENTURE, FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE, splinted crowns
        fixed dental prosthesis retainer ∖fĭkst dĕn΄tl prŏs-thē΄sĭs rĭ-tā΄ner∖: the part of a fixed partial denture or fixed complete denture that unites the abutment(s) to the remainder of the restoration
        fixed partial denture ∖fĭkst pär΄shal dĕn΄chur∖: any dental prosthesis that is luted, screwed, or mechanically attached or otherwise securely retained to natural teeth, tooth roots, and/or dental implants/abutments that furnish the primary support for the dental prosthesis and restoring teeth in a partially edentulous arch; it cannot be removed by the patient
        fixed prosthodontics ∖fĭkst prŏs΄tha-dŏn΄tĭks∖: the branch of prosthodontics concerned with the replacement and/or restoration of teeth by artificial substitutes that cannot be removed from the mouth by the patient
        1fixture ∖fĭks΄chur∖ n: something that is fixed or attached, as a structural part or a permanent appendage
        2fixture ∖fĭks΄chur∖ nonstand (1982): an endosteal dental implant; syn, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, DENTAL IMPLANT
        fixture cover ∖fĭks΄chur kŭv΄er∖ nonstand (1982): syn, HEALING SCREW
        flabby tissue ∖flăb΄ē tĭsh΄ōō∖ obs: excessive, movable tissue (GPT-4)
        1flange ∖flănj∖ n (ca 1688): a rib or rim used for strength, for guiding or attachment of another object; comp, BUCCAL FLANGE, DENTURE FLANGE, LABIAL FLANGE
        2flange ∖flănj∖ vt (ca 1864): to furnish with a flange; flanged ∖flănjd∖; flanging ∖flănj΄ing∖
        flange contour ∖flănj kŏn΄tōōr∖ obs: the design of the flange of a denture (GPT-4)
        1flask ∖flăsk∖ n: a metal case or tube used in investing procedures; comp, CASTING FLASK, CROWN FLASK
        2flask ∖flăsk∖ vb: to flask or surround; to invest
        flask closure ∖flăsk klō΄zher∖: the procedure of bringing two halves, or parts, of a flask together; comp, FINAL FLASK CLOSURE, TRIAL FLASK CLOSURE
        flasking ∖flăsk΄ing∖ n (20c): 1. the act of investing in a flask; 2. the process of investing the cast and a wax replica of the desired form in a flask preparatory to molding the restorative material into the desired product; comp, PROCESS
        flexible resin removable partial denture: a metal-free removable partial denture constructed by using one or more thermoplastic resins classified according to ISO 1567 including acetal resins, polycarbonates (polyesters), acrylic resins, and polyamides (nylons) and polyaryletherketones, including polyetheretherketone; comp, REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE
        flipper slang: syn, REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE; comp, INTERIM DENTURE, INTERIM PROSTHESIS, interim removable partial denture, PROVISIONAL PROSTHESIS, PROVISIONAL RESTORATION
        floss threader: a flexible, polymer needle-like device for threading dental floss under a fixed partial denture or between splinted restorations
        flowable composite resin ∖flō΄ā΄bel kŏm-pŏz΄ĭt rĕz΄ĭn∖ (1998): composite resin that is less highly filled than conventional composite resin and has improved wettability
        fluorescence ∖flŏŏ-rĕs΄ens∖ n (1852): a process by which a material absorbs radiant energy and emits it in the form of radiant energy of a different wavelength band, all or most of whose wavelengths exceed that of the absorbed energy; fluorescence, as distinguished from phosphorescence, does not persist for an appreciable time after the termination of the excitation process
        fluorescent ∖flŏŏ-rĕsent∖ adj (1853): having or relating to fluorescence
        fluoride applicator nonstand: syn, FLUORIDE GEL CARRIER
        fluoride gel carrier ∖flŏŏr΄īd jĕl kăr΄ē-er∖ (20c): a device that covers the teeth in either dental arch and is used to apply topical fluoride in close proximity to tooth enamel and dentin for several minutes daily; generally considered essential for all patients with any natural dentition who undergo oral radiation therapy to assist in prevention of extensive dental caries; syn, FLUORIDE APPLICATOR, FLUORIDE TRAY
        fluoride tray nonstand: syn, FLUORIDE GEL CARRIER
        flux ∖flŭks∖ n (14c): 1. in physics, the rate of flow of a liquid, particles, or energy; 2. in ceramics, an agent that lowers the fusion temperature of porcelain; 3. in metallurgy, a substance used to increase fluidity and to prevent or reduce oxidation of a molten metal; 4. any substance applied to surfaces to be joined by brazing, soldering or welding to clean and free them from oxides and promote union
        FMA: acronym for FRANKFORT MANDIBULAR PLANE ANGLE
        foil ∖foil∖ n (14c): an extremely thin, pliable sheet of metal, usually of variable thickness; comp, GOLD FOIL, PLATINUM FOIL, TINFOIL
        force ∖fôrs∖ n (14c): an agency or influence that, when exerted on a body, tends to set the body into motion or to alter its present state of motion; force applied to any material causing deformation of that material; comp, MASTICATORY FORCE, OCCLUSAL FORCE
        forces of mastication ∖fôrs-es ŭv măs΄tĭ-kā΄shun∖: the motive force created by the dynamic action of the muscles during the physiologic act of mastication (GPT-4)
        1form ∖form∖ n (13c): the shape or configuration of anything, as distinguished from its material
        2form ∖form∖ vt (13c): to give shape, to mold, to adapt
        fornix ∖fôr΄nĭks∖ n (1681): an anatomical arch or fold; fornices ∖fôr΄nĭ-sĕz∖ pl
        fossa ∖fōs΄a∖ n (1771): an anatomical pit, groove, or depression; fossae ∖fōs΄ē΄∖ pl
        foundation restoration ∖foun-dā΄shun rĕs΄ta-rā΄shun∖: the core buildup portion of a tooth that is prepared for an artificial crown
        foveae palatinae ∖fō΄vē-ē΄ păl΄a-tīn-ē∖: two small pits or depressions in the posterior aspect of the palatal mucosa, one on each side of the midline, near the attachment of the soft palate to the hard palate
        fractography: the study of fracture mechanics of brittle materials
        1fracture ∖frăk΄chur∖ n (15c): the process or act of breaking; state of being broken; comp, AVULSION FRACTURE, BLOWOUT FRACTURE, CEMENTUM FRACTURE, CLOSED REDUCTION OF A FRACTURE, COMMINUTED FRACTURE, COMPLICATED FRACTURE, DISLOCATED FRACTURE, FISSURED FRACTURE, GREENSTICK FRACTURE, GUERIN’S FRACTURE, IMPACTED FRACTURE, INDIRECT FRACTURE, INTRACAPSULAR FRACTURE, MIDFACIAL FRACTURE, OPEN FRACTURE, PYRAMIDAL FRACTURE, ROOT FRACTURE, SECONDARY FRACTURE, SIMPLE FRACTURE, SPONTANEOUS FRACTURE, SUBCONDYLAR FRACTURE, SUBPERIOSTEAL FRACTURE
        2fracture ∖frăk΄chur∖ vb (1612): to cause a fracture in; to break, rupture, or tear; fractured ∖frăk΄churd∖; fracturing ∖frăk΄chur-ĭng∖ vt
        fracture strength ∖frăk΄chur strĕngkth∖: stress required for material failure; represented by a line plotted on a stress-versus-strain graph; this strain may be less than the ultimate strength; i.e., the maximal strain on a sample prior to material failure
        fracture toughness (K1C): a mechanical characteristic of a material with cracks as a measure of the resistance and the amount of energy required for fracture; ASTM E1820-08a standard test for measuring fracture toughness
        framework ∖frām΄wûrk∖ n (1644): 1. an interior or imbedded latticework or structural frame used to support some other object or objects; 2. the skeletal portion of a prosthesis (usually metal, sometimes ceramic) around which and to which are attached the remaining portions of the prosthesis to produce a finished restoration; Editorial note for usage: for dental prostheses, the framework may be any metal or combination of metals or ceramic material, with various forms including designed slots, incorporated corrective angulation patterns, etc., which provide rigidity to a dental prosthesis; such a framework can be made in whole or made of component parts; frequently used to anchor or support a prosthesis to natural teeth or dental implant abutments or both
        Frankfort horizontal plane ∖Frăngk΄fort hôr΄ĭ-zŏn΄tl plān∖: 1. eponym for a plane established by the lowest point on the margin of the right or left bony orbit and the highest point on the margin of the right or left bony auditory meatus; 2. a horizontal plane represented in profile by a line between the lowest point on the margin of the orbit to the highest point on the margin of the auditory meatus; adopted at the 13th General Congress of German Anthropologists (the “Frankfort Agreement”) in Frankfort in 1882, and finally by the International Agreement for the Unification of Craniometric and Cephalometric Measurements in Monaco in 1906; syn, auriculo-orbital plane, eye-ear plane, Frankfort horizontal (FH), Frankfort horizontal line
        Frankfort mandibular plane angle ∖Frăngk΄fort măn΄dĭ-bū΄lăr plān ăng΄gal∖: acronym is FMA; eponym for the angle formed by the intersection of the Frankfort horizontal plane with the mandibular plane
        Frankfort plane: syn, FRANKFORT HORIZONTAL PLANE
        free gingiva ∖frē jĭn΄ja-va∖: the part of the gingiva that surrounds the tooth and is not directly attached to the tooth surface
        free gingival groove: the line demarcating the junction between free and attached gingival tissue
        free gingival margin ∖frē jĭn΄ja-val mär΄jĭn∖: the unattached gingiva surrounding the teeth in a collar-like fashion and demarcated from the attached gingiva by a shallow linear depression, termed the FREE GINGIVAL GROOVE
        free mandibular movement ∖frē măn-dĭb΄ya-lar mōōv΄ment∖: 1. any mandibular movement made without interference; 2. any uninhibited movement of the mandible
        freedom in intercuspal position: syn, INTERCUSPAL CONTACT AREA
        freeway space obs, slang: syn, INTEROCCLUSAL REST DISTANCE, INTEROCCLUSAL REST SPACE
        fremitus ∖frĕm΄ĭ-tus∖ n (1879): a vibration perceptible on palpation; in dentistry, a vibration palpable when the teeth come into contact
        frenectomy: surgical excision of a frenum
        frenulum ∖frĕn΄ya-lem∖ n (1706): a connecting fold of membrane serving to support or retain a part; –la ∖lă∖ pl
        frenum ∖frē΄num∖ n: frenums ∖frē΄numz∖ or frena pl; syn, FRENULUM
        frictional attachment ∖frĭk΄shun-al a-tăch΄ment∖: a precision or semiprecision attachment that achieves retention by metal to metal contact, without springs, clips, or other mechanical means of retention; syn, PRECISION ATTACHMENT
        friction retained pin ∖frĭk΄shun rĭ-tānd pĭn∖: a metal rod driven into a hole drilled into dentin to enhance retention; retained solely by dentinal elasticity
        1frit ∖frĭt∖ n (1662): 1. the calcined or partly fused matter of which glass is made; 2. a mass of fused porcelain obtained by firing the basic constituents and plunging them into water while hot; the frit is ground to make porcelain powders
        2frit ∖frĭt∖ vt (1805): 1. to prepare substances for glass by heating; to fuse; 2. to convert into a frit; fritted ∖frĭ-tĭd∖; friting ∖frĭ΄tĭng∖
        frontal plane ∖frŭn΄tl∖: any plane parallel with the long axis of the body and at right angles to the median plane, thus dividing the body into front and back parts; so called because this plane roughly parallels the frontal suture of the skull
        fulcrum line ∖fŏŏl΄krum līn∖: 1. a theoretical line passing through the point around which a lever functions and at right angles to its path of movement; 2. an imaginary line, connecting occlusal rests, around which a removable partial denture tends to rotate under masticatory forces; the determinants for the fulcrum line are usually the cross-arch occlusal rests on the most distally located abutments; comp, FULCRUM LINE OF A REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, RETENTIVE FULCRUM LINE
        fulcrum line of a removable partial denture ∖fŏŏl΄krum līn ŭv a rĭ-mōōv΄va-bal pär΄shal dĕn΄chur∖: a theoretical line around which a removable partial denture tends to rotate
        full denture obs: syn, FIXED COMPLETE DENTURE, REMOVABLE COMPLETE DENTURE
        full denture prosthetics ∖fŏŏl dĕn΄chur prŏs-thĕt΄ĭks∖ obs: syn, COMPLETE DENTURE PROSTHODONTICS
        full-thickness graft ∖fŏŏl thĭk-nes∖: a transplant of epithelium consisting of skin or mucous membrane with a minimum of subcutaneous tissue
        full veneer crown: syn, COMPLETE CROWN
        fully adjustable articulator ∖fŏŏl΄ē a-jŭst-a΄bal är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄tor∖: an articulator that allows replication of 3D movement of recorded mandibular motion; syn Class IV articulator
        fully adjustable gnathologic articulator ∖fŏŏl΄ē a-jŭst-a΄bal năth΄ō-lŏj΄ik är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄tor∖: an articulator that allows replication of 3D movement plus timing of recorded mandibular motion; syn, CLASS IV ARTICULATOR
        functional articulation ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: the occlusal contacts of the maxillary and mandibular teeth during mastication and deglutition
        functional chew-in record ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal chōō-ĭn rĕk΄ord∖ obs: a record of the movements of the mandible made on the occluding surface of the opposing occlusion rim by teeth or scribing studs and produced by simulated chewing movements (GPT-4); syn, FUNCTIONALLY GENERATED PATH
        functional dislocation ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal dĭs΄lō-kā΄shun∖: dislocation of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint as a result of a seriously impaired disc-condyle complex function
        functional jaw orthopedics ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal jô ôr΄tha-pē΄dĭks∖: use of orthodontic prostheses that rely on the patient’s own musculature for force application and that attempt to alter the skeletal structure of the face
        functional mandibular movements ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal măn-dĭb΄ū-lar mōōv΄ments∖: all normal, proper, or characteristic movements of the mandible made during speech, mastication, yawning, swallowing, and other associated movements
        functional occlusal harmony ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal a-klōō΄sal här΄ma-nē∖ obs: the occlusal relationship of opposing teeth in all functional ranges and movements that will provide the greatest masticatory efficiency without causing undue strain or trauma on the supporting tissues (GPT-4)
        functional occlusal splint ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal a-klōō΄sal splĭnt∖ nonstand: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        functional occlusion ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal a-klōō΄shun∖ obs: the contacts of the maxillary and mandibular teeth during mastication and deglutition (GPT-4)
        functional record ∖fŭngk΄sha-nal rĕk΄ord∖: a record of lateral and protrusive movements of the mandible made on the surfaces of an occlusion rim or other recording surface
        functional wax: syn, DENTAL IMPRESSION WAX
        functionally generated path ∖fŭngk΄sha-na-lē jĕn΄a-rāt΄ĭd păth∖: a registration of the paths of movement of the occlusal surfaces of teeth or occlusion rims of one dental arch in plastic, wax, or other medium attached to the teeth or occlusal rims of the opposing arch
        functioning condyle: syn, WORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        furcation ∖fûr΄kā΄shun∖ n: the anatomic region of a multi-rooted tooth where the roots diverge
        fused-deposition modeling: acronym is FDM; a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) by additive modeling using a layering of a thermoplastic material

        G

        gag ∖găg∖ n (1553): 1. an involuntary contraction of the muscles of the soft palate or pharynx that results in retching; 2. a surgical device for holding the mouth open
        galvanic skin response ∖găl-văn΄ĭk∖: the change in the electrical resistance of the skin in response to diverse stimuli
        galvanic stimulation ∖găl-văn΄ik stĭm΄ya-lā΄shun∖: stimulation of muscles through the application of varying amplitudes and pulsations of electrical current; used in the treatment of muscle disorders; comp, TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NEURAL STIMULATION
        galvanism ∖găl΄va-nĭz΄um∖ n (1797): accelerated corrosion of a metal as a result of electrical contact with a more noble metal in a corrosive electrolyte; the resulting current flow can produce nerve stimulation, unpleasant tastes, and other physiological reactions commonly associated with this term
        gavage ∖ga-väzh΄∖ n (1889): forced feeding especially through a tube passed into the stomach
        generated occlusal path: syn, FUNCTIONALLY GENERATED PATH
        genial ∖jĭ-nĭ΄al∖ adj (1566): an anatomic term in reference to the chin
        genial tubercles ∖jĭ-nĭ΄al tōō΄ber-kalz, tyōō-∖: mental spines; rounded elevations (usually bilateral) clustered around the midline on the lingual surface of the lower portion of the mandibular symphysis; these tubercles serve as attachments for the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles
        genioplasty ∖jĭ-nĭ΄ō-plăs΄tē∖ n: 1. a surgical procedure performed to alter the contour of the mandibular symphysis; 2. plastic surgery of the chin
        geriatrics ∖jĕr΄ē-ăt΄r΄ks∖ n, pl but sing in constr (1909): the branch of medicine that treats all problems peculiar to the aging patient, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility; comp, DENTAL GERIATRICS, geriatric dentistry, GERODONTICS, GERODONTOLOGY
        gerodontics ∖jĕr΄a-dŏn΄tĭks∖ n, pl but sing in constr: the treatment of dental problems of aging persons; also spelled geriodontics
        gerodontology ∖jĕr΄a-dŏn-tŏl΄a-jē∖ n: the study of the dentition and dental problems in aged or aging persons
        Gillett bridge obs: eponym for a removable partial denture using a Gillett clasp system, which was composed of an occlusal rest notched deeply into the occlusal-axial surface with a gingivally placed groove and a circumferential clasp for retention. The occlusal rest was custom made in a cast restoration; orig, Henry W. Gillett, dentist, New York, U.S.A.
        Gillett, HW. Device for extension crowns. Dental Digest 1904;10:977-82
        Kennedy E. The techniques of Gillett clasps in partial denture construction. Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing; 1928:292-317
        Cohn LA. The physiologic basis for tooth fixation in precision-attached partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1956;6:220-44
        gingiva ∖jĭn΄ja-va, jĭn-jĭ-∖ n: the fibrous investing tissue, covered by epithelium, that immediately surrounds a tooth and is contiguous with its periodontal ligament and with the mucosal tissues of the mouth; –vae ∖-vē΄∖ pl; comp, ATTACHED GINGIVA, FREE GINGIVA, MARGINAL GINGIVA
        gingival crevice ∖jĭn΄ja-val krĕv΄ĭs∖: syn, GINGIVAL SULCUS
        gingival crevicular fluid: the fluid that seeps through the junctional epithelium; this is usually increased in the presence of inflammation
        gingival denture contour ∖jĭn΄ja-val dĕn΄chur kŏn΄tōōr∖: the form of the denture base or other material around the cervical regions of prosthetic teeth
        gingival displacement ∖jĭn΄ja-val dĭs-plās΄ment∖: the deflection of the marginal gingiva away from a tooth
        gingival embrasure: the space between adjacent teeth that is cervical to the proximal contact area; syn, INTERDENTAL GINGIVAL SPACE
        gingival mask: a polymeric material that overlays a gypsum die simulating the contour of the gingiva; syn, gingival replica
        gingival porcelain: a porcelain blend used for the shaping of the gingiva and papillae of a ceramic restoration; comp, BODY PORCELAIN, INCISAL PORCELAIN, PORCELAIN MARGIN, SHOULDER PORCELAIN
        gingival retraction: syn, GINGIVAL DISPLACEMENT
        gingival sulcus: a shallow fissure between the marginal gingiva and the enamel or cementum; it is bounded by the tooth surface on one side, the sulcular epithelium on the other, and the junctional epithelium at its most apical point
        gingival trigone: the most gingival point of curvature along the free gingival margin of a tooth; syn, GINGIVAL ZENITH
        gingival veneer prosthesis: a removable resin or elastomeric veneer covering the gingiva adjacent to natural teeth for the augmentation of interproximal and facial gingival tissues for esthetics and phonetics; comp, GINGIVAL MASK
        gingival zenith: syn; GINGIVAL TRIGONE
        ginglymoarthrodial joint: any joint, such as the temporomandibular joint, capable of both hinging and gliding articulation
        ginglymus joint ∖jĭn΄gla-mŭs joint∖ n: a type of synovial joint that allows movement in one plane only; -mi pl; -moid adj; syn, hinge joint
        glare ∖glâr∖ n (13c): the disturbance of the sensitivity of the eye experienced when portions of the field of view have a brightness or intensity greatly in excess of that of the average for the field of view
        glass-ceramic ∖glăs sa-răm΄ik∖: a solid material, crystalline and partly glassy, formed by controlled crystallization of a glass
        glass ionomer ∖glăs ī΄a-nō΄mer∖ (1998): a cement, luting, or restorative agent composed of an acid-soluble glass, polyacrylic acid, and water that sets via an acid-base reaction
        1glaze ∖glāz∖ vb (14c): 1. to cover with a glossy, smooth, reflective surface or coating; 2. the final firing of porcelain in which the surface is vitrified until a high gloss and surface compression state are achieved; glazed ∖glāzd∖, glazing ∖glā΄zĭng∖ vt
        2glaze: a ceramic veneer on a dental porcelain restoration after it has been fired, producing a nonporous, glossy or semi-glossy surface;; comp, NATURAL GLAZE, OVERGLAZE, GLOSS
        glenoid fossa: the concavity in the posterior-inferior aspect of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone that receives the mandibular condyle
        gliding occlusion ∖glī΄dĭng a-klōō΄zhun∖ obs: used in the sense of designating contacts of teeth in motion (GPT-4); comp, ARTICULATION, TRANSLATION
        gloss: a specific light intensity reflectance on a surface with the incident angle equal and opposite to the reflectance angle; measured in gloss units (GU) by a gloss meter; amount of reflectance at a specific angle on black glass as a standard (100 GU) compared to a matte surface (0 GU); ISO 2813 and ASTM D523 are examples of standard tests; CIE entities of gloss include: (1) specular, (2) contrast, (3) reflection haze, (4) sheen; comp, GLOSS METER
        gloss meter n: an instrument to measure the reflectance of light on a surface; measured in gloss units (GU)
        glossalgia ∖glô΄sal-ja∖ n: pain in the tongue
        glossectomy ∖glô΄sĕk΄ta-mē∖ n: partial or total resection of the tongue
        glossodynia n: syn, GLOSSOPYROSIS
        glossoplasty ∖glô΄sa-plăs-tē∖ n: plastic surgery of the tongue
        glossopynia ∖glô΄sō-pĭn΄ya∖ n: painful or burning tongue
        glossopyrosis ∖glô΄sa-pĭ-rō΄sĭs∖ n: a form of paresthesia characterized by pain, burning, itching, and stinging of the mucosa of the tongue, without noticeable lesions; syn, burning tongue, GLOSSODYNIA
        gnathic ∖năth΄ĭk∖ adj (1882): of or pertaining to the jaw or cheek
        gnathion ∖năth΄ēon∖ n: the lowest bony point, in the median plane of the mandible
        gnathodynamometer ∖năth΄a-dīn-ă-mŏm΄a-ter∖ n: 1. an instrument for measuring the force exerted in closing the jaws; 2. an instrument used for measuring occlusal pressure
        gnathology ∖năth΄ŏl-a-gē∖ n: a general term for the study of the biology of the masticatory mechanism and the kinematic recording of mandibular position; orig, Beverly B. McCollum, Harvey Stallard, Charles Stuart, dentists, U.S.A., 1925-1949; comp, McCollum Gnathograph, McCollum Gnathoscope, organic occlusion, Stuart articulator
        Goddard’s linear occlusion: orig, William H. Goddard, dentist, Kentucky, U.S.A., 1808-1883; syn, LINEAR OCCLUSION
        gold foil ∖gōld∖: 1. pure gold rolled into extremely thin sheets (0.127 mm); 2. a precious metal foil used in restoration of carious or fractured teeth
        Golden Proportion: the ratio between succeeding terms in a mathematical progression; called the Fibonacci series; each number is the sum of the two immediately preceding it (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, and so on; the ratio converges on approximately 1.618 to 1; claims have been made that the Golden Proportion exists in natural dentitions in the ratio of the widths of incisors and canines as seen from the facial view; orig, Leonardo Pisano: nickname Fibonacci, mathematician, Italy, c1170-c1240
        gothic arch tracer ∖gŏth΄ik arch trā΄ser∖ obs: the device that produces a tracing that resembles an arrowhead or a gothic arch; the device is attached to the opposing arches; the shape of the tracing depends on the relative location of the marking point and the tracing table; the apex of a properly made tracing is considered to indicate centric relation (GPT-4); Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING, MANDIBULAR TRACER, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        gothic arch tracing: comp, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, TRACING DEVICE
        graft ∖graft∖ n (14c): a tissue or material used to repair a defect or deficiency; comp, ALLOGRAFT, ALLOPLASTIC GRAFT, AUTOGENOUS GRAFT, AUTOGRAFT, FULL-THICKNESS GRAFT, HETEROGRAFT, HOMOGRAFT, ISOGRAFT, SPLIT-THICKNESS GRAFT, XENOGENIC GRAFT
        Grassman’s laws: eponym for three empirical laws that describe the color-matching properties of additive mixtures of color stimuli; 1. to specify a color match, three independent variables are necessary and sufficient; 2. for an additive mixture of color stimuli, only their tristimulus values are relevant, not their spectral compositions; 3. in an additive mixture of color stimuli, if one or more components of the mixture are gradually changed, the resulting tristimulus values also change gradually (laws do not hold for all observing conditions); orig, unknown author
        Grasso clasp: eponym for a removable partial denture clasp assembly in which the horizontal retentive arm, originating from the latticework, is parallel to the occlusal plane, and the vertical reciprocal component, originating from the major connector, make simultaneous contact during placement; the occlusal rest originates from the distal guiding plate minor connector; orig, Dr Joseph E. Grasso, prosthodontist, CT, U.S.A.
        Grasso JE. A new removable partial denture clasp assembly. J Prosthet Dent 1980;43:618-21
        GRAY ∖grā∖: abbr, Gy; a physical measuring unit of absorbed ionizing radiation dose equal to 100 RADS; absorption of one joule of radiation energy by one kilogram of matter; comp, RAD, SIEVERT
        green stage: a physical state of glass-ceramics in pre-crystallized stage
        greenstick fracture ∖grēn-stĭk∖ n (1885): a fracture in which the break in the bone is not complete; the bone appears to be bent on one side while the other side of the bone is broken
        Griffith flaws: eponym for a theory for brittle materials that the observed fracture strength is lower than the theoretical cohesive forces; the incremental crack extension’s contribution to change in stress energy; orig, Alan Arnold Griffith, engineer, United Kingdom, 1893-1963; syn, MICROCRACK
        grinding-in ∖grīn΄dĭng-ĭn∖ obs: a term used to denote the act of correcting occlusal disharmonies by grinding the natural or artificial teeth (GPT-1); syn, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING
        groove ∖grōōv∖ n: a long narrow channel or depression, such as the indentation between tooth cusps or the retentive features placed on tooth surfaces to augment the retentive characteristics of crown preparations
        group function ∖grōōp fŭngk΄shun∖: multiple contact relations between the maxillary and mandibular teeth in lateral movements on the working-side whereby simultaneous contact of several teeth acts as a group to distribute occlusal forces
        Guerin’s fracture: eponym for LE FORT I FRACTURE; orig, Alphonse Francois Marie Guerin, surgeon, France, 1816-1895
        guidance ∖gīd΄ns∖ n (1590): 1. providing regulation or direction to movement; a guide; 2. the influence on mandibular movements by the contacting surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth; 3. mechanical forms on the lower anterior portion of an articulator that guide movements of its upper member; comp, ADJUSTABLE ANTERIOR GUIDANCE, ANTERIOR GUIDANCE, CONDYLAR GUIDANCE
        guide pin ∖gīd pĭn∖: the component of a dental implant system that is placed within the surgically prepared osseous site for an endosteal implant; it assists in determination of location and angulation of the site relative to soft tissue, bony landmarks, or other dental implants
        guide plane ∖gīd plān∖ obs: a plane that guides movement (GPT-4); syn, GUIDING PLANE
        guide table ∖gīd tā΄bal∖: the anterior element of an articulator on which the incisal pin rests. It may be custom contoured or mechanically adjusted; comp, ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE; CUSTOM GUIDE TABLE
        guided tissue regeneration ∖gī΄dĭd tĭsh΄ōō rĭ-jĕn΄a-rā΄shun∖: any procedure that attempts to regenerate lost periodontal structures or alveolar process through differential tissue responses; barrier techniques, by using synthetic materials that may or may not resorb, to exclude epithelial ingrowth (periodontal regeneration) or connective tissue ingrowth (alveolar process regeneration) that is believed to interfere with regeneration
        guiding occlusion ∖gī΄dĭng a-klōō΄shun∖ obs: used in the sense of designating contacts of teeth in motion (GPT-4)
        guiding planes ∖gī΄dĭng plānz∖: two or more vertically parallel surfaces on abutment teeth and/or fixed dental prostheses oriented so as to contribute to the direction of the path of placement and removal of a removable partial denture, maxillofacial prosthesis, and overdenture
        guiding surfaces: syn, GUIDING PLANES
        Gunning’s splint: eponym for a device fabricated from casts of edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches to aid in reduction and fixation of a fracture; Gunning’s initial work described four types of splints used in treating jaw fractures (1866-1867), which allowed openings for saliva flow, nourishment, and speech; orig, Thomas Brian Gunning, dentist, U.S.A., born in United Kingdom, 1813-1889; syn, OCCLUSAL SPLINT, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        Fraser-Moodie W. Mr. Gunning and his splint. Br J Oral Surg 1969;7:112-15
        gustation ∖gŭ-stā΄shun∖ n (1599): the act of perceiving taste
        gypsum ∖jĭp΄sum∖ n (14c): the natural hydrated form of calcium sulfate, CaSO4 • 2H2O; gypsum dihydrate; comp, DENTAL STONE
        gypsum-bonded investment: any casting investment with gypsum as a binder, also containing cristobalite or quartz as a refractory material; cristobalite and quartz are responsible for the thermal expansion of the mold during wax elimination; because gypsum is not chemically stable at temperatures exceeding 650° C (1200° F), these investments are typically restricted to castings of conventional Type II, III, and IV gold alloys

        H

        habitual centric nonstand: syn, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        habitual occlusion nonstand: syn, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        Hader bar: eponym for a rigid bar connector with two or more abutments, which, when viewed in cross section, resembles a keyhole, consisting of a rectangular bar with a rounded occlusal ridge that creates a retentive undercut for the matrix clip within the removable prosthesis; orig, Helmut Hader, tool and die technician, Switzerland
        Breim SL, Renner RP. An overview of tissue bars. Gen Dent 1982;406-15
        hamular notch: syn, PTERYGOMAXILLARY NOTCH
        Hanau’s Quint (1926): rules for balanced denture articulation including incisal guidance, condylar guidance, cusp length, the plane of occlusion, and the compensating curve; orig, Rudolph L. Hanau, engineer, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A., born Capetown, South Africa, 1881-1930
        Hanau R. Articulation defined, analyzed, and formulated. J Am Dent Assoc 1926;13:1694-709
        haptic technology: a technology providing tactile, vibration, or motion feedback relative to a digital presentation
        hard palate ∖hard păl΄ĭt∖: the bony portion of the roof of the mouth
        healing abutment: any dental implant abutment used for a limited time to assist in healing or modification of the adjacent tissues; syn, INTERIM IMPLANT ABUTMENT; comp, HEALING SCREW
        healing component: syn, INTERIM IMPLANT ABUTMENT
        healing screw ∖hē΄lĭng skrōō∖: the component of an endosteal dental implant system used to seal, usually on an interim basis, the dental implant during the healing phase after surgical placement; the purpose of the healing screw is to maintain patency of the internal threaded section for subsequent attachment of the abutment during the second stage surgery or until restored; comp, HEALING ABUTMENT
        heat-activated polymerization: in resins, a thermal activation of smaller molecular chain molecules to form a larger molecular chain; heat activates the benzoyl peroxide, an initiator, which will react with the methylmethacrylate monomer to form polymethylmethacrylate; syn, POLYMERIZATION
        heat cured slang: syn, HEAT-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION, POLYMERIZATION
        heat-pressed ceramics: a ceramic material used to cast, in a molten phase, into a refractory mold
        heel n, slang: comp, DISTAL
        height of contour ∖hīt ŭv kŏn΄tŏŏr΄∖: a line encircling a tooth and designating its greatest circumference at a selected axial position determined by a dental surveyor; a line encircling a body designating its greatest circumference in a specified plane; syn, SURVEY LINE
        HEMA: acronym for hydroxyethyl methacrylate; with the addition of glutaraldehyde, it is one of the agents used in dentin-bonding; polymerizes to form the polymer polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate
        hemiglossectomy ∖hĕm΄ĭ-glô-sĕk΄ta-mē∖ n: resection of one side of the tongue
        hemisection ∖hĕm΄ĭ-sĕk΄shun∖ n: the surgical separation of a multirooted tooth, especially a mandibular molar, through the furcation in such a way that a root and the associated portion of the crown may be removed or the roots restored as individual crowns
        hemostatic agent: any chemical, such as aluminum chloride or ferric sulfate, that acts to control soft-tissue hemorrhage during impression making and restoration placement
        heterograft ∖hĕt΄a-rō-grăft΄∖ n: a graft taken from a donor of another specie; syn, XENOGRAFT
        heterotopic pain ∖hĕt΄er-a-tä΄pĭk pān∖: a general term designating pain felt in an area other than the true originating site
        high fusing ceramics: a ceramic material with a maturation or fusion range of 1315° to 1370° C (2350° to 2500° F)
        high fusing solder: any soldering alloy formulated to melt at approximately 1100° C (2012° F) used to form connectors before ceramic application
        high lip line ∖hī lĭp līn∖: the greatest height to which the inferior border of the upper lip is capable of being raised by muscle function
        high noble metal alloy: as classified by the American Dental Association (1984), any dental casting alloy with at least 60% noble metal (Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os) by weight with at least 40% gold; comp, NOBLE METAL ALLOY
        American Dental Association: Classification system for cast alloys. J Am Dent Assoc 1984;109:766
        hinge axis: syn, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS
        hinge axis of the mandible: syn, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS
        hinge axis point: syn, POSTERIOR REFERENCE POINTS
        hinge bow: syn, KINEMATIC FACEBOW
        hinge joint ∖hĭnj joint∖: a ginglymus joint; a joint that allows motion in one axis
        hinge movement: rotation around a transverse axis; comp, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS
        hinge position ∖hĭnj pa-zĭsh΄an∖ obs: the orientation of parts in a manner permitting hinge movement between them (GPT-4)
        homograft ∖hō΄ma-grăft΄∖ n (1923): a graft taken from one human and transplanted to another; syn, ALLOGRAFT
        horizontal axis of the mandible: syn, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS
        horizontal condylar inclination: acronym is HCI; syn, SAGITTAL CONDYLAR INCLINATION
        horizontal overlap ∖hôr΄ĭ-zŏn-tl, hŏr΄- ō΄ver-lăp΄∖: the projection of teeth beyond their antagonists in the horizontal plane
        horizontal plane ∖hôr΄ĭ-zŏn΄tl, hŏr- plān∖: any plane passing through the body at right angles to both the median and frontal planes, thus dividing the body into upper and lower parts; in dentistry, the plane passing through a tooth at right angles to its long axis
        horizontal plane of reference ∖hôr΄ĭ-zŏn-tl, hŏr΄- plān ŭv rĕf΄er-ans, rĕf΄rans∖: a horizontal plane established on the face of the patient by one anterior reference point and two posterior reference points from which measurements of the posterior anatomic determinants of occlusion and mandibular motion are made
        horizontal reference plane: syn, HORIZONTAL PLANE OF REFERENCE
        horseshoe plate ∖hôrs΄shōō, hôrsh΄- plāt∖ obs, slang: a U-shaped major connector for a removable prosthesis
        host site: syn, RECIPIENT SITE
        Hounsfield scale: a linear radiodensity scale range in Hounsfield units (HU) represented by water (0 HU) and air (1000 HU); used in CT, but not CBCT; orig, Godfrey N Hounsfield, electrical engineer, United Kingdom, 1975
        House classification: the classification of a patient’s personality into four categories: hysterical, exacting, indifferent, and philosophical; orig, Dr Ewell Neil, dentist, U.S.A.
        Neil E. Full Denture Practice. Marshall & Bruce, Nashville, TN 1932; 1-5
        House MM. Prepared from the notes of Study Club by Conley FJ, Dunn AL, Quesnell AJ, and Rogers RM, No. 1; 1950
        Winkler S. House mental classification system of denture patients: The contribution of Milus M. House. J Oral Implantol 2005;31:301-303
        hue ∖hyōō∖ n: often referred to as the basic color, hue is the quality of sensation according to which an observer is aware of the varying wavelengths of radiant energy; the dimension of color dictated by the wavelength of the stimulus that is used to distinguish one family of color from another—as red, green, blue, etc; the attribute of color by means of which a color is perceived to be red, yellow, green, blue, purple, etc. White, black, and grays possess no hue
        Munsell AH. A color notation. Baltimore, MD: Munsell Color Co.; 1975:14-16
        hybrid ∖hī΄brĭd∖ n: 1. anything of mixed origin; 2. offspring of two plants or animals of different genus or species
        hybrid denture ∖hī΄brĭd dĕn΄chur∖ slang: used to describe a removable or fixed denture that is composed of different materials, types of denture teeth (porcelain, plastic, composite resin), variable acrylic denture resins, differing metals or design, etc.; comp, FIXED COMPLETE DENTURE
        hybrid ionomer ∖hī΄brĭd ī΄a-nō΄mĕr∖: a conventional glass ionomer that has been modified to include methacrylate groups in the liquid component; may contain light-activated initiators; setting is by an acid-base reaction with light and dual polymerization; syn, RESIN-MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER; comp, GLASS IONOMER
        hybrid prosthesis ∖hī΄brĭd prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖ slang: a nonspecific term applied to any prosthesis that does not follow conventional design; frequently used to describe a dental prosthesis that is composed of different materials, types of denture teeth (porcelain, plastic, composite resin), variable acrylic denture resins, differing metals or design, etc; may refer to a fixed dental prostheses, removable dental prostheses, or maxillofacial prostheses
        hydrocolloid ∖hī΄dra-kŏl΄oid∖ n (1916): a colloid system in which water is the dispersion medium; those materials described as a colloid sol with water that are used in dentistry as elastic impression materials; comp, IRREVERSIBLE HYDROCOLLOID, REVERSIBLE HYDROCOLLOID
        hydroxyapatite ceramics ∖hī-drŏk΄sē-ăp΄a-tīt sa-răm΄ĭk∖: a composition of calcium and phosphate in physiologic ratios to provide a dense, non-resorbable, biocompatible ceramic material used for dental implants and residual ridge augmentation
        hygienic pontic ∖hī΄jē-ĕn΄ĭk, hī-jĕn΄- pŏn΄tĭk∖: a pontic that is easier to clean because it has a convex-shaped cervical form and does not overlap the edentulous ridge as a concave-shaped cervical form
        hygroscopic expansion ∖hī΄gra-skŏp΄ĭk ĭk-spăn΄shun∖: expansion as a result of the absorption of moisture
        hypalgesia ∖hī΄păl-gē-a∖ n: diminished sensitivity to pain
        hyperactivity ∖hī΄per-ăk΄tĭv΄ĭ-tē∖ n (1867): excessive motor activity; frequently, but not necessarily, associated with internal tension or a neurologic disorder; usually the movements are more rapid than customary for the person
        hyperalgesia ∖hī΄per-ăl-gē΄sē-a∖ n: increased sensitivity or sensibility to pain; comp, PRIMARY HYPERALGESIA
        hyperbaric chamber ∖hī΄per-băr΄ĭk∖: an enclosed area in which a patient may be subjected to pressure of ambient gases greater than 1 atmosphere
        hyperbaric oxygenation ∖hī΄per-băr΄ĭk ŏk΄sĭ-ja-nā΄shun∖: the administration of oxygen under greater than atmospheric pressure; syn, hyperbaric oxygen therapy
        hypercementosis ∖hī΄per-sĭ-mĕn΄tō΄sĭs∖ n: an excessive deposition of cementum
        hyperesthesia ∖hī΄per-ĭs-thē΄zha∖ n (1849): increased sensitivity to stimulation
        hypernasality ∖hī΄per-nā-zăl΄ĭ-tē∖ n: a perceived voice quality in which the nasal cavity acts as a resonating cavity for non-nasal sounds; generally associated with palatopharyngeal inadequacy
        hyperosmia ∖hī΄per-ŏz΄mē-a∖ n: abnormally increased sensitivity to odors
        hyperplasia ∖hī΄per-plā΄zha∖ n (1861): the abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue
        hyperplasia of the coronoid process: pathologic growth of the coronoid process of the mandible after normal growth has ended; syn, OSTEOMA OF THE CORONOID
        hyperplastic tissue ∖hī΄per-plăs΄tik tĭsh΄ōō∖: excessive tissue proliferation, usually as a response to chronic irritation
        hypertrophy ∖hī-pûr΄tra-fē∖ n (1834): an enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or tissue beyond that considered normal as a result of an increase in the size of its constituent cells and in the absence of tumor formation
        hypodontia ∖hī΄pa-dŏn΄zha∖ n: congenital absence of one or more, but not all, of the normal complement of teeth
        hypoesthesia ∖hī΄pō-ĭs-thē΄zha∖ n: diminished sensitivity to stimulation
        hypogeusia ∖hī΄pa-jē΄us-ē΄a∖ n: diminished acuteness of the sense of taste; syn, HYPOGEUSESTHESIA
        hyponasality ∖hī΄pō-nā-zăl΄ĭ-tē∖ n: reduced nasal resonance usually from obstruction in the nasopharynx or nasal passages resulting in an alteration of m, n, and -ng sounds
        hypoplasia ∖hī΄pō-plā΄zha∖ n (1889): defective or incomplete development of an organ or tissue
        hysteresis n: the lagging or delay in the effect of a system’s change; in dentistry, the effect of cooling and reheating of a casting investment can cause casting inaccuracy because the refractory and binder will not revert to their original forms

        I

        I-bar clasp: an infrabulge retentive clasp that resembles an “I” as it approaches perpendicular to the facial height of contour; comp, CLASP
        iatrogenic ∖ī-ăt΄ra-jĕn΄ĭk∖ adj (1924): resulting from the activity of the clinician; applied to disorders induced in the patient by the clinician
        idiopathic ∖ĭd΄ē-ō-păth΄ĭk∖ adj (1669): self-originated; of unknown causation
        illuminance ∖ĭ-lōō΄ma-nans∖ n (ca. 1938): 1. density of luminous flux on a surface; 2. luminous flux incident per unit area of a surface
        illuminant ∖ĭ-lōō΄ma-nant∖ adj (15c): mathematical description of the relative spectral power distribution of a real or imaginary light source; i.e., the relative energy emitted by a source at each wave length in its emission spectrum; comp, CIE STANDARD ILLUMINANT
        image registration: conforming different images or sources into one coordinate system
        image scaling: changing the size of a digital image
        imbibition n: the act or process of imbibing or absorbing; in dentistry, an example is the absorption of water in hydrocolloid impression materials when stored in water and the resultant dimensional change that occurs
        imbrication lines: lines in the dentin caused by changes in mineralization during formation; syn, incremental lines of Von Ebner; orig, Anton Gilbert Victor von Ebner, histologist, Austria, 1842-1925
        immediate denture ∖ĭ-mē΄dē-ĭt dĕn΄chur∖: any fixed or removable dental prosthesis fabricated for placement immediately following the removal of a natural tooth/teeth
        immediate disclusion ∖ĭ-mē΄dē-ĭt dĭs΄ klōō΄shun∖: instantaneous separation of the posterior teeth as a result of the anterior guidance
        immediate disocclusion ∖ĭ-mē΄dē-ĭt dĭs΄a-klōō΄shun∖ nonstand: syn, IMMEDIATE DISCLUSION
        immediate insertion denture: syn, IMMEDIATE DENTURE
        immediate lateral translation: syn, IMMEDIATE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        immediate mandibular lateral translation ∖ĭ-mē΄dē-ĭt măn-dĭb΄ya-lar lăt΄ar-al trăns-lā΄shun∖: acronym is IMLT; the translatory portion of lateral movement in which the nonworking-side condyle appears to move essentially in a straight line and medially, on a 2D tracing, as it leaves the centric relation position; comp, EARLY MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION; PROGRESSIVE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        immediate obturator: syn, SURGICAL OBTURATOR
        immediate replacement denture: syn, IMMEDIATE DENTURE
        immediate side shift substand: syn, IMMEDIATE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        immediate temporary obturator: syn, INTERIM OBTURATOR, SURGICAL OBTURATOR
        impacted fracture ∖ĭm-păk΄tĭd∖: a fracture in which one fragment is driven into another portion of the same or an adjacent bone
        1implant ∖ĭm-plănt΄∖ vt (1890): to graft or insert a material such as an alloplastic substance, an encapsulated drug, or tissue into the body of a recipient
        2implant ∖ĭm-plănt΄∖ n (1809): any object or material, such as an alloplastic substance or other tissue, which is partially or completely inserted or grafted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, prosthetic, or experimental purposes; syn, DENTAL IMPLANT
        implant connecting bar slang: Editorial note for usage: a connecting bar is not an implantable device; syn, BAR CONNECTOR; comp, FRAMEWORK, MESOSTRUCTURE
        implant crown ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ kroun∖ slang: Editorial note for usage: a crown is not an implantable device; syn, CROWN, IMPLANT-SUPPORTED CROWN
        implant dentistry ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ dĕn΄tĭ-strē∖: comp, IMPLANT PROSTHODONTICS
        implant denture ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ dĕn΄chur∖ slang: Editorial note for usage: a denture is not an implantable device; syn, PROSTHESIS
        implant fixture slang, obs: syn, DENTAL IMPLANT
        implant index cast: a gypsum cast with dental implant replicas that is useful in facilitating subsequent transfers and verification of implant-to-implant relationship; Editorial note for usage: an index cast may be a definitive or master cast if it replicates anatomy of the patient; it is an index cast (not a definitive or master cast) without the replication of anatomy; syn, VERIFICATION CAST
        implant indexing device: used to make a registration record, or index, of dental implant positioning useful in facilitating subsequent transfers and verification of implant-to-implant relationship
        implant interface ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ ĭn΄ter-fās∖: the junction of the surface of a dental implant and the surrounding host tissues; syn, OSSEOINTEGRATION
        implant prosthesis ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖ slang: syn, IMPLANT-SUPPORTED PROSTHESIS, PROSTHESIS
        implant prosthodontics ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ prŏs΄tha-dŏn΄tĭks∖: the selection, planning, development, placement, replacement of missing teeth and/or associated structures, and maintenance of restoration(s) with dental implants
        implant stability quotient: acronym is ISQ; the result of a radiofrequency analysis that measures the stability of an implant at one point in time on a scale between 0 and 100
        implant substructure ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ sŭb΄strŭk΄chur∖ slang: the metal implantable component of an eposteal dental implant that is embedded beneath the soft tissues, in contact with the bone, and stabilized by means of endosteal screws; the periosteal tissues retain the framework to the bone; the framework supports the prosthesis, frequently by means of dental implant abutments and other superstructure components; syn, SUBPERIOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT SUBSTRUCTURE; comp, SUBPERIOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT SUPERSTRUCTURE
        implant-supported bar connector: a bar connector that receives support and stability from the dental implants through the dental implant abutments; syn, BAR CONNECTOR, MESOSTRUCTURE; comp, FRAMEWORK
        implant-supported crown ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ kroun∖: an artificial crown that receives support and stability from a dental implant; syn, ARTIFICIAL CROWN, DENTAL PROSTHESIS
        implant-supported denture ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ dĕn΄chur∖: dental prosthesis, such as fixed complete denture, fixed partial denture, removable complete overdenture, removable partial overdenture, as well as maxillofacial prostheses, which can be supported and retained in part or whole by dental implants
        implant-supported prosthesis ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: dental prosthesis, such as artificial crown, fixed complete denture, fixed partial denture, removable complete overdenture, removable partial overdenture, as well as maxillofacial prothesis, which are supported and retained in part or whole by dental implants; Editorial note for usage: terminology to assist in understanding the means of retention and support should be limited to concatenation of three and no more than four adjectives to provide clarity; descriptive terminology may include the method of retention, composition, nature of support, design characteristics, and form of anchorage
        Simon H, Yanase RT. Terminology for implant prostheses. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003;18:539-43
        implant surgery ∖ĭm΄plănt΄ sûr΄ja-rē∖ (1993): the phase of implant dentistry concerning the selection, planning, and placement of the implant body and abutment
        implantology ∖ĭm΄plăn-tŏl΄a-gē∖ obs: a term historically conceived as the study or science of placing and restoring dental implants; comp, IMPLANT DENTISTRY, IMPLANT SURGERY, IMPLANT PROSTHODONTICS
        implement n: syn, DEVICE
        impression ∖ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖ n (14c): a negative likeness or copy in reverse of the surface of an object; an imprint of the teeth and adjacent structures for use in dentistry; comp, ALTERED CAST PARTIAL DENTURE IMPRESSION, COPING IMPRESSION, DENTAL IMPRESSION, DIRECT BONE IMPRESSION, IMPRESSION AREA, IMPRESSION MATERIAL, IMPRESSION TRAY, MASTER IMPRESSION, PARTIAL DENTURE IMPRESSION, PICK-UP IMPRESSION, PRELIMINARY IMPRESSION, SECTIONAL IMPRESSION, TUBE IMPRESSION
        impression area ∖ĭm-prĕsh΄an âr΄ē-a∖: the surface that is recorded in an impression
        impression compound slang: syn, MODELING PLASTIC IMPRESSION COMPOUND
        impression material ∖ĭm-prĕsh΄an mă-tîr΄ē-al∖: any substance or combination of substances used for making an impression or negative reproduction
        impression post: used to facilitate transfer of the intraoral location of an implant or abutment to the relative position on a laboratory cast; it may screw into the dental implant or the dental abutment and is customarily subdivided into implant or abutment types; syn, IMPRESSION TRANSFER COPING; comp, impression cap, IMPRESSION COPING, transfer aid, TRANSFER COPING
        impression surface ∖ĭm-prĕsh΄an sûr΄fas∖ obs: the portion of the denture surface that has its contour determined by the impression (GPT-4); syn, IMPRESSION AREA, INTAGLIO SURFACE
        impression technique ∖ĭm-prĕsh΄an tĕk΄nēk∖: a method and manner used in making a negative likeness (GPT-4)
        impression transfer coping ∖ĭm-prĕsh΄an kō΄pĭng∖ (1998): that component of a tooth or dental implant system used to provide a spatial relationship of a tooth or endosteal dental implant to the alveolar ridge and adjacent dentition or other structures; open tray impression transfer copings can be retained in the impression; closed tray impression transfer copings require detachment from the implants intraorally and replacement into the impression after attaching the analogs or replicas; syn, impression cap, impression element, IMPRESSION POST; comp, COPING PICK-UP IMPRESSION, IMPLANT INDEXING DEVICE, PICK-UP IMPRESSION
        impression tray ∖ĭm-orĕsh΄an trā∖: 1. a receptacle into which suitable impression material is placed to make a negative likeness; 2. a device that is used to carry, confine, and control impression material while making an impression
        impression wax: syn, DENTAL IMPRESSION WAX
        IMRT: acronym for INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY
        incisal guidance ∖ĭn-sĭ΄zal gīd΄ans∖: 1. the influence of the contacting surfaces of the mandibular and maxillary anterior teeth on mandibular movements; 2. the influences of the contacting surfaces of the guide pin and guide table on articulator movements
        incisal guide ∖ĭn-sĭ΄zal gīd∖ obs: the part of an articulator that maintains the incisal guide angle (GPT-4) syn, ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE, CUSTOM GUIDE TABLE
        incisal guide angle ∖ĭn-sĭ΄zal gīd ăng΄gal∖: 1. anatomically, the angle formed by the intersection of the plane of occlusion and a line within the sagittal plane determined by the incisal edges of the maxillary and mandibular central incisors when the teeth are in maximal intercuspal position; 2. on an articulator, that angle formed, in the sagittal plane, between the plane of reference and the slope of the anterior guide table, as viewed in the sagittal plane
        incisal guide pin: syn, ANTERIOR GUIDE PIN
        incisal guide table: syn, ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE
        incisal porcelain: a porcelain blend used for the incisal portion of a ceramic crown restoration; comp, BODY PORCELAIN, GINGIVAL PORCELAIN, SHOULDER PORCELAIN
        incisal reduction: the amount of tooth structure removed at the incisal edge as a result of tooth preparation; comp, AXIAL REDUCTION, ESTHETIC RESHAPING, OCCLUSAL REDUCTION, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING
        incisal rest ∖ĭn-sĭ΄zal rĕst∖: a rigid extension of a removable partial denture that contacts a tooth at the incisal edge
        incisal restoration ∖ĭn-sĭ΄zal rĕs΄ta-rā΄shun∖: any restoration extending along the incisal edge of a tooth
        incisive foramen ∖ĭn-sī΄sĭv fôr΄man∖: a foramen located in the midline on the anterior of the hard palate; it transmits the nasopalatine nerves and vessels; syn, NASOPALATINE FORAMEN
        incisive papilla ∖ĭn-sī΄sĭv pa-pĭl΄a∖: the elevation of soft tissue covering the foramen of the incisive or nasopalatine canal
        incisor: anterior tooth located mesial to the canines that is adapted for cutting
        inclined plane ∖ĭn-klīnd plān∖: any of the inclined cuspal surfaces of a tooth
        incomplete cleft palate ∖ĭn΄kam-plē΄tĭd klĕft păl΄ĭt∖: a cleft involving only a part of the hard and/or soft palate
        incoordination ∖ĭn-kō-ôr΄dn-ā΄shun∖ n (1876): inability to move in a smooth, controlled, symmetrical movement
        index ∖ĭn΄dĕks΄∖ n (1571): a core or mold used to record or maintain the relative position of dental implants or teeth, to a cast, or to some other structure; comp, IMPLANT INDEXING DEVICE, RECORD
        indirect fracture ∖ĭn΄dĭ-rĕkt΄, -dī-∖: a fracture at a point distant from the primary site of injury as a result of secondary forces; comp, FRACTOGRAPHY
        indirect pulp capping ∖ĭn΄dĭ-rĕkt΄, -dī- pŭlp kăp΄ĭng∖: a procedure that seeks to stimulate formation of reparative dentin by placing a material over sound or carious dentin
        indirect retainer ∖ĭn΄dĭ-rĕkt΄, -dī- rĭ-tā΄ner∖: the component of a removable partial denture that assists the direct retainer(s) in preventing displacement of the distal-extension denture base by functioning through lever action on the opposite side of the fulcrum line when the denture base attempts to move away from the tissues in pure rotation around the fulcrum line
        indirect retention ∖ĭn΄dĭ-rĕkt΄, -dī- rĭ-tĕn΄shun∖: the effect achieved by one or more indirect retainers of a removable partial denture that reduces the tendency for a denture base to move in an occlusal direction or in a rotational path about the fulcrum line
        indurate ∖ĭn΄da-rāt∖ vb (1538): to harden; -rated ∖rā΄tĭd∖; -rating ∖rā΄tĭng∖; induration ∖ĭn΄da-rā΄shun∖ n; indurative ∖ĭn΄da-rā΄tĭv∖ adj
        indurated ∖ĭn΄da-rā΄tĭd∖ adj (1604): having become firm or hard, especially by an increase in fibrous elements
        infrabulge ∖ĭn΄fra-bŭlj∖ n: that portion of the crown of a tooth apical to the survey line
        infrabulge clasp ∖ĭn΄fra-bŭlj klăsp∖: a removable partial denture retentive clasp that approaches the retentive undercut from a cervical or infrabulge direction
        infraeruption ∖ĭn΄fra-ĭ-rŭp΄shun∖ n: failure in eruption of a tooth to the established plane of occlusion
        infraocclusion ∖ĭn΄fra-a-klōō΄shun∖ n: malocclusion in which the occluding surfaces of teeth are below the normal plane of occlusion and lacking occlusal contact area
        infrared radiation ∖ĭn΄fra-rĕd∖: electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths between 760 nm and 1000 nm
        infrared soldering: joining the components of a fixed dental prosthesis (between retainers or retainer and pontic) with a specially designed unit that uses infrared light as its heat source; comp, OVEN SOLDERING
        infrastructure ∖ĭn΄fra-strŭk΄chur∖ n: a metal or ceramic framework onto which a second framework or prosthesis will be placed
        ingot ∖ĭng΄gat∖ n: 1. a mold in which metal is cast; 2. a mass of metal cast into a shape convenient for storage and measure that can be remelted for later casting
        initial occlusal contact ∖ĭ-nĭsh΄al a-klōō΄sal kŏn΄tăkt∖: during closure of the mandible, the first or initial contact of opposing teeth between the arches
        initiator: in polymerization, it is a molecule that is activated by light, heat, or a chemical that reacts to produce a chemical chain reaction; camphoroquinone is a light-activated initiator, benzoyl peroxide is a heat-activated initiator, and tertiary amine is the chemical activator for the initiation of benzoyl peroxide to undergo a chemically-activated atom transfer radical addition polymerization (ATRAP)
        injection molding ∖ĭn-jĕk΄shun mōl΄dĭng∖: the adaptation of a plastic material to the negative form of a closed mold by forcing the material into the mold through appropriate gateways; comp, COMPRESSION MOLDING, injection denture, pour denture
        inlay ∖ĭn-lā΄, ĭn΄lā΄∖ n (250 BCE-900 CE Mayan culture): a fixed intracoronal restoration; a dental restoration made outside of a tooth to correspond to the form of the prepared cavity, which is then luted into the tooth
        inlay wax: syn, CASTING WAX
        insertion n: syn, PLACEMENT
        instantaneous axis of rotation ∖ĭn΄stan-tā΄nē-as ăk΄sĭs ŭv rō-tā΄shun∖: the hypothetical center of rotation of a moving body, viewed in a given plane, at any point in time; for any body that has planar motion, there exists, at any instant, some points that have zero velocity and will be fixed at a given instant; the line joining these points is the instantaneous axis of rotation; the intersection of this line with the plane of motion is called the instantaneous center of rotation
        instrument ∖ĭn΄stra-ment∖ n: a tool or implement, especially one used for delicate work or for artistic or scientific purposes; syn, DEVICE
        intaglio ∖ĭn-tăl΄yō, -täl΄-∖ n (1644): 1. an incised or engraved figure in stone or any hard material depressed below the surface of the material such that an impression from the design would yield an image in relief; 2. something carved in intaglio, -ios ∖-yōs∖ pl
        intaglio surface ∖ĭn-tăl΄yō, täl΄- sûr΄fas∖: the portion of the denture or other restoration surface that has its contour determined by the impression; the interior or reversal surface of an object
        integration: comp; FIBROUS INTEGRATION, OSSEOINTEGRATION, TISSUE INTEGRATION
        intensity-modulated radiation therapy: acronym is IMRT; computer optimized, precision delivery of radiation therapy; comp, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)
        interalveolar space: syn, INTERARCH DISTANCE
        interarch distance ∖ĭn΄ter-ärch∖: the interridge distance; the vertical distance between the maxillary and mandibular dentate or edentulous arches under specified conditions; comp, REDUCED INTERARCH DISTANCE
        interarch expansion device slang: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        interceptive occlusal contact slang: syn, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        intercondylar ∖ĭn΄ter-kŏn΄da-lar∖ adj: situated between two condyles
        intercondylar axis: syn, CONDYLAR AXIS
        intercondylar distance ∖ĭn΄ter-kŏn΄da-lar dĭs΄tans∖: the distance between the rotational centers of two condyles or their analogues
        intercuspal contact ∖ĭn΄ter-kŭs΄păl kŏn΄tăkt∖: the contact between the cusps of opposing teeth
        intercuspal contact area ∖ĭn΄ter-kŭs΄păl kŏn΄tăkt âr΄ē-a∖: the range of tooth contacts in maximal intercuspal position
        intercuspal occlusion: syn, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        intercuspal position: syn, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        intercuspation ∖ĭn΄ter-kŭs-pā΄shun∖ n: the proximity of cusps of opposing teeth
        interdental ∖ĭn΄ter-dĕn΄tl∖ adj: between the proximal surfaces of the teeth within the same arch
        interdental gingival space: any interproximal soft tissue loss as a result of periodontal disease, traumatic, mechanical or chemical preparation or crown lengthening procedures; syn, GINGIVAL EMBRASURE
        interdental papilla ∖ĭn΄ter-dĕn΄tl pa-pĭl΄a∖: a projection of the gingiva filling the space apical to the proximal contact area of two adjacent teeth
        interdental space: comp, DIASTEMA, INTERARCH DISTANCE, INTERDENTAL GINGIVAL SPACE, INTERPROXIMAL SPACE
        interdental splint ∖ĭn΄ter-dĕn΄tl splĭnt∖: a splint for treatment of fractures and consisting of a metal or acrylic resin device that is wired to the teeth in the maxillae and mandible and joined to keep the segments immobile; syn, GUNNING’S SPLINT
        interdigitated occlusion n, slang : Editorial note for usage: teeth do not interdigitate, but are intercuspated, fingers are interdigitated; comp, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        interference ∖ĭn΄ter-fîr΄ans∖ n (1783): in dentistry, any tooth contact that interferes with or hinders harmonious mandibular movement; an undesirable tooth contact
        interim denture: syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        interim obturator ∖ĭn΄ter-ĭm ŏb΄ta-rā΄tor∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis, which is made following completion of initial healing from the surgical resection of a portion or all of one or both maxillae; this prosthesis replaces the surgical obturator, which is usually inserted at or immediately following the resection; generally, an interim obturator is made to facilitate closure of the resultant defect after initial healing has been completed; Editorial note for usage: unlike the surgical obturator, which usually is made prior to surgery and frequently revised in the operating room during surgery, the interim obturator is made when the defect margins are clearly defined and further surgical revisions are not planned; it is a provisional prosthesis; also, it frequently must be revised (termed an obturator prosthesis modification) during subsequent dental procedures (i.e., restorations, gingival surgery, etc.) as well as to compensate for further tissue shrinkage before a definitive obturator prosthesis is made; comp, OBTURATOR PROSTHESIS MODIFICATION, SURGICAL OBTURATOR
        interim ocular prosthesis ∖ĭn΄ter-ĭm ŏk΄ya-lar prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: an interim replacement generally made of clear acrylic resin for an eye lost as a result of surgery or trauma; no attempt is made to reestablish esthetics; syn, CONFORMER, OCULAR CONFORMER, SECTION
        interim palatal lift prosthesis: syn, PALATAL LIFT PROSTHESIS
        interim prosthesis ∖ĭn΄ter-ĭ prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a fixed or removable dental prosthesis, or maxillofacial prosthesis, designed to enhance esthetics, stabilization, and/or function for a limited period of time, after which it is to be replaced by a definitive dental or maxillofacial prosthesis; often such prostheses are used to assist in determination of the therapeutic effectiveness of a specific treatment plan or the form and function of the planned for definitive prosthesis; syn, PROVISIONAL PROSTHESIS, PROVISIONAL RESTORATION
        interlock ∖ĭn΄ter-lŏk∖ n (1874): a device connecting a fixed unit or a removable dental prosthesis to another fixed unit
        interlocking cast core: a foundation restoration for an endodontically treated, multi-rooted tooth that comprises multiple castings to engage divergent roots
        intermaxillary fixation: acronym is IMF; syn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR FIXATION
        intermaxillary record slang, obs : Editorial note for usage: this is not a relationship record between maxillae; syn, JAW RELATION RECORD, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD
        intermaxillary relation slang: syn, JAW RELATION RECORD, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP
        intermediary jaw movement ∖ĭn΄ter-mē΄dē-ĕr΄ē jô mōōv΄ment∖ obs, nonstand: all movements between the extremes of mandibular excursions (GPT-3); comp, ECCENTRIC OCCLUSION, MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION
        intermediate abutment ∖ĭn΄ter-mē΄dē-ĭt a-bŭt΄ment∖: a natural tooth or implant abutment that is located between terminal abutments that serve to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis
        internal attachment: comp, PRECISION ATTACHMENT, SEMIPRECISION ATTACHMENT
        internal connector ∖ĭn-tûr΄nal ka-nĕk΄tor∖: a nonrigid connector of varying geometric designs that uses a matrix to unite the members of a fixed partial denture
        internal derangement ∖ĭn-tûr΄nal dĭ-rănj΄ment∖: syn, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DERANGEMENT
        internal rest: comp, PRECISION REST, SEMIPRECISION REST
        interocclusal ∖ĭn΄ter-a-klōō΄sal∖ adj: between the occlusal surfaces of opposing teeth
        interocclusal clearance ∖ĭn΄ter-a-klōō΄sal klîr΄ans∖: the amount of reduction achieved during tooth preparation to provide for an adequate thickness of restorative material; comp, INTEROCCLUSAL DISTANCE
        interocclusal distance ∖ĭn΄ter-a-klōō΄sal dĭs΄tans∖: the distance between the occluding surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when the mandible is in a specified position; comp, INTEROCCLUSAL REST DISTANCE
        interocclusal gap obs: syn, INTEROCCLUSAL REST SPACE
        interocclusal record ∖ĭn΄ter-a-klōō΄sal rĕk΄ard∖: a registration of the positional relationship of the opposing teeth or arches; a record of the positional relationship of the teeth or jaws to each other
        interocclusal rest distance: the difference between the rest vertical dimension and the occlusal vertical dimension; syn, INTEROCCLUSAL REST SPACE; comp, INTEROCCLUSAL DISTANCE
        interocclusal rest space ∖ĭn΄ter-a-klōō΄sal rĕst spās∖: syn, INTEROCCLUSAL REST DISTANCE
        interpenetrating phase composite: the penetration of a porous ceramic material by melted glass or by a polymer that can render a tougher dental material
        interproximal contact area∖ĭn΄ter-prŏk΄sa-mal kŏn΄tăkt∖: the area of a tooth that is in close association, connection, or contact with an adjacent tooth in the same arch; syn, CONTACT AREA
        interproximal space ∖ĭn΄ter-prŏk΄sa-mal spās∖: the space between adjacent teeth in a dental arch. It is divided into the embrasure space, occlusal to the contact point, and the septal space, gingival to the contact point; comp, GINGIVAL EMBRASURE, OCCLUSAL EMBRASURE
        interradicular space: the space between roots of adjacent teeth in a dental arch
        interridge distance: syn, INTERARCH DISTANCE
        intracapsular adhesion ∖ĭn΄tra-kăp΄sa-lar ăd-hē΄zhen∖: adhesions occurring within the joint capsule, resulting in reduced mobility
        intracapsular ankylosis ∖ĭn΄tra-kăp΄sa-lar ăng΄ka-lō΄sĭs∖: diminished joint motion as a result of disease, injury, or a surgical procedure within a joint capsule
        intracapsular disorder ∖ĭn΄tra-kăp΄sa-lar dĭs-ôr΄der∖: a problem associated with the masticatory system in which the etiological factors are located within the temporomandibular joint capsule
        intracapsular fracture ∖ĭn΄tra-kăp΄sa-lar frăk΄chur∖: a fracture of the condyle of the mandible occurring within the confines of the capsule of the temporomandibular joint; syn, intra-articular fracture
        intracondylar ∖ĭn΄tra-kŏn΄dĭ΄lar∖ adj: within the condyle
        intracoronal ∖ĭn΄tra-kôr-a-nal∖ adj: 1. within the confines of the cusps and normal proximal/axial contours of a tooth; 2. within the normal contours of the clinical crown of a tooth
        intracoronal attachment: any prefabricated or custom-made attachment for support and retention of a fixed or removable dental prosthesis; the patrix and matrix components are positioned within the normal contours of the abutment tooth; comp, EXTRACORONAL ATTACHMENT, PRECISION ATTACHMENT
        intramucosal ∖ĭn΄tra-myōō-kō΄sal∖ adj: situated, formed by, or occurring within the mucosa
        intramucosal implant: syn, MUCOSAL INSERT
        intramucosal insert: syn, MUCOSAL INSERT
        intraoral ∖ĭn΄tra-ôr΄al∖ adj: within the mouth
        intraoral tracing ∖ĭn΄tra-ôr΄al trā΄sĭng∖: a tracing made within the oral cavity; Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, MANDIBULAR TRACER, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, STYLUS TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        intraosseous ∖ĭn΄tra-ŏs΄ē-us∖ n: within bone
        intrinsic coloring ∖ĭn-trĭn΄zĭk, -sĭk kŭl΄ar-ĭng∖: coloring from within; the incorporation of a colorant within the material of a prosthesis or restoration
        intrusion ∖ĭn-trōō΄zhen∖ n: movement of a tooth in an apical direction
        invariant color match ∖ĭn-vâr΄ē-ant kŭl΄ar măch∖: a perfect color match under all light conditions
        inverted cusp tooth ∖ĭn-vŭr΄tĭd kŭsp tōōth∖ obs: a nonanatomic posterior porcelain denture tooth that had circular indentations where cusps would normally be located
        invest ∖ĭn-vĕst΄∖ vb: to surround, envelop, or embed in an investment material; comp, VACUUM INVESTING
        investing ∖ĭn-vĕs΄tĭng∖ n: the process of covering or enveloping, wholly or in part, an object such as a denture, tooth, wax form, crown, etc., with a suitable investment material before processing, soldering, or casting
        investment n: comp, DENTAL CASTING INVESTMENT, REFRACTORY INVESTMENT
        investment cast ∖ĭn-vĕst΄ment kăst∖: a cast made of a material that will withstand high temperature without disintegration; syn, REFRACTORY CAST
        ion exchange strengthening ∖ī΄an, ī΄ŏn΄ ĭks-chănj΄ strĕngk΄tha-nĭng∖: the chemical process whereby the surface of a glass is placed in compression by the replacement of a small ion by a larger one while maintaining chemical neutrality
        ionizing radiation ∖ī΄a-nī΄zĭng rā΄dē-ā-shun∖: any radiation capable of displacing electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby producing ions
        iridescent ∖ĭr΄ĭ-dĕs΄ant∖ adj (1796): colors produced by interference, refraction, or diffraction
        irreversible hydrocolloid ∖ĭr΄ĭ-vûr΄sa-bal hī΄dra-kŏl΄oid΄∖: a hydrocolloid consisting of a sol of alginic acid having a physical state that is changed by an irreversible chemical reaction forming insoluble calcium alginate; syn, ALGINATE, DENTAL ALGINATE
        ischemia ∖ĭ-skē΄mē-a∖ n (ca. 1860): local and temporary deficiency of blood, chiefly resulting from the contraction of a blood vessel
        isodose lines: a graphic curve when points of equal radiation therapy dosage are connected to form a line; an isodose chart is made with several isodose curves
        isograft ∖ī΄sa-grăft∖ n (1909): a graft from one individual to another with the same genetic basis, as in identical twins; syn, isogeneic graft, syngraft
        isometric contraction ∖ī΄sa-mĕt΄rĭk kon-trăk΄shun∖: muscular contraction in which there is no change in the length of the muscle during contraction
        isotonic contraction ∖ī΄sa-tŏn΄ĭk kon-trăk΄shun∖: muscular contraction in which there is a shortening of the length of the muscle while the muscle maintains a constant tension
        isotope ∖ī΄sa-tōp΄∖ n (ca 1913): a chemical element having the same atomic number as another but possessing a different atomic mass
        ISQ: acronym for IMPLANT STABILITY QUOTIENT
        iterative reconstruction: non-linear inverse algorithms to create 3D images with incomplete data points; e.g., it is used in CBCT images

        J

        jacket crown obs, slang: syn , CERAMIC CROWN, RESIN CROWN
        Jackson crib clasp obs: a one-piece clasp bent to engage the mesial and distal interproximal undercuts in adjacent natural teeth; usually it was made by hand bending of a straight wire of appropriate dimensions; orig, V. H. Jackson, dentist, New York, NY, U.S.A.
        Kennedy E. The Jackson crib clasp technique in partial denture construction. Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing; 1928
        Essig CJ. The American textbook of prosthetic dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers and Co., 1896:185-87
        Jackson magnet: eponym for permanent magnetic alloy magnets using rare earth metals adapted for oral use; orig, Thomas R. Jackson, dentist, U.S.A.
        Jackson TR. New rare earth magnetic technology: The Jackson solid-state attachment system. Trends Tech Contemp Dent Lab 1986;5:31-39
        jaw ∖jô∖ n (14c): the structure bearing the teeth; syn, MANDIBLE, MAXILLAE
        jaw malposition ∖jô măl΄pa-zĭsh΄an∖ obs: any abnormal position of the mandible (GPT-3)
        jaw movement: syn, MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT
        jaw record: syn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD
        jaw relation: syn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP
        jaw relation record: syn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD; comp, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD, CENTRIC RELATION INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        jaw repositioning: syn, MANDIBULAR REPOSITIONING
        jig ∖jĭg∖: a device used to maintain mechanically a positional relationship between a piece of work and a tool or between components during assembly or alteration; syn, INDEX, RECORD
        joint ∖joint∖ n (13c): the place of union of two or more bones; comp, ARTHRODIAL JOINT, COMPOUND JOINT, DIARTHRODIAL JOINT, GINGLYMUS JOINT, SIMPLE JOINT, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
        joint crepitus ∖joint krĕp΄ĭ-tŭs∖: the grating sensation caused by the rubbing together of the bony surfaces of joints; syn, articular crepitus
        joint derangement: syn, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DERANGEMENT
        joint photographic experts group (1992): acronym is JPEG; a common image filing format used in digital JPEG photography; JPEG 2000 offers improved image quality in better compression formats as compared with the standard JPEG
        jump case slang: comp, REBASE, RELINE
        junctional epithelium ∖jŭngk΄shun-al ĕp΄a-thē΄lē-um∖: a single or multi-layer of non-keratinizing cells adhering to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival sulcus; attachment with hemidesmosomes and internal basal lamina; syn, EPITHELIAL ATTACHMENT

        K

        kaolin ∖kā΄a-lĭn∖ n (1727): fine, usually white, clay that is used in ceramics and refractory materials as a filler or extender
        keeper ∖kē΄par∖ n (14c): any one of various devices used for keeping something in position; Editorial note for usage: in dentistry, this is usually construed to mean an alloy attached to one element of a restoration to which a magnet may adhere
        Kelly’s syndrome: orig, Ellsworth Kelly, prosthodontist, U.S.A.; syn, COMBINATION SYNDROME
        Kelly E. Changes caused by a mandibular removable partial denture opposing a maxillary complete denture. J Prosthet Dent 1972;27:140-50
        Kelvin temperature: absolute temperature indicated by the symbol K; zero Kelvin = minus 273° C; orig, William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), mathematician/physicist, Irish born/Scotland, United Kingdom, 1824-1907
        Kennedy bar: orig, Edward Kennedy, dentist, U.S.A.; syn, CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR
        Kennedy E. Partial denture construction. Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing; 1928
        Kennedy bar connector: orig, Edward Kennedy, dentist, U.S.A.; syn, CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR
        Kennedy E. Partial denture construction. Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing; 1928
        Kennedy classification of removable partial dentures: a classification of partially edentulous arches divisible into four classes. Class I: bilateral edentulous areas located posterior to the remaining natural teeth; Class II: a unilateral edentulous area located posterior to the remaining natural teeth; Class III: a unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth located both anterior and posterior to it; Class IV: a single bilateral edentulous area located anterior to the remaining natural teeth; edentulous areas, in addition to those determining the main types, were designated as modification spaces; orig, Edward Kennedy, dentist, U.S.A., variably dated 1923, 1925, and 1928; O. C. Applegate’s Rules govern application of the Kennedy system
        Kennedy E. Partial denture construction. Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing; 1928
        keratin ∖kĕr΄a-tĭn∖ n (1847): a protein present in all cuticular (cornified) structures of the body, such as hair, epidermis, horns, and the organic matrix of the enamel of the teeth
        keratinization ∖kĕr΄a-tĭn-ĭ-zā-shun∖ n: the process of maturation of keratinocytes; the formation of a protein layer (keratin) on the surface of some epithelia
        keratinized gingiva ∖kĕr΄a-tĭ-nīzd jĭn΄ja-va∖: the oral surface of the gingiva extending from the mucogingival junction to the gingival margin; the pattern of keratinization may be ortho- or para-
        keyway ∖kē΄wā΄∖ n, slang: an interlock with a matrix and patrix between the units of a fixed partial denture; it may serve two functions: (1) to hold the pontic in the proper relationship to the edentulous ridge and the opposing teeth during occlusal adjustment on the working cast (during application of any veneering material) and (2) to reinforce the connector after soldering; syn, ATTACHMENT
        kinematic axis ∖kĭn΄a-măt΄ĭk ăk΄sĭs∖: the transverse horizontal axis connecting the rotational centers of the right and left condyles
        kinematic facebow ∖kĭn΄a-măt΄ĭk fās-bō∖ (1924): a facebow with adjustable caliper ends used to locate the transverse horizontal axis of the mandible; orig, Beverly B. McCollum, dentist, U.S.A., 1921
        kinematic facebow record: a registration obtained that relates the maxillary cast to the condylar elements of an articulator by using the transverse horizontal axis reference points; syn, FACEBOW RECORD
        kinematics ∖kĭn΄a-măt΄ĭks∖: the phase of mechanics that deals with the possible motions of a material body
        Kingsley splint ∖Kĭngz΄lē΄ splĭnt∖ obs: eponym for a maxillary splint used to apply traction to reduce and immobilize maxillary fractures through wings attached to a head device by elastics; C. L. Goddard cites Dr Kingsley as first using “the occipital appliance” in 1866; orig; Norman William Kingsley, dentist, U.S.A., 1829-1913
        Essig CJ. The American textbook of prosthetic dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers; 1896:204
        Kingsley NW. Oral deformities. 1866:134
        knife-edge finish line: a clearly defined junction of prepared and unprepared tooth structure that lacks a concavity at the gingival termination; comp, BEVELED SHOULDER FINISH LINE, CHAMFER FINISH LINE , FEATHER-EDGE, SHOULDER FINISH LINE
        Knoop hardness number: acronym is KHN; an eponym for a measure of hardness obtained with a diamond pyramid indenter and rhombic base with included angles of 172.5 and 130 degrees; KHN is the ratio of the applied load to the area of the indentation
        F Knoop, CG Peters, WB Emerson. A sensitive pyramidal-diamond tool for indentation measurements. J Res Natl Bur Stands (U.S.) 1939;23:39-61
        Knoop hardness tests: eponym for a surface hardness test that uses a diamond stylus; used for harder materials and characterized by the diamond- or rhomboid-shaped indentation; the indentation micro-hardness test uses a rhombic-based pyramidal diamond indenter; the long diagonal of the resulting indentation is measured to determine the hardness; this test is suitable for most classes of materials including brittle and elastomeric; orig, Frederick Knoop, engineer, U.S.A.
        Knoop F, Peters CG, Emerson WB. A sensitive pyramidal diamond tool for indentation measurements. J Res Nat Bur Stand 1939;12:39-45
        Kubelka-Munk scattering coefficient: eponym for the multiple (diffuse) scattering coefficient for a unit of thickness and concentration of scattering material in a medium of a different refractive index as used in the Kubelka-Munk equation; it is the rate of increase of reflectance of a layer over black, as thickness is increased; hence, the assumption is made that the entire scattering is in the backward or reverse direction from that of the incident diffuse light; orig, P. Kubelka, 1948
        Kubelka P. New contributions to the optics of intensely light scattering materials. Part 1. J Opt Soc Am 1948;38:448-57
        Kubelka-Munk theory: eponym for a theory describing the optical behavior of materials containing small particles that scatter and absorb radiant energy; it is widely used for color matching
        Kubelka P, Munk F. Ein Beitrag zur Optik der farbenstriche. Z Tech Phys 1931;12:593-601

        L

        labial ∖lā΄bē-al∖ adj (1594): 1. of or pertaining to the lip; 2. toward the lip; comp, BUCCAL, FACIAL
        labial bar: syn, LABIAL BAR CONNECTOR
        labial bar connector ∖lā΄bē-al bär ka-nĕk΄tor∖: a major connector located labial to the dental arch
        labial flange ∖lā΄bē-al flănj∖: the portion of the flange of a denture that occupies the labial vestibule of the mouth
        labial splint ∖lā΄bē-al splĭnt∖: a device of plastic, metal, or both, made to conform to the outer aspect of the dental arch and used in the management of jaw and facial injuries
        labial vestibule ∖lā΄bē-al vĕs΄ta-byōōl∖: the portion of the oral cavity that is bounded on one side by the teeth, gingiva, and alveolar ridge (in the edentulous mouth, the residual ridge) and on the other by the lips anterior to the buccal frenula
        labioversion ∖lā΄bē-ō-vûr΄shun∖ n: labial position of a tooth beyond the normal arch form
        laboratory prescription slang: syn, LABORATORY WORK AUTHORIZATION, WORK AUTHORIZATION
        laboratory work authorization: a signed written order provided by the dentist to the dental laboratory detailing the work to be performed; a component of the patient’s dental record specifying the design and materials to be used; syn, WORK AUTHORIZATION
        lamina dura ∖lăm΄a-na dŭr΄a∖: the layer of compact bone forming the wall of a tooth alveolus
        land area ∖lănd âr΄ē-a∖: the portion of a dental cast that extends beyond the impression’s replica surface laterally that defines the area between the end of the replica’s surface and the cast base
        lap ∖lăp∖ vb (14c): 1. to fold over or around something; to wind about; to envelop entirely; 2. to fold over in successive layers; 3. to place over and cover a part of another; 4. to dress smooth or to polish to a high degree by working two surfaces together with or without abrasives until a very close fit is achieved; lapped ∖(lăpd∖; lapping ∖lă΄pĭng∖ vt
        lapping device ∖lă΄per∖ n: a device used to dress smooth or polish by working two surfaces together
        laser ∖lā΄zer∖ n (1957): acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; a device that transforms light of various frequencies into an intense, small, and nearly non-divergent beam of monochromatic radiation, within the visible range
        laser scanner: a 3D scanner measuring the distance to an object surface by triangulation mechanism
        laser sintering: syn, SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
        laser therapy ∖lā΄zer thĕr΄a-pē∖: the use of laser energy in the treatment of tissue pathosis
        laser welding ∖lā΄zer wĕl΄dĭng∖: the joining of metal components through the use of heat generated with a laser beam
        late closing click ∖lāt klō΄zĭng klĭk∖: the sound emanating from the temporomandibular joint that occurs just prior to termination of closure in some patients with anteriorly displaced discs
        late opening click ∖lāt ō΄pa-nĭng klĭk∖: the sound emanating from the temporomandibular joint that occurs just prior to termination of opening in some patients with anteriorly displaced discs
        lateral ∖lăt΄ar-al∖ adj (15c): 1. positions either right or left of the midsagittal plane; 2. denotes a position farther from the median plane or midline of the body or structure
        lateral checkbite slang: syn, LATERAL INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        lateral condylar inclination ∖lăt΄ar-al kŏn΄da-lar ĭn΄kla-nā΄shun∖: the angle formed by the path of the moving condyle within the horizontal plane compared with the median plane (anterior-posterior movement) and within the frontal plane when compared with the horizontal plane (superior-inferior movement); comp, LATEROTRUSION
        lateral condylar path ∖lăt΄ar-al kŏn΄da-lar păth∖: the path of movement of the nonworking condyle-disc assembly in the joint cavity when a lateral mandibular movement is made
        lateral incisor ∖lăt΄ar-al ĭn-sī΄zor∖: the second incisor
        lateral interocclusal record ∖lăt΄ar-al ĭn΄ter-a-klōō΄sal rĕk΄ard΄∖: a registration of the positional relationship of opposing teeth or arches made in either a right or left lateral position of the mandible
        lateral mandibular movement: syn, MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        lateral mandibular relation ∖lăt΄ar-al măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ-lā΄shun∖: the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae in a position to the left or right of the midsagittal plane
        lateral movement ∖lăt΄ar-al mōōv΄ment∖ obs: a movement from either right or left of the midsagittal plane (GPT-4)
        lateral protrusion: syn, LATEROPROTRUSION
        lateral relation ∖lăt΄ar-al rĭ-lā΄shun∖ obs: the relation of the mandible to the maxillae when the lower jaw is in a position to either side of centric relation (GPT-4)
        lateral side shift substand: syn, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION
        laterodetrusion ∖lăt΄ar-ō-de-trōō΄zhun∖ n: lateral and downward movement of the condyle on the working-side; comp, LATEROTRUSION
        lateroprotrusion ∖lăt΄ar-al-prō-trōō΄zhun∖ n: a protrusive movement of the mandibular condyle in which there is a lateral component; comp, LATEROTRUSION
        lateroretrusion ∖lăt-ar-ō-rĭ-trōō΄shun∖ n: lateral and backward movement of the condyle on the working-side; comp, LATEROTRUSION
        laterosurtrusion ∖lăt-ar-ō-sûr-trōō΄shun∖ n: lateral and upward movement of the condyle on the working-side; comp, LATEROTRUSION
        laterotrusion ∖lăt-ar-ō-trōō΄shun∖ n: condylar movement on the working-side in the horizontal plane; this term may be used in combination with terms describing condylar movement in other planes; comp, LATERODETRUSION, LATEROPROTRUSION, LATERORETRUSION, LATEROSURTRUSION
        latticework: the cast metal alloy minor connector extension for a removable partial denture or maxillofacial prosthesis designed for the retention of a polymerized resin base; syn, open lattice, mesh, meshwork, bead, or nailhead
        Le Fort fracture: eponym for a midfacial fracture, classified into three categories (I, II, III); orig; Leon Clement Le Fort, surgeon, France, 1829-1893
        Le Fort I fracture: eponym for a horizontal segmented fracture of the alveolar process of the maxillae, in which the teeth are usually contained within the detached portion
        Le Fort II fracture: eponym for a pyramidal fracture of the midfacial skeleton with the principal fracture lines meeting at an apex at or near the superior aspect of the nasal bones
        Le Fort III fracture: eponym for a craniofacial dysjunction fracture in which the entire maxillae and one or more facial bones are completely separated from the craniofacial skeleton
        leaf gauge ∖lēf gāj∖: a set of blades or leaves of increasing thickness used to measure the distance between two points or to provide metered separation; orig, James Hart Long, prosthodontist, Daytona Beach, Florida, U.S.A.
        Long JH. Locating centric relation with a leaf gauge. J Prosthet Dent 1973;29:608-10
        lengthening of the clinical crown ∖lĕngk΄tha-nĭng ŭv tha klĭn΄ĭ-kal kroun∖: a surgical procedure designed to increase the extent of supragingival tooth structure for restorative or esthetic purposes; syn, CROWN LENGTHENING
        LET: acronym for linear energy transfer; the energy dissipation of ionizing radiation over a given linear distance; highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays cause low ion concentration and thus have a relatively low LET, x-rays and beta particles exhibit intermediate LET, and alpha particles have a high LET
        leucite n: a potassium alumino-silicate crystal with a high thermal expansion coefficient; contributes to flexural strength in ceramics
        light ∖līt∖ n (bef. 12c): the aspect of electromagnetic radiation of which the human observer is aware through the visual sensations that arise from the stimulation of the retina of the eye
        light-activated polymerization n: a chemical reaction wherein photons activate an initiator, such as camphoroquinone, which will react in the presence of an aliphatic amine with the urethane dimethacrylate oligomer and an acrylic copolymer; syn, POLYMERIZATION
        light-cured slang, obs : syn, LIGHT-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION
        light source ∖līt sors∖: an object that emits light or radiant energy to which the human eye is sensitive; the emission of a light source can be described by the relative amount of energy emitted at each wavelength in the visible spectrum; the emission may be described in terms of its correlated color temperature
        lightness ∖līt΄nĭs∖ n (bef. 12c): 1. achromatic dimension necessary to describe the 3D nature of color, the others being hue and saturation; the lightness dimension may also be called brightness; in the Munsell color order system, the lightness dimension is called value; 2. perception by which white objects are distinguished from gray and light objects from dark ones; equivalent to shading in grays
        limbus ∖lĭm΄bas∖ n: a border or interface especially if marked by a difference in color or structure between adjoining parts
        line angle ∖līn ang΄gal∖: the point of convergence of two planes in a tooth preparation or on a tooth surface
        line of occlusion ∖līn ŭv a-klōō΄shun∖: the alignment of the occluding surfaces of the teeth as viewed in the horizontal plane; syn, OCCLUSAL PLANE
        linear coefficient of thermal expansion: the fractional change in length of a given material per degree change in temperature
        linear occlusion ∖lĭn΄ē-ar a-klōō΄shun∖ obs: the occlusal arrangement of artificial teeth, as viewed in the horizontal plane, wherein the masticatory surfaces of the mandibular posterior artificial teeth have a straight, long, narrow occlusal form resembling that of a line, usually articulating with opposing monoplane teeth
        Frush JP. Linear occlusion. Ill Dent J 1966;35:788-94
        lingual ∖lĭng΄gwal∖ adj (15c): pertaining to the tongue; next to or toward the tongue
        lingual apron slang: syn, LINGUAL PLATE
        lingual bar: syn, LINGUAL BAR CONNECTOR
        lingual bar connector ∖lĭng΄gwal bär ka-nĕk΄tor∖: a mandibular major connector of a removable partial denture located lingual to the dental arch
        lingual blanket slang: syn, LINGUAL PLATE
        lingual flange ∖lĭng΄gwal flănj∖: the portion of the flange of a mandibular denture that occupies the alveololingual sulcus
        lingual inclination ∖lĭng΄gwal ĭn-kla-nā΄shun∖: deviation of the coronal portion of a tooth from the vertical plane toward the tongue
        lingual plate ∖lĭng΄gwal plāt∖: the portion of the major connector of a removable partial denture contacting the lingual surfaces of the natural teeth; syn, linguoplate
        lingual rest ∖lĭng΄gwal rĕst∖: a metallic extension of a removable partial denture framework that fits into a prepared depression within an abutment tooth's lingual surface
        lingual rest seat ∖lĭng΄gwal rĕst sēt∖: the depression prepared on the lingual surface of an abutment tooth to accept the metal rest of a removable partial denture (the lingual rest)
        lingual splint ∖lĭng΄gwal splĭnt∖: a dental splint conforming to the inner aspect of the dental arch
        lingual strap slang, obs: syn, LINGUAL PLATE
        lingualized occlusion ∖lĭng΄gwa-līzd a-klōō΄shun∖: orig, this concept was first described by S. Howard Payne, prosthodontist, U.S.A., 1941; this form of denture occlusion articulates the maxillary lingual cusps with the mandibular occlusal surfaces in centric occlusion, working and nonworking mandibular positions; orig, the term originated from Earl Pound, prosthodontist, U.S.A.
        Payne SH. A posterior set-up to meet individual requirements. Dent Digest 1941;47:20-22
        Pound E. Utilizing speech to simplify a personalized denture service. J Prosthet Dent 1970;24:586-600
        linguocclusion ∖lĭng΄gwa-a-klōō΄shun∖ n: an occlusion in which a tooth or group of teeth is located lingual to its normal position
        linguoversion ∖lĭng΄gwa-vûr΄zhun, -shun∖ n: lingual or palatal position of a tooth beyond the normal arch form
        lip line: comp, HIGH LIP LINE, LOW LIP LINE
        lip switch operation ∖lĭp swĭch ŏp΄a-rā΄shun∖: tissues borrowed from one lip and transferred to the other; also used to describe a modified vestibuloplasty procedure; comp, ABBE FLAP, ESTLANDER’S OPERATION
        Kiethley JL, Gamble JW. The lip switch: a modification of Kazanjian’s labial vestibuloplasty. J Oral Surg 1978;36:701-705
        lithium ceramics: a class of ceramic characterized by lithium silicate crystal nuclei in a network of silica glass
        lithium disilicate: a medium-strength glass-ceramic characterized by a network of SiO4 tetrahedra surrounding primarily lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5) crystals
        loading: comp, IMMEDIATE LOADING, PROGRESSIVE LOADING
        lobe ∖lōb∖ n (1525): a curved or rounded projection or division, especially of a body organ or part
        local etiologic factors ∖lō΄kal ē΄tē-a-lŏj΄ĭk făk΄tarz∖: the environmental influences that may be implicated in the causation, modification, and/or perpetuation of a disease entity
        localization film ∖lō΄ka-lĭ-zā΄shun fĭlm∖: a radiograph made with radiopaque markers to localize the position of a body (i.e., a tumor) relative to external landmarks
        long axis ∖lŏng ăk΄sĭs∖: a theoretical line passing lengthwise through the center of a body
        long centric articulation nonstand: syn, INTERCUSPAL CONTACT AREA
        longitudinal axis: syn, SAGITTAL AXIS
        lost-wax casting technique: the casting of metal alloy or ceramics into a mold produced by surrounding (investing) an expendable (wax) pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room temperature, after which the pattern is removed through the use of heat; comp, INVESTMENT CAST
        low lip line ∖lō lĭp līn∖: 1. the lowest position of the inferior border of the upper lip when it is at rest; 2. the lowest position of the superior border of the lower lip during smiling or voluntary retraction
        lower impression ∖lō΄ar ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖ slang: an impression of the mandibular jaw or dental structures (GPT-4); syn, MANDIBULAR IMPRESSION
        lower ridge slope ∖lō΄ar rĭj slōp∖ obs: 1. the slope of the mandibular residual ridge in the second and third molar region as seen from the buccal side (GPT-1); 2. the portion of the lower residual ridge, either lingual, labial, or buccal, between the crest of the ridge and the mucobuccal fold or flexion line of the peripheral tissues (GPT-1)
        Lucia jig: eponym for ANTERIOR DEPROGRAMMING DEVICE; orig, Victor O. Lucia, prosthodontist, New Jersey and New York, U.S.A.
        Lucia VO. A technique for recording centric relation. J Prosthet Dent 1964;14:492-505
        lug ∖lŭg∖ n: something that projects away from an object and is generally used as a support or for connection to a body
        luminance ∖lōō΄ma-nans∖ n (1880): the intensity of light per unit area
        1lute ∖lōōt∖ n (15c): a substance, such as cement or clay, used for placing a joint or coating a porous surface to make it impervious to liquid or gas; syn, CEMENT
        2lute ∖lōōt∖ vt: to fasten, attach, or seal; luted ∖lōō΄tĭd∖; luting ∖lōō΄tĭng∖; syn, CEMENT
        luting agent: any material used to attach or cement indirect restorations to prepared teeth
        luxation n (1552): an abnormal anterior displacement of the mandibular condyle away from the glenoid fossa that is self-reducing; traumatic displacement of a tooth away from the socket

        M

        macroglossia ∖măk΄rō-glŏ΄zha∖ n: excessive size of the tongue
        macula ∖măk΄ya-la∖ n (1863): a patch of tissue that is altered in color but usually not elevated; usually characteristic of various diseases; maculae pl
        magnetic flux density: abbr, T for Tesla; a measure of the strength of a magnetic field (abbr, G for Gauss) at a given distance through a permeable medium
        maintenance dose ∖mān΄ta-nans dōs∖: the quantity of a drug necessary to maintain a normal physiologic state or a desired blood or tissue level of drug
        major connector ∖mā΄jar ka-nĕk΄tor∖: the part of a removable partial denture that joins the components on one side of the arch to those on the opposite side
        malalignment: inappropriately positioned, comp, MALOCCLUSION
        malleable ∖măl΄ē-a-bal∖ adj (14c): capable of being extended or shaped with a hammer or with the pressure of rollers
        malocclusion ∖măl΄a-klōō΄shun∖ n (1888): 1. any deviation from a physiologically acceptable contact between the opposing dental arches; 2. any deviation from a normal occlusion; comp, ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION OF OCCLUSION
        mamelon ∖măm΄a-lŏn∖ n: one of three tubercles sometimes found on the incisal edges of incisor teeth; mamelonated ∖măm΄a-la-nā΄tĭd∖ adj, mamelonation ∖măm΄a-la-nā΄shun∖ n
        mandible ∖măn΄da-bal∖ n (15c): the lower jawbone
        mandibular ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar∖ adj: of or pertaining to the mandible
        mandibular anteroposterior ridge slope ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar ăn΄ter-pŏ-stîr΄ē-ar rĭj slōp∖: the slope of the crest of the mandibular residual ridge from the third molar region to its most anterior aspect in relation to the lower border of the mandible as viewed in profile
        mandibular axis: comp, SAGITTAL AXIS, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS, VERTICAL AXIS
        mandibular condyle: the articular process of the mandible; syn, CONDYLE, head of the mandible
        mandibular dislocation ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar dĭs΄lō-kā΄shun∖: a non-self-reducing displacement of the mandibular condyle out of the glenoid fossa
        mandibular dysplasia ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar dĭs-plā΄zha∖: disharmony in size or form between the right and left halves of the mandible
        mandibular equilibration ∖măn-dib΄ya-lar ē΄kwa-lĭb΄rē-ā΄shun∖: 1. the act or acts performed to place the mandible in equilibrium; 2. a condition in which all of the forces acting on the mandible are neutralized
        mandibular glide ∖măn-dib΄ya-lar glīd∖ obs: the side to side, protrusive, and intermediate movement of the mandible occurring when the teeth or other occluding surfaces are in contact (GPT-4)
        mandibular guide plane prosthesis obs: syn, MANDIBULAR RESECTION PROSTHESIS
        mandibular hinge position ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar hĭnj pa-zish΄an∖ obs: the position of the mandible in relation to the maxillae at which opening and closing movements can be made on the hinge axis (GPT-4)
        mandibular impression ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: an impression of the mandibular jaw or dental structures
        mandibular lateral translation: syn, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION
        mandibular micrognathia ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar mī΄krō-nā΄thē΄a∖: an abnormally small mandible with associated recession of the chin
        mandibular movement ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar mōōv΄ment∖: any movement of the lower jaw
        mandibular nerve ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar nûrv∖: the third division of the trigeminal nerve that leaves the skull through the foremen ovale and provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication, to the tensor veli palatini muscle, the tensor tympani muscle, the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, and the mylohyoid muscle; it also provides the general sensory innervation to the mandibular teeth and gingivae, the floor of the mouth, the epithelium of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and the skin of the lower portion of the face
        mandibular orthopedic repositioning device ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar ôr΄tha-pē΄dĭk rē΄pa-zĭsh΄a-nĭng dĭ-vīs∖: a removable device that creates a different, yet temporary, dental occlusal position that guides the mandible to close into a predetermined and altered position
        mandibular plane ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar plān∖: in cephalometrics, a plane that passes through the inferior border of the mandible
        mandibular protraction ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar prō΄trăk΄shun, pra-∖: a type of facial anomaly in which the gnathion lies anterior to the orbital plane; comp, ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION OF OCCLUSION
        mandibular relationship record ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ-lā΄shun-shĭp∖: any registration of the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae
        mandibular repositioning ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rē΄pa-zĭsh΄a-nĭng∖: guidance of the mandible to cause closure in a predetermined, altered position
        mandibular resection ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ-sĕk΄shun∖: the surgical removal of a portion or all of the mandible and the related soft tissues; syn, MANDIBULECTOMY
        mandibular resection prosthesis ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ -sĕk΄shun prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis used to maintain a functional position for the jaws (maxillae and mandible), improve speech and deglutition following trauma and/or surgery to the mandible and/or adjacent structures; syn, MANDIBULAR GUIDE PLANE PROSTHESIS, MANDIBULAR RESECTION PROSTHESIS WITH GUIDE, MANDIBULAR RESECTION PROSTHESIS WITHOUT GUIDE, RESECTION PROSTHESIS
        mandibular rest position: syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF REST
        mandibular retraction ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ-trăk΄shun∖: a type of facial anomaly in which gnathion lies posterior to the orbital plane; comp, ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION OF OCCLUSION
        mandibular side-shift substand: syn, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION
        mandibular staple ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar stā΄pal∖ obs: a transosteal dental implant placed from the inferior border of the mandible with posts (abutments) that extend through the mucosa into the oral cavity in the mandibular anterior region; syn, transmandibular implant, TRANSOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        mandibular tracing ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar trā΄sĭng∖: a graphic representation or record of the movements of the mandible within a given plane; Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, STYLUS TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        mandibular translation ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar trăns-lā΄shun∖: the translatory (medio-lateral) movement of the mandible when viewed in the frontal plane; while this has not been demonstrated to occur as an immediate horizontal movement when viewed in the frontal plane, it could theoretically occur in an essentially pure translatory form in the early part of the motion or in combination with rotation in the latter part of the motion or both; comp, EARLY MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION, IMMEDIATE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION, PROGRESSIVE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        mandibular trismus ∖măn-dĭb΄ya-lar trĭz΄mas∖: reduced mobility of the mandible resulting from tonic contracture of the elevator muscles of the mandible
        mandibulectomy ∖măn-dĭb΄ū-lĕk΄ta-mē∖ n: the removal of part or the entire mandible
        mandrel ∖măn΄dral∖ n (1790): 1. usually a tapered or cylindrical axle, spindle, or arbor placed in a hole to support it during machining; 2. a metal bar that serves as a core about which material may be cast, molded, compressed, forged, bent, or shaped; 3. the shaft and bearings on which a tool is mounted
        margin ∖mär΄jĭn∖ n (14c): the outer edge of a crown, inlay, onlay, or other restoration; a boundary surface of a tooth preparation is termed the finish line or finish curve; comp, FINISH LINE
        marginal gingiva ∖mär΄ja-nal jĭn΄ja-va∖: the most coronal portion of the gingiva; often used to refer to the free gingiva that forms the wall of the gingival crevice in health
        marginal ridge ∖mär΄ja-nal rĭj∖: a component of the tooth structure forming the occlusal proximal margin of a premolar or molar and lingual proximal margin of anterior teeth
        Maryland bridge nonstand: syn, RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS
        Livaditis GJ, Thompson VP. Etched castings: an improved retentive mechanism for resin-bonded retainers J Prosthet Dent 1982;47(1):52-58
        masking ∖măs΄kĭng∖ n: the process of applying an opaque covering to camouflage the metal component of a prosthesis
        master cast: syn, DEFINITIVE CAST
        master impression ∖măs΄tar ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: the negative likeness made for the purpose of fabricating a prosthesis
        masticating cycles ∖măs΄tĭ-kā΄tĭng sī΄kalz∖ obs: the patterns of mandibular movements formed during the chewing of food (GPT-1)
        mastication ∖măs΄tĭ-kā΄shun∖ n (1649): the process of chewing food for swallowing and digestion
        masticatory apparatus: syn, MASTICATORY SYSTEM
        masticatory cycle ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē, -tōr΄ē sī΄kal∖: a 3D representation of mandibular movement produced during the chewing of food
        masticatory efficiency ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē, -tōr΄ē ĭ-fĭsh΄an-sē∖: the effort required to achieve a standard degree of comminution of food
        masticatory force ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē fôrs, fōrs∖: the force applied by the muscles of mastication during chewing
        masticatory movements ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē mōōv΄mentz∖: mandibular movements used for chewing food; syn, MASTICATORY CYCLE
        masticatory mucosa: firmly attached, keratinized oral mucosa with a lamina propria that is fused to the underlying periosteum; comp, MUCOSA
        masticatory muscle ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē mŭs΄al∖: any of the muscles that elevate the mandible to close the mouth (temporalis muscle, superficial and deep masseter muscle, medial pterygoid muscles); syn, ELEVATOR MUSCLE, muscle of mastication
        masticatory pain ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē pān∖: discomfort about the face and mouth induced by chewing or other use of the jaws but independent of local disease involving the teeth and mouth
        masticatory performance ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē par-fôr΄mans∖: a measure of the comminution of food attainable under standardized testing conditions
        masticatory system ∖măs΄tĭ-ka-tôr΄ē sĭs΄tam∖: the organs and structures primarily functioning in mastication; these include the teeth with their supporting structures, craniomandibular articulations, mandible, positioning and accessory musculature, tongue, lips, cheeks, oral mucosa, and the associated neurologic complex
        matrix ∖mā΄trĭks∖ n (15c): 1. a mold or impression in which something is formed; 2. the portion of an attachment system that receives the patrix; matrices ∖mā΄trĭ-sĕz΄∖ pl
        maxilla ∖măk-sĭl΄a∖ n (15c): the irregularly shaped bone that, with its contralateral maxilla, forms the upper jaw; it assists in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the hard palate; it contains the maxillary teeth; maxillae ∖măk-sĭl΄ē∖ pl
        maxillary impression ∖măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē∖: an impression of the maxillary jaw or dental structures
        maxillary micrognathia ∖măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē mī΄krō-nă-thē΄a∖: abnormally small maxillae with associated retraction of the middle third of the face
        maxillary protraction ∖măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē prō-trăk΄shun, pra-∖: a type of facial anomaly in which subnasion lies anterior to the orbital plane
        maxillary resection ∖măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē rĭ-sĕk΄shun∖: the surgical removal of a part or all of the maxillae; syn, MAXILLECTOMY
        maxillary sinus ∖măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē sī΄nas∖: the anatomic space located superior to the posterior maxillary alveolus
        maxillary tuberosity ∖măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē tōō΄ba-rŏs΄ĭ-tē∖: the most distal portion of the maxillary alveolar ridge
        maxillectomy ∖măk΄sa-lĕk΄ta-mē∖ n: the removal of part or all of the maxillae; syn, MAXILLARY RESECTION
        maxillofacial ∖măk΄sa-la-fā΄shul∖ adj: pertaining to the dental arches, the face, head, and neck structures
        maxillofacial prosthesis ∖măk΄sa-la-fā΄shul prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: any prosthesis used to replace part or all of any stomatognathic and/or craniofacial structures. Editorial note for usage: the taxonomy for maxillofacial prostheses may include modifiers (adjectives) to provide descriptive evidence of the nature of the prosthesis including anatomic location, retention, support, time, materials, and form; frequently, the means of retention is used, and may encompass descriptive adjectives, such as the adjacent tissue, teeth, dental/craniofacial implants, or a combination of such, thus appropriate terminology can include tissue-retained MP, tooth-retained MP, implant-retained MP, tissue/implant-retained MP; descriptive terminology may also be included to delineate time utilization for the prosthesis, such as surgical, interim, and definitive.
        maxillofacial prosthetic adhesive ∖măk΄sa-la-fā΄shul prŏs-thĕt΄ĭk ăd-hē΄sĭv∖: a material used to adhere external maxillofacial prostheses to skin and associated structures around the periphery of an external anatomic defect
        maxillofacial prosthetics ∖măk΄sa-la-fā΄shul prŏs-thĕt΄iks∖: the branch of prosthodontics concerned with the restoration and/or replacement of stomatognathic and craniofacial structures with prostheses that may or may not be removed on a regular or elective basis
        maxillomandibular dysplasia ∖măk΄sa-la-măn-dĭb΄ya-lar dĭs-plā΄zha,-zhē-a∖: disharmony between the maxillae and the mandible
        maxillomandibular fixation: fastening together of the maxillary and mandibular teeth, as for immobilization of a mandibular fracture; syn, INTERMAXILLARY FIXATION
        maxillomandibular record: syn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD
        maxillomandibular registration: syn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD
        maxillomandibular relation: syn, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP
        maxillomandibular relationship ∖măk΄sa-la-măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ-lā΄shun-shĭp΄∖: any spatial relationship of the maxillae to the mandible; any one of the infinite relationships of the mandible to the maxillae
        maxillomandibular relationship record ∖măk΄sa-la-măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ-lā΄shun-shĭp΄ rĕk΄ard΄∖: a registration of any positional relationship of the mandible relative to the maxillae; these records may be made at any vertical, horizontal, or lateral orientation; syn, JAW RELATION RECORD
        maximal intercuspal contacts ∖măk΄sa-mal ĭn΄ter-kŭs΄pal΄ kŏn΄tăkts΄∖: tooth contact in the maximal intercuspal position
        maximal intercuspal position ∖măk΄sa-mal ĭn΄ter-kŭs΄pal΄ pa-zĭsh΄an∖: acronym is MIP; the complete intercuspation of the opposing teeth independent of condylar position, sometimes referred to as the best fit of the teeth regardless of the condylar position; comp, CENTRIC OCCLUSION
        mean foundation plane ∖mēn foun-dā΄shun plān∖ obs: the mean of the various irregularities in form and inclination of the basal seat (GPT-4)
        meatus ∖mē-ā΄tus∖ n (1665): a natural body passage; a general term for any opening or passageway in the body; meatuses or meati pl
        mechanical anterior guidance table: an adjustable articulator component that guides the movement of the incisal pin of the articulator to simulate lateral and anterior guidance during mandibular movement; comp, CUSTOM ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE, ANTERIOR GUIDE TABLE
        mechanically balanced occlusion ∖mĭ-kăn΄ĭ-ka΄lē băl΄ansd a-klōō΄shun∖ obs: a balanced occlusion without reference to physiologic considerations, as on an articulator (GPT-4)
        median line ∖mē΄dē-an līn∖: the centerline dividing a body into the right and left
        median mandibular point ∖mē΄dē-an măn-dĭb΄a-lar point∖ obs: a point on the anteroposterior center of the mandibular ridge in the median sagittal plane (GPT-4)
        median plane ∖mē΄dē-an plān∖: an imaginary plane passing longitudinally through the body, from front to back, and dividing it into left and right halves
        mediolateral curve ∖mē΄dē-ō-lăt΄ar-al kûrv∖: in the mandibular arch, that curve (viewed in the frontal plane), which is concave and contacts the buccal and lingual cusp tips of the mandibular molars; in the maxillary arch, that curve (viewed in the frontal plane), which is convex and contacts the buccal and lingual cusp tips of the maxillary molars.
        mediotrusion ∖mē΄dē-ō-trōō΄shun∖ n: a movement of the condyle medially; syn, nonworking-side movement
        mediotrusive occlusal contact: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        membrane ∖mĕm΄brān∖ n (15c): 1. a thin soft pliable sheet or layer, especially of plant or animal origin; 2. a thin layer of tissue that lines a cavity, envelops a vessel or part, or separates a space or organ; 3. a barrier used in guided tissue and bone regeneration surgical procedures
        meniscectomy: excision of the intra-articular disc; syn, DISCECTOMY
        meniscus ∖ma-nĭs΄kas∖ n: menisci ∖ma-nĭs΄ī∖ pl; syn, DISC
        mesial ∖mē΄zē-al∖ adj (1803): near or toward the centerline of the dental arch; toward the median sagittal plane of the face, following the curvature of the dental arch
        mesial drift ∖mē΄zē-al drĭft∖: movement of teeth toward the midline
        mesio-occlusion n: any occlusion in which the mandibular teeth articulate with the maxillary teeth in a position anterior to neutro-occlusion; comp, ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION OF OCCLUSION
        mesioversion ∖mē΄zē-ō-vûr΄zhun, -shun∖: with reference to a tooth, nearer than normal in its position toward the median line of the face
        1metal ∖mĕt΄l∖ n (13c): any strong and relatively ductile substance that provides electropositive ions to a corrosive environment and that can be polished to a high luster; characterized by metallic atomic bonding
        2metal ∖mĕt΄l∖ vt (1610): to cover or furnish with metal; -aled or -alled; -aling or -alling
        metal base ∖mĕt΄l bās∖: the metallic portion of a denture base forming a part or the entire basal surface of the denture; it serves as a base for the attachment of the resin portion of the denture base and the teeth
        metal-ceramic restoration ∖mĕt΄l sa-răm΄ĭk rĕs-ta-rā΄shun∖: an artificial crown or fixed complete or partial denture that uses a metal substructure and porcelain veneer; syn, PORCELAIN-FUSED-TO-METAL RESTORATION
        metal collar: a narrow band of highly polished metal immediately adjacent to the margin on a metal-ceramic restoration; comp, PORCELAIN MARGIN
        metal insert teeth ∖mĕt΄l ĭn-sûrt tēth∖: denture teeth containing metal cutting edges; teeth designed to contain metal cutting edges in the occlusal surface; comp, Hardy cutters, Sosin blades
        metal saddle ∖mĕt΄l săd΄l∖ obs, slang: a metal denture base (GPT-4)
        metamer ∖mĕt΄a-mer΄∖ n: one of a pair of objects whose colors match when viewed under particular viewing conditions, but do not match under all viewing conditions
        metameric pair ∖mĕt΄a-mer΄ik pâr∖: a pair of objects whose colors match when viewed under particular viewing conditions, but do not match if the viewing conditions are changed; thus a metameric pair of samples exhibit the same tristimulus values for a described set of viewing conditions (observer, light source, geometry of the illumination, and viewing arrangement) but have different spectral distributions; hence, they exhibit a match that is conditional
        metamerism ∖ma-tăm΄a-rĭz΄um∖ n (1877): pairs of objects that have different spectral curves but appear to match when viewed in a given hue; metamerism should not be confused with the terms flair or color constancy, which applies to apparent color change exhibited by a single color when the spectral distribution of the light source is changed or when the angle of illumination or viewing is changed
        methyl methacrylate resin ∖mĕth΄al mĕth-ăk΄ra-lāt rĕz΄ĭn∖: a transparent, thermoplastic acrylic resin that is used in dentistry by mixing liquid methyl methacrylate monomer with the polymer powder; the resultant mixture forms a pliable plastic mass termed dough, which is packed into a mold prior to initiation of polymerization
        micro-computed tomography: abbr, micro-CT; a radiological technique at ranges of 40 to 50 microns
        microcrack ∖mī΄krō-krăk∖ n: in porcelain, one of the numerous surface flaws that contribute to stress concentrations and result in material strengths below those theoretically possible; syn, GRIFFITH FLAWS
        microglossia ∖mī΄krō-glô΄zha∖ n: presence of a small tongue
        micrognathia ∖mī΄krō-nā΄thē-a∖ n: a congenital or acquired condition characterized by an abnormally small jaw; syn, MANDIBULAR MICROGNATHIA, MAXILLARY MICROGNATHIA
        micromaxillae n: syn, MAXILLARY MICROGNATHIA
        microstomia ∖mī΄krō-stôm΄ya∖ n: an abnormally small oral orifice
        microtia ∖mī΄krō-sha∖ n: a developmental anomaly characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of the pinna of the ear, associated with an impatent or absent external auditory meatus
        mid-opening click ∖mĭd-ō΄pa-nĭng klĭk∖: the abnormal sound emanating from the temporomandibular joint that occurs during mid protrusive translation of the condyles
        midfacial deficiency ∖mĭd-fā΄shul dĭ-fĭsh΄an-sē∖: failure of the mid-third of the face, including the maxillae, to grow in proportion to the upper and lower thirds
        midfacial fracture ∖mĭd-fā΄shul frăk΄chur∖: fractures of the zygomatic, maxillary, nasal, and associated bones
        MIE theory: the theory that relates the scattering of a single spherical particle in a medium to the diameter of the particle, the difference in refractive index between the particle and the medium, and the wavelength of radiant energy in the medium that is incident on the particle; this theory relates to the direct observation of the scattering of a single particle as compared with the Kubelka-Munk theory and also takes into account the absorption that the particle may also exhibit
        1mill ∖mĭl∖ n: a machine or device used for working or forming materials into a desired form, to blend materials, or to perform other mechanical operations
        2mill ∖mĭl∖ vt (1570): 1. to subject to an operation or process in a mill; to grind; 2. to shape or dress by means of instruments; comp, MILLING
        mill in ∖mĭl ĭn∖ vb: 1. the procedure of refining occluding surfaces through the use of abrasive materials; 2. the machining of boxes or other forms in cast restorations to be used as retainers for fixed or removable prostheses
        milled ceramics n: a desired form made by subtractive CAM of a homogeneous ceramic block
        milled in curve obs: syn, MILLED IN PATH
        milled in path ∖mĭld ĭn păth∖: a contour pattern carved into the occlusal surface of an occlusion rim during various mandibular movements by teeth or studs placed in the opposing arch
        milling ∖mĭl΄ĭng∖ vb: the machining of proximal boxes, recesses, or other forms on cast restorations to be used as retainers for fixed or removable prostheses
        milling in ∖mĭl΄ĭng ĭn∖: the procedure of refining or perfecting the occlusion of teeth by the use of abrasives between their occluding surfaces while the dentures are rubbed together in the mouth or on the articulator (GPT-3); syn, MILL IN
        mini implant: a dental implant that is fabricated with a reduced diameter (less than 3.0 mm) and shorter in length with the same biocompatible material as compared with standard dental implants; syn, temporary implants, provisional implants, orthodontic implants, small diameter implant
        minor connector ∖mī΄nar ka-nĕk΄tor∖: the connecting link between the major connector or base of a removable partial denture and the other units of the prosthesis, such as the clasp assembly, indirect retainers, occlusal rests, or cingulum rests
        mixed dentition ∖mĭkst dĕn-tĭsh΄an∖: a stage of development during which the primary and permanent teeth function together in the mouth syn, TRANSITIONAL DENTITION
        MMF: acronym for MAXILLOMANDIBULAR FIXATION
        mobile ∖mō΄bal, -bēl, -bīl∖ adj (15c): capable of moving or being moved; movable
        model ∖mŏd΄l∖ n (1575): a facsimile used for display purposes; a miniature representation of something; an example for imitation or emulation; comp, CAST
        modeling composition obs: syn, MODELING PLASTIC IMPRESSION COMPOUND
        modeling compound obs: syn, MODELING PLASTIC IMPRESSION COMPOUND
        modeling plastic: syn, MODELING PLASTIC IMPRESSION COMPOUND
        modeling plastic impression compound ∖mŏd΄lĭng plăs΄tĭk ĭm-prĕsh΄an kŏm-pound΄∖: a thermoplastic dental impression material composed of wax, rosin, resins, and colorants; syn, IMPRESSION COMPOUND, modeling compound
        modeling wax ∖mŏd΄lĭng wăks∖: a wax suitable for making patterns in the fabrication of restorations
        modes of appearance ∖mōdz ŭv a-pîr΄ans∖: various manners in which colors can be perceived, depending on spatial distributions and temporal variations of the light causing the sensation
        modified cast: syn, ALTERED CAST
        modified ridge lap ∖mŏd΄a-fīd΄ rĭj lăp∖: a ridge lap surface of a pontic that is adapted only to the facial aspect of the residual ridge
        modifier ∖mŏd΄a-fī΄ar∖ n: a substance that alters or changes the color or properties of a substance
        modiolus ∖mō-dī΄a-las∖ n: the area near the corner of the mouth where eight muscles converge; it functionally separates the labial vestibule from the buccal vestibule
        modulus of elasticity ∖mŏj΄a-las ŭv ĭ-lă-stĭs΄ĭ-tē, ē-lă-∖: in metallurgy, the coefficient found by dividing the unit stress, at any point up to the proportional limit, by its corresponding unit of elongation (tension) or strain; a ratio of stress to strain; as the modulus of elasticity rises, the material becomes more rigid
        modulus of resilience ∖mŏj΄a-las ŭv rĭ-zĭl-yans∖: the work or energy required to stress a cubic inch of material (in one direction only) from zero up to the proportional limit of the material, measured by the ability of the material to withstand the momentary effect of an impact load while stresses remain within the proportional limit
        molar n: a posterior tooth adapted for grinding and having a somewhat quadrilateral-shaped crown with four or five cusps
        monochromatic vision ∖mŏn΄a-krō-măt΄ĭk vĭsh΄an∖: vision in which there is no color discrimination
        monolithic adj: an object with the same chemical and physical properties throughout its thickness
        monomer ∖mŏn΄a-mar∖ n (1914): a chemical compound that can undergo polymerization; any molecule that can be bound to a similar molecule to form a polymer
        monoplane ∖mŏn΄a-plān∖ adj: an arrangement of denture teeth in a single plane that is medio-laterally and antero-posteriorly flat
        monoplane articulation ∖mŏn΄a-plān är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: the arrangement of teeth by which they are positioned in a flat plane
        monoplane occlusion ∖mŏn΄a-plān a-klōō΄shun∖: an occlusal arrangement wherein the posterior teeth have masticatory surfaces that lack any cuspal height
        Monson curve: syn, CURVE OF MONSON
        MORA device: acronym for mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance; a type of removable device with a modification to the occlusal surfaces used with the goal of repositioning the mandible to improve neuromuscular balance and jaw relationship; syn, MANDIBULAR ORTHOPEDIC REPOSITIONING DEVICE
        Gelb H. Clinical management of head, neck and TMJ pain and dysfunction. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1977:314
        moulage ∖mōō-läzh΄∖ n (1902): 1. the negative impression of a body structure; 2. an impression or cast made for use, especially as evidence in a criminal investigation; 3. impression of an anatomic part that produces a gypsum cast or a positive replica
        mould ∖mōld∖ n (13c): 1. a cavity in which a substance is shaped, as a matrix for casting metal or plastics; a negative form in which an object is cast or shaped; 2. the size and shape of an artificial tooth or teeth; syn, mold
        mould chart ∖mōld chart∖: an illustration of the manufacturer’s shapes and sizes of denture teeth; syn, mold chart
        mould guide ∖mōld gīd∖: a selection of denture teeth demonstrating the moulds offered by a manufacturer; syn, mold guide
        1mounting ∖moun΄tĭng∖ vb: the laboratory procedure of attaching a cast to an articulator or cast relater
        2mounting ∖moun΄tĭng∖ n: the relationship of dental casts to each other and the instrument to which they are attached; comp, SPLIT-CAST MOUNTING
        mounting plate ∖moun΄tĭng plāt∖: a removable metal or resin device that attaches to the superior and inferior members of an articulator, and is used to attach casts to the articulator
        mounting ring: syn, MOUNTING PLATE
        mouth guard ∖mouth gard∖: a removable occlusal device that is useful in reducing mouth injuries and protecting the teeth and surrounding structures from injury; syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        mouth rehabilitation ∖mouth rē΄ha-bĭl΄ĭ-tā΄shun∖ obs: restoration of the form and function of the masticatory apparatus to as near normal as possible (GPT-4); comp; COMPLETE MOUTH REHABILITATION
        mouth stick ∖mouth stĭk∖: a device held in the mouth by a disabled person that aids in performing certain functions
        MRI: acronym for MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; syn, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
        mucobuccal fold ∖myōō΄kō-bŭk΄al fōld∖: the line of flexure of the mucous membrane as it passes to the cheek
        mucogingival adj: pertaining to intraoral specialized soft tissue, the alveolar mucosa and gingiva
        mucogingival junction ∖myōō΄kō-jĭn΄ja-val, jĭn΄jī-∖: the junction of gingiva and alveolar mucosa
        mucolabial fold ∖myōō΄kō-lā΄bē-al∖: the line of flexure of the oral mucous membrane as it passes from the maxillary or mandibular alveolar process or residual alveolar ridge to the lip
        mucoperiosteum ∖myōō΄kō-pĕr΄ē-ŏs΄tē-am∖ n: a term synonymous with a full-thickness flap implying the inclusion of both mucosa and periosteum during flap elevation
        mucosa ∖myōō-kō΄sa∖ n (1880): a mucous membrane comprised of epithelium, basement membrane, and lamina propria; syn, ALVEOLAR MUCOSA, ORAL MUCOSA
        mucosal implant nonstand: syn, MUCOSAL INSERT
        mucosal insert ∖myōō-kō΄sal ĭn-sûrt∖: any metal form attached to the intaglio of a removable dental prosthesis that mechanically engages undercuts in a surgically prepared mucosal site; Editorial note for usage: mucosal inserts are not indwelling and are not considered dental implants; comp, button implant, intramucosal insert, MUCOSAL IMPLANT
        mucositis ∖myōō΄kō-sī΄tĭs∖ n: inflammation of the mucous membrane
        mucostatic ∖myōō΄kō-stăt΄ĭk∖ adj: the state of the oral mucosa when not displaced by external forces
        muffle ∖mŭf΄al∖ n: the portion of a furnace, usually removable or replaceable, in which material may be placed for processing without direct exposure to a heating element
        Munsell chroma: eponym for the Munsell color system chroma, which is that quality by which a strong color is distinguished from one that is weak; the intensity of a distinctive hue color intensity; orig, Alfred H. Munsell, artist/teacher, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1858-1918; syn, SATURATION
        Munsell color order system: eponym for a color order system, developed in 1905, which places colors in an orderly arrangement encompassing the three attributes of hue, value, and chroma; orig, Alfred H. Munsell, artist/teacher, Massachusetts, U.S.A.,1858-1918
        Munsell AH. A color notation. Baltimore, MD: Munsell Color Co.; 1975:14-16
        Munsell hue: eponym for that quality by which one color family is distinguished from another, as red from yellow, and green from blue or purple; the dimension of color determined by wavelength; orig, Alfred H. Munsell, artist/teacher, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1858-1918
        Munsell value: eponym for the relative brightness of a color; the quality of grayness in comparison to white (high value) and black, (low value); in the Munsell color system; the value of a color is determined by which gray on the value scale it matches in lightness/darkness (black is assigned a value of zero; white a value of 10); orig, Alfred H. Munsell, artist/teacher, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1858-1918
        muscle ∖mŭs΄al∖ n (14c): an organ that by contraction produces movements of an animal; a tissue composed of contractile cells or fibers that effect movement of an organ or part of the body
        muscle contraction ∖mŭs΄al kan-trăk΄shun∖: the shortening and development of tension in a muscle in response to stimulation; isometric muscle contraction relates to tension in the muscle without changing the length
        muscle contracture ∖mŭs΄al kan-trăk΄chur∖: a condition of high resistance to passive stretching of a muscle resulting from fibrosis of the tissues supporting the muscle or the joint; sustained increased resistance to passive stretch with reduced muscle length
        muscle hyperalgesia ∖mŭs΄al hī΄par-ăl-gē΄sha∖: increased sensitivity to pain in a muscle evoked by stimulation at the site of pain in the muscle
        muscle hypertenseness ∖mŭs΄al hī΄par-tĕns΄nĕs∖ obs: increased muscular tension that is not easily released but that does not prevent normal lengthening of the muscles involved (GPT-4)
        muscle hypertonicity: increased contractile activity in some motor units driven by reflex arcs from receptors in the muscle and/or alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord
        muscle marking slang: syn, BORDER MOLDING
        muscle relaxant ∖mŭs΄al rĭ-lăk΄sant∖: a drug or therapy that diminishes muscle tension
        muscle spasm ∖mŭs΄al spăz΄am∖: a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles attended by pain and interference with function; it differs from muscle splinting in that the contraction is sustained even when the muscle is at rest and the pain/dysfunction is present with passive and active movements of the affected part; syn, MYOSPASM
        muscle spasticity ∖mŭs΄al spă-zĭs΄ĭ-tē∖: increased muscular tension of antagonists preventing normal movement and caused by an inability to relax (a loss of reciprocal inhibition)
        muscle splinting ∖mŭs΄al-splĭnt΄ĭng∖: involuntary contraction (rigidity) of muscles occurring as a means of avoiding the pain caused by movement of the part (resistance to passive stretch); the involved muscle(s) relaxes at rest; syn, protective muscle co-contraction
        muscle trimming slang: syn, BORDER MOLDING
        muscular atrophy ∖mŭs-kya΄lar ăt΄ra-fē∖: a wasting of muscular tissue resulting from the lack of use
        musculoskeletal pain ∖mŭs΄kya-lō-skĕl΄ĭ-tl pān∖: deep, somatic pain that originates in skeletal muscles, facial sheaths, and tendons (myogenous pain), bone and periosteum (osseous pain), joint, joint capsules, and ligaments (arthralgic pain), and in soft connective tissues
        mutually protected articulation ∖myōō΄chōō-al-lē pra-tĕk΄tĭd är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: an occlusal scheme in which the posterior teeth prevent excessive contact of the anterior teeth in maximal intercuspal position, and the anterior teeth disengage the posterior teeth in all mandibular excursive movements.
        mutually protected occlusion: syn, MUTUALLY PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        myalgia ∖mī-ăl΄jē-a∖ n (1860): pain in a muscle or muscles
        mycotic ∖mī-kō΄tĭk∖ n: pertaining to a mycosis; caused by fungi
        mylohyoid fossa∖mī΄la-hoid kŏn-kăv΄ĭ-tē∖: the concavity in the mandible inferior to the mylohyoid line in the molar region
        mylohyoid groove or canal ∖mī΄la-hoid grōōv ôr ka-năl΄∖: the groove in the mandible running downward and forward toward the submandibular fossa, which contains the mylohyoid muscle, nerve, and vessels
        mylohyoid region ∖mī΄la-hoid rē΄jan∖ obs: the region on the lingual surface of the mandible marked by the mylohyoid ridge and the attachment of the mylohyoid muscle (GPT-4)
        mylohyoid ridge ∖mī΄la-hoid rĭj∖: an oblique ridge on the lingual surface of the mandible that extends from the level of the roots of the last molar teeth and that serves as a bony attachment for the mylohyoid muscles forming the floor of the mouth
        myo-monitor ∖mī΄ō-mon΄ē tĕr∖: a digital electronic pulse generator specifically optimized for bilateral transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation of the stomatognathic system; an electrical device introduced in 1969 by Bernard Jankelson, DDS as a means of applying muscle relaxation as a prerequisite to obtain an occlusal position that would sustain a relaxed musculature
        Jankelson B, Sparks S. Crane PF, Radke JC. Neural conduction of the Myo-monitor stimulus: a quantitative analysis. J Prosthet Dent 1975;34:245-53
        myocentric ∖mī΄ō sĕn΄trĭk∖ adj: that terminal point in space in which, with the mandible in the rest position, subsequent clonic muscle contraction will raise the mandible through the interocclusal space along the myocentric (muscle balanced) trajectory; also described as the initial occlusal contact along the myocentric trajectory (isotonic closure of the mandible from rest position)
        Jankelson B. Dent Clin North Am 1979;23:157-68
        Jankelson BR, Polley ML. Electromyography in clinical dentistry. Seattle: Myotronica Research; 1984:52
        myofascial trigger point ∖mī΄a-făsh΄al trĭg΄ar point∖: a hyperirritable spot, usually within a skeletal muscle or in the muscle fascia that is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, tenderness (secondary hyperalgesia), and autonomic phenomena
        myofibrotic capsular contracture ∖mī΄a-fī-bra΄tĭk kăp΄sa-lar kan-trăk΄chur∖: muscle contracture resulting from the formation of excessive fibrous tissue within the muscle or its sheath
        myofunctional ∖mī΄a-fŭngk΄sha-nal∖: relating to the function of muscles; in dentistry, the role of muscle function in the cause or correction of muscle related problems
        myofunctional therapy ∖mī΄a-fŭngk΄sha-nal thĕr΄a-pē∖: the use of exercises to improve the action of a group of muscles used as an adjunct to orthodontic or craniomandibular dysfunction treatment
        myogenous pain ∖mī΄a-jēn΄ŭs∖: deep somatic musculoskeletal pain originating in skeletal muscles, fascial sheaths, or tendons
        myositis ∖mī΄a-sī-tĭs∖ n (ca. 1819): inflammation of muscle tissue
        myospasm n: syn, MUSCLE SPASM
        myostatic contracture ∖mī΄a-stăt΄ĭk kan-trăk΄chur∖: muscle contracture resulting from reduced muscle stimulation
        myotonia ∖mī΄a-tō΄nē-a∖ n (1896): increased muscular irritability and contractility with decreased power of relaxation; tonic muscle spasms

        N

        NA: acronym for NAsion; a cephalometric landmark located where the intranasal and nasofrontal sutures meet
        NAM: acronym for NASOALVEOLAR MOLDING
        nanometer ∖năn΄a-mē΄tar∖ n (1963): unit of length used to measure the wavelength of light. It is equivalent to 1 × 10-9 m or 10 angstroms; 1 nm = 1/1,000,000 mm
        narrative report ∖năr΄a-tĭv∖: a complete description of the clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment rendered for a given patient
        nasal grimace ∖nā΄zal grĭm΄ĭs, grĭ-măs΄∖: movements in the tissue of the nares reflecting the attempts of the oronasal system to compensate for palatopharyngeal insufficiency
        nasal prosthesis ∖nā΄zal prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a removable maxillofacial prosthesis that artificially restores the nose, partially or in its entirety; nonstand/syn, artificial nose
        nasal septal prosthesis ∖nā΄zal sĕp΄tal prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis used to occlude (obturate) a hole within the nasal septal wall; nonstand/syn, septal button, septal plug
        nasal spine ∖nā΄zal spīn∖: a sharp bony protuberance of the lower margin of the anterior aperture of the nares formed by the forward prolongation of the two maxillae
        nasal stent ∖nā΄zal stĕnt∖: a removable intranasal maxillofacial prosthesis used to support the form of the nose
        nasal turbulence ∖nā΄zal tûr΄bya-lans∖: the excessive “noise” or air passing over resistance in the nasal passages
        nasality ∖nā-zăl΄ĭ-tē∖ n (1656): the quality of speech sounds when the nasal cavity is used as a resonator
        nasion ∖nā΄zhun∖ n: a bony cephalometric landmark at which the nasofrontal suture is bisected by the midsagittal plane
        nasion relator: an adjustable average value facebow component that engages the outer point of intersection between the nasion-sella line and the soft tissue profile to stabilize the facebow while recording the position of the maxillary teeth
        nasoalveolar molding: acronym is NAM; a medically prescribed device with the objective of molding the maxillae at the oronasal cavity defect, thus enhancing suckling and swallowing; approximating lip and the right and left maxillary segments of infants with cleft palates in their proper orientation until surgery is performed to repair the cleft; Editorial note for usage: this could be considered a device and a prosthesis because it also replaces anatomy; comp, presurgical infant orthopedic (PSIO) device, presurgical nasoalveolar molding (PNAM) device; orig, C. K. McNeil, U.S.A., 1950
        nasopharynx ∖nā΄zō-făr΄ĭngks∖ n (1877): the part of the pharynx situated above the soft palate
        natural color system ∖năch΄ar-al, năch΄ral kul΄ar sĭs΄tam∖ (1976): a color order system that defines six color perceptions by using the concept of percentage for localizing nuances within the three-part system; the six perceptions are white, black, red, green, yellow, and blue; orig, Anders Hard et al., Sweden
        natural dentition ∖năch΄ar-al, năch΄ral dĕn-tĭsh΄an∖: the natural teeth, as considered collectively, in the dental arch, which may be deciduous, permanent, or mixed
        natural glaze ∖năch-ar-al, năch΄ral glāz∖: the production of a glazed surface by the vitrification of the material itself and without addition of other fluxes or glasses
        neck of the condylar process ∖nĕk ŭv tha kŏn΄dah lĕr prŏ sĕs∖: the constricted inferior portion of the mandibular condylar process that is continuous with the ramus of the mandible; that portion of the condylar process that connects the mandibular ramus to the condyle
        necrosis ∖na-krō΄sĭs, nĕ-∖ n (1665): localized death of living tissue; necroses ∖sēz∖ pl
        needle point tracing: Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING, MANDIBULAR TRACER, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, STYLUS TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        Nesbit prosthesis: eponym for a unilateral removable partial denture that restores missing teeth on one side of the arch only, without a cross-arch major connector; orig, Dr Norman Nesbit, dentist, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1915
        neuralgia ∖nŏŏ-răl΄ja∖ n (ca. 1822): neurogenous pain felt along the peripheral distribution of a nerve trunk
        neuritis ∖nŏŏ-rĭ΄tĭs∖ n (1840): inflammation of a nerve
        neurogenous pain ∖nŏŏ-rŏj΄a-nŭs pān∖: pain that is generated within the nervous system as a result of some abnormality of neural structures
        neuromuscular dysfunction: a collective term for muscle disorders of the masticatory system with two observable major symptoms: pain and dysfunction; common observations include muscle fatigue, muscle tightness, myalgia, spasm, headaches, decreased range of motion and acute malocclusion; the five types of masticatory muscle disorders include protective co-contraction (muscle splinting), local muscle soreness (noninflammatory myalgia), myofascial pain (trigger point myalgia), myospasm (tonic contraction myalgia), and chronic centrally mediated myalgia (chronic myositis)
        Okeson JP. Management of temporomandibular disorders and occlusion. 4th ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby; 1997:180-82
        neuropathy ∖nŏŏ΄rŏp-ă-thē∖ n (1857): a general term used to designate an abnormality or pathologic change in a peripheral nerve
        neutral zone ∖nōō΄tral, nyōō΄- zōn∖: the potential space between the lips and cheeks on one side and the tongue on the other; that area or position where the forces between the tongue and cheeks or lips are equal
        neutro-occlusion: comp, ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION OF OCCLUSION
        nickel-chromium alloy: a low-density, large-grained base metal dental casting alloy with prominent dendritic structure, composed of up to 30% Cr and 70% Ni with trace elements that may include small amounts of Mo, Mn, Si, C, and Al; chromium, by its passivation effect, ensures corrosion resistance of the alloy; increased nickel content tends to result in reduced strength, hardness, modulus of elasticity, and fusion temperature while ductility may increase
        nidus ∖nī΄das∖ n (1742): a place or substance in an animal or plant where bacteria or other organisms lodge and multiply; nidi ∖dī΄∖ or niduses pl
        night guard nonstand: any removable device, usually made of hard polymethylmethacrylate, which covers the occlusal and incisal surfaces of all the teeth in one arch and maintains precise occlusal contact with the opposing teeth; syn, bite guard, OCCLUSAL DEVICE, occlusal appliance, occlusal splint; comp, DEVICE
        NMR: acronym for nuclear magnetic resonance; a radiologic procedure that gives images in any plane without radiation or any biologic aftereffect by measuring the radiofrequency from resonating hydrogen nuclei; syn,magnetic resonance imaging
        noble metal ∖nō΄bal mĕt΄l∖: those metal elements that resist oxidation, tarnish, and corrosion during heating, casting, or soldering and when used intraorally; examples include gold and platinum; comp, BASE METAL
        noble metal alloy: as classified by the American Dental Association (1984), any dental casting alloy containing a minimum of 25% by weight of Au, Pt, and/or Pd; comp, HIGH NOBLE METAL ALLOY
        American Dental Association: Classification system for cast alloys. J Am Dent Assoc 1984;109:766
        nociceptive ∖na-sĭ-sĕp΄tĭv∖ adj (1904): applicable to a neuron receptive to painful sensations
        nociceptive pathway ∖na-sĭ-sĕp΄tĭv păth΄wā΄, päth΄-∖: an afferent neural pathway that mediates pain impulses
        nociceptor ∖na-sĭ-sĕp΄tor∖ n: a sensory receptor preferentially sensitive to noxious or potentially noxious stimuli
        nocturnal electromyography ∖nŏk-tûr΄nal ĭ-lĕk΄trō-mī-ŏg΄ra-fē∖: electromyographic registrations made during sleep
        nonadjustable articulator ∖nŏn-a-jŭst΄ă-bal är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄tor∖: an articulator that does not allow adjustment to replicate mandibular movements; comp, CAST RELATOR
        nonanatomic teeth ∖nŏn-a-nō΄tŏm-ĭk tēth∖: artificial teeth with occlusal surfaces that are not anatomically formed; the term nonanatomic as applied to artificial posterior teeth, and especially their occlusal forms, means that such teeth are designed in accordance with mechanical principles rather than from the viewpoint of anatomic replication; I. R. Hardy, DDS, first introduced nonanatomic teeth with flat occlusal surfaces set to a flat occlusal plane
        Hardy IR. Technique for use of nonanatomic acrylic posterior teeth. Dent Digest 1942;48:562-66
        Sears VH. Thirty years of nonanatomic teeth. J Prosthet Dent 1953; 3:596-617
        nonarcon articulator: any articulator design in which the condylar element (analog) is part of the upper member of the articulator and may be used to simulate the 3D motions of the left and right condylar compartments; comp, ARCON, ARCON ARTICULATOR noncarious cervical lesion: the pathologic loss of hard tooth substance caused by biomechanical loading forces; such loss is thought to be the result of flexure and chemical fatigue degradation of enamel and/or dentin at some location distant from the actual point of loading; syn, ABFRACTION; comp ABLATION, ABRASION, ATTRITION, and EROSION
        nonfunctional cusp bevel: a feature of a crown preparation, prepared at an angle to the path of placement, which ensures provision of adequate restorative material thickness; on the axial surface of a non-centric cusp; in normal occlusion, this refers to the lingual cusp of mandibular teeth and buccal cusp of maxillary teeth
        nonfunctioning condyle nonstand: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        nonpivoting condyle obs, nonstand: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        nonprecious metal: syn, BASE METAL
        nonresorbable ∖nŏn-rē-sŏrb΄a-bal∖ adj: the property exhibited by substances that demonstrate relatively limited in-vivo degradation
        nonrigid connector ∖nŏn-rĭj΄ĭd ka-nĕk΄tor∖: any connector that permits limited movement between otherwise independent members of a fixed partial denture
        nonworking-side ∖nŏn-wûr΄kĭng sīd∖: that side of the mandible that moves toward the medial line in a lateral excursion; the condyle on that side is referred to as the NONWORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        nonworking-side condyle ∖nŏn-wûr΄kĭng sīd kŏn΄dĭl∖: the condyle on the nonworking-side
        nonworking-side condyle path ∖nŏn-wûr΄kĭng sīd kŏn΄dĭl păth∖: the path the condyle traverses on the nonworking-side when the mandible moves in a lateral excursion, which may be viewed in the three reference planes of the body
        nonworking-side interference ∖nŏn-wûr΄kĭng sīd ĭn΄tar-fîr΄ans∖: comp, NONWORKING-SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        nonworking-side occlusal contact ∖nŏn-wûr΄kĭng sīd a-klōō΄sal kŏn΄tăkt΄∖: contact of the teeth on the side opposite to the direction of laterotrusion of the mandible; an undesirable contact of opposing occlusal surfaces on the nonworking-side when it interferes with anterior guidance or group function on the working-side; nonworking-side contacts are desirable with removable complete dentures when establishing balanced articulation; syn, MEDIOTRUSIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        notch n: syn, PTERYGOMAXILLARY NOTCH
        noxious stimulus ∖nŏk΄shas stĭm΄ya-las∖: a tissue-damaging stimulus
        nuance ∖nōō-äns΄, nyōō-, nōō΄äns΄, nyōō΄-∖ n (1781): 1. a subtle distinction or variation, such as in tone or color; 2. a subtle quality; 3. delicate shading; nuanced adj
        null detector ∖nŭl dĭ-tĕk΄tor∖: a detector of the point at which there is no color difference between two samples; the human eye is an excellent null detector; it is considerably less trustworthy in estimating how large a given difference is

        O

        OBJ: abbr for OBJECT FILE FORMAT
        object file format: a simple data-format that stores code for images by using 3D geometry
        oblique ridge ∖ō-blēk΄, a-blēk΄ rĭj∖: the elevation in the enamel that runs obliquely across the occlusal surface of a maxillary molar
        obtundent ∖ŏb-tŭn΄dant∖ n: an agent or remedy that lessens or relieves pain or sensibility
        obturator ∖ŏb΄ta-rā΄tar∖ n (ca. 1727): 1. a maxillofacial prosthesis used to close a congenital or acquired tissue opening, primarily of the hard palate and/or contiguous alveolar/soft tissue structures (GPT-7); 2. that component of a prosthesis that fits into and closes a defect within the oral cavity or other body defect; 3. a maxillofacial prosthesis used to close, cover, or maintain the integrity of the oral and nasal compartments resulting from a congenital, acquired, or developmental disease process, such as cancer, cleft palate, osteoradionecrosis of the palate; the prosthesis facilitates speech and deglutition by replacing those tissues lost because of the disease process and can, as a result, reduce nasal regurgitation and hypernasal speech, improve articulation, deglutition, and mastication; an obturator prosthesis is classified as surgical, interim, or definitive and reflects the intervention time period used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation of the patient; prosthodontic restoration of a defect often includes use of a surgical obturator, interim obturator, and definitive obturator; comp, DEFINITIVE OBTURATOR, INTERIM OBTURATOR, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS, SURGICAL OBTURATOR
        obturator prosthesis modification ∖ŏb΄ta-rā΄tar prŏs-thē΄sĭs mŏd΄a-fĭ-kā΄shun∖: revision or alteration of an existing obturator (surgical, interim, or definitive); possible revisions include the relief of the denture base to alleviate tissue compression and for the augmentation of the seal or border regions to affect adequate sealing or separation between the nasal and oral cavities
        occlude ∖a-klōōd΄∖ vb (1597): 1. to bring together; to shut; 2. to bring or close the mandibular teeth into contact with the maxillary teeth; occluded; occluding vt
        occluded gas porosity ∖a-klōō΄dĭd găs pa-rŏs΄ĭ-tē∖: porosity produced in a casting as a result of the inability of gasses in the mold to escape; syn, BACK PRESSURE POROSITY, SHRINK-SPOT POROSITY, SOLIDIFICATION POROSITY, SUCK-BACK POROSITY
        occluding frame ∖a-klōōd΄ĭng frām∖ obs: a name given to a device for relating casts to each other for the purpose of arranging teeth (GPT-1)
        occlusal ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal∖ adj (1897): pertaining to the masticatory surfaces of the posterior teeth, prostheses, or occlusion rims
        occlusal adjustment ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal a-jŭst΄mant∖: syn, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING; comp, ESTHETIC RESHAPING
        occlusal analysis ∖a-klōō΄zal,-sal a-năl΄ĭ-sĭs∖: a systematic examination of the occlusion with special consideration to the interocclusal relations of mounted casts
        occlusal appliance slang: syn, DEVICE, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        occlusal balance ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal băl΄ans∖: a condition in which there are simultaneous contacts of opposing teeth or tooth analogues on both sides of the opposing dental arches during eccentric movements within the functional range
        occlusal clearance nonstand: syn, INTEROCCLUSAL CLEARANCE
        occlusal contact ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal kŏn΄tăkt΄∖: 1. the touching of opposing teeth on elevation of the mandible; 2. any contact relation of opposing teeth; comp, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT, INITIAL OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        occlusal correction: syn, OCCLUSAL ADJUSTMENT, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING
        occlusal curvature ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal kûr΄va-chōōr΄, -char∖: the curve of the dentition in which the occlusal surfaces lie, when viewed in the frontal and sagittal planes
        occlusal device ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal dĭ-vīs΄∖: any removable artificial occlusal surface affecting the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae used for diagnosis or therapy; uses of this device may include, but are not limited to, occlusal stabilization for treatment of temporomandibular disorders, diagnostic overlay prior to extensive intervention, radiation therapy, occlusal positioning, and prevention of wear of the dentition or damage to brittle restorative materials such as dental porcelain; comp, bite guard, DEVICE, guard, MOUTH GUARD, occlusal appliance, OCCLUSAL SPLINT, ORTHOTIC DEVICE, STENT, SURGICAL SPLINT
        occlusal disharmony ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal dĭs-hăr΄ma-nē∖: a phenomenon in which contacts of opposing occlusal surfaces are not in harmony with other tooth contacts and/or the anatomic and physiologic components of the craniomandibular complex
        occlusal dysesthesia ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal dĭs-thē΄zha∖: unusual sensory perceptions during occlusal contact
        occlusal embrasure ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal ĕm-brā΄zhar∖: the interdental space that is coronal to the contact area
        occlusal equilibration ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal ĭ-kwĭl΄a-brā΄shun∖: the modification of the occlusal form of the teeth with the intent of equalizing occlusal stress, producing simultaneous occlusal contacts or harmonizing cuspal relations
        occlusal facet: syn, WEAR FACET
        occlusal force ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal fôrs, fōrs∖: the result of muscular force applied on opposing teeth; the force created by the dynamic action of the muscles during the physiologic act of mastication; the result of muscular activity applied to opposing teeth
        occlusal form ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal form∖: the form the occlusal surface of a tooth or a row of teeth (GPT-4)
        occlusal harmony ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal här΄ma-nē∖ obs: a condition in maximal intercuspal position and eccentric jaw relation in which there are no interceptive or deflective contacts of occluding surfaces (GPT-4)
        occlusal interference ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal ĭn΄tur-fîr΄ans∖: 1. any tooth contact that inhibits the remaining occluding surfaces from achieving stable and harmonious contacts; 2. any undesirable occlusal contact
        occlusal path ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal păth, path∖ obs: 1. a gliding occlusal contact; 2. the path of movement of an occlusal surface (GPT-4)
        occlusal pattern ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal păt΄arn∖: the form or design of the masticatory surfaces of a tooth or teeth based on natural, modified anatomic or nonanatomic teeth
        occlusal plane ∖a-klōō΄zal,-sal plān∖: 1. the average plane established by the incisal and occlusal surfaces of the teeth; generally, it is not a plane but represents the planar mean of the curvature of these surfaces; 2. the surface of wax occlusion rims contoured to guide in the arrangement of denture teeth; 3. a flat or curved template used in arranging denture teeth; comp, CURVE OF OCCLUSION
        occlusal position ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal pa-zĭsh΄an∖ obs: the relationship of the mandible and maxillae when the jaw is closed and the teeth are in maximal intercuspal position; this position may or may not coincide with centric occlusion (GPT-4)
        occlusal prematurity ∖a-klōō΄zal prē΄ma-tyōōr΄ĭ-tē∖: syn, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        occlusal pressure ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal prĕsh΄ar∖ obs: any force exerted on the occlusal surfaces of teeth (GPT-4)
        occlusal reduction: the quantity (usually measured in millimeters) of tooth structure that is removed to establish adequate space for a restorative material between the occlusal aspect of the tooth preparation and the opposing dentition
        occlusal reshaping ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal rē-shāp΄ĭng∖: any change in the occlusion intended to alter the occlusal surfaces of the teeth or restorations to change their form; syn, OCCLUSAL ADJUSTMENT, SELECTIVE GRINDING; comp, ESTHETIC RESHAPING, INCISAL REDUCTION, OCCLUSAL REDUCTION
        occlusal rest ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal rĕst∖: a rigid extension of a removable partial denture that contacts the occlusal surface of a tooth or restoration, the occlusal surface of which is commonly prepared to receive this rest; comp, REST SEAT
        occlusal rest arm ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal rĕst ärm∖ obs: a minor connector used to attach an occlusal rest to a major part of a removable partial denture (GPT-1)
        occlusal rim: syn, OCCLUSION RIM
        occlusal splint: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        occlusal stability ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal sta-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖: the equalization of contacts that prevents tooth movement
        occlusal stop slang: syn, OCCLUSAL REST
        occlusal strength nonstand: syn, MASTICATORY FORCE
        occlusal surface ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal sûr΄fas∖: a surface of a posterior tooth or occlusion rim that is intended to make contact with an opposing occlusal surface (GPT-1)
        occlusal system ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal sĭs΄tam∖ obs: the form or design and arrangement of the occlusal and incisal units of a dentition or the teeth on a denture (GPT-4)
        occlusal table ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal tā΄bal∖: the portion of the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth that lies within the perimeter of the cusp tips and marginal ridges; the functional portion(s) of the occlusal surface(s) of a posterior tooth or teeth
        occlusal trauma ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal trou΄ma, trô΄-∖: trauma to the periodontium from functional or parafunctional forces causing damage to the attachment apparatus of the periodontium by exceeding its adaptive and reparative capacities; it may be self-limiting or progressive; comp, PRIMARY OCCLUSAL TRAUMA, SECONDARY OCCLUSAL TRAUMA
        occlusal vertical dimension ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal vûr΄tĭ-kal dĭ-mĕn΄shun∖: the distance between two selected anatomic or marked points (usually one on the tip of the nose and the other on the chin) when in maximal intercuspal position; syn, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF OCCLUSION
        occlusal wear ∖a-klōō΄zal, -sal wâr∖: loss of substance on opposing occlusal units or surfaces as the result of attrition or abrasion
        occlusion ∖a-klōō΄shun∖ n (1645): 1. the act or process of closure or of being closed or shut off; 2. the static relationship between the incising or masticating surfaces of the maxillary or mandibular teeth or tooth analogues; comp, ARTICULATION, CENTRIC OCCLUSION, COMPONENTS OF OCCLUSION, ECCENTRIC OCCLUSION, LINE OF OCCLUSION, LINEAR OCCLUSION, MONOPLANE OCCLUSION, PATHOGENIC OCCLUSION, SPHERICAL FORM OF OCCLUSION
        occlusion analysis ∖a-klōō΄shun a-năl΄ĭ-sĭs∖ obs: syn, OCCLUSAL ANALYSIS
        occlusion record ∖a-klōō΄shun rĕk΄ard∖ obs: a registration of opposing occluding surfaces made at any maxillomandibular relationship (GPT-4)
        occlusion rim ∖a-klōō΄shun rĭm∖: occluding surfaces fabricated on interim or final denture bases for the purpose of making maxillomandibular relation records and arranging teeth; syn, RECORD RIM, OCCLUSAL RIM
        occult cleft palate ∖a-kŭlt΄, ŏ-kŭlt΄, ōk΄ŭlt΄ klĕft păl΄ĭt∖: a separation of muscle in the soft palate with mucous membrane covering the defect; this is often characterized by a notch in the hard palate, bifurcation of the uvula, displaced musculature, and an attenuated raphe; syn, SUBMUCOUS CLEFT PALATE
        ocular prosthesis ∖ŏk΄ya-lar prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis that artificially replaces an eye missing as a result of trauma, surgery, or congenital absence; the prosthesis does not replace missing eyelids or adjacent skin, mucosa or muscle; slang, artificial eye, glass eye; comp, INTERIM OCULAR PROSTHESIS, ORBITAL PROSTHESIS
        odontalgia ∖ō-dŏn΄tăl-ja∖ n: toothache; pain in a tooth
        odontogenous pain ∖ō-dŏn-taj΄a-nus pān∖: deep somatic pain originating in the dental pulp and/or periodontal ligament
        odontograph ∖ō-dŏn΄ta-grăf∖ n: a device used to demonstrate irregularities occurring in the surface of tooth enamel
        odontoplasty ∖ō-dŏn΄ta-plăs-tē∖ n: the reshaping of a portion of a tooth
        oligodontia ∖ŏl΄ĭ-gō-dŏn΄cha∖ n: the formation of less than a full complement of teeth; many such teeth are smaller than normal
        onlay ∖ŏn΄lā, ôn΄-∖ n: a partial-coverage restoration that restores one or more cusps and adjoining occlusal surfaces or the entire occlusal surface and is retained by mechanical or adhesive means; comp, PARTIAL-COVERAGE CROWN
        onlay graft ∖ŏn΄lā, ôn- grăft∖ (1998): augmentation of the height or width of the alveolar ridge with autologous bone or bone substitutes placed beneath the periosteum
        opacity ∖ō-păs΄ĭ-tē∖ n (1611): the quality or state of a body that makes it impervious to light
        opaque ∖ō-pāk΄∖ adj (1641): the property of a material that absorbs and/or reflects all light and prevents any transmission of light
        opaque dentin: modified body porcelain with increased opacity, used where fewer translucencies are required, such as in the gingival area of a pontic or incisal mamelon to mimic existing anatomic features of adjacent natural teeth
        opaque modifier: colored dental porcelain formulated to be selectively mixed with opaque porcelain to increase the saturation of the desired pigment
        opaque porcelain: the first porcelain layer applied in the metal-ceramic technique to the underlying metal framework to establish the bond between the porcelain and metal while simultaneously masking the dark color of the metallic oxide layer; opaque porcelain provides the primary source of color for the completed restoration
        open bite slang: syn, OPEN OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIP; APERTOGNATHIA
        open fracture ∖ō΄pan frăk΄chur∖: any fracture in which there is an external wound leading to a break in the bone; syn, compound fracture
        open occlusal relationship ∖ō΄pan a-klōō΄zal, -sal rĭ-lā΄shun-shĭp΄∖: the lack of tooth contact in an occluding position; comp, ANTERIOR OPEN OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIP, APERTOGNATHIA, POSTERIOR OPEN OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIP
        open-source software: software that is licensed for unrestricted use and access to source codes
        opening movement ∖ō΄pa-nĭng∖: movement of the mandible executed during jaw separation (GPT-1); syn, ENVELOPE OF MOTION
        oral flora ∖ôr΄al,- flôr΄a, ōr΄- flōr΄a∖: the various bacterial and other microbiota inhabiting the oral cavity
        oral mechanism ∖ôr΄al, ōr΄- mĕk΄a-nĭz΄um∖: the functioning structures of the oral cavity
        oral mucosa ∖ôr΄al, ōr΄- myōō-kō΄sa∖: the lining of the oral cavity
        oral orifice ∖ôr΄al, ōr΄- ôr΄a-fĭs, ŏr΄-∖: the longitudinal opening of the mouth between the lips that provides the entrance to the oral cavity
        oral orthopedics ∖ôr΄al, ōr΄- ôr΄tha-pē΄dĭks∖: 1. a concept in dentistry concerned with postural relationships of the jaws, both normal and abnormal; 2. analysis of the harmful effects of an improper relationship of the mandible and the maxillae on dental and other related structures; 3. the diagnosis and correction of such unfavorable relationships and the treatment and/or prevention of the resulting discontinuities between the mandible and maxillae
        orbital prosthesis ∖ôr΄bĭ-tăl prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis that artificially restores the eye, eyelids, and adjacent hard and soft tissues; comp, OCULAR PROSTHESIS
        orbiting condyle: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        organ of mastication ∖ôr΄gan ŭv măs΄tĭ-kā΄shun∖: the combination of all the structures involved in the reception, mastication, and deglutition of food; syn; MASTICATORY SYSTEM
        organic occlusion obs: syn, ANTERIOR PROTECTED ARTICULATION
        orifice ∖ôr΄a-fĭs, ōr΄-∖ n (15c): an opening into a body cavity
        ORMOCER: acronym for ORganically MOdified CERamic; a three-dimensionally cross-linked copolymer with polymerizing side chains resulting in low volumetric polymerization shrinkage and less residual monomer
        oronasal fistula ∖ôr΄a-nā΄zal fĭs΄cha-la∖: a pathologic opening between the oral and nasal cavities; syn; CONFLUENT DEFECT OF THE SINUS, oroantral communication
        oropharynx ∖ôr΄a-făr΄ĭngks∖ n (1887): the part of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and the upper edge of the epiglottis; syn, ORAL PHARYNX, PARS ORALIS PHARYNGIS, PHARYNGO ORAL CAVITY, VESTIBULE OF THE PHARYNX
        orthodontic band ∖ôr΄tha-dŏn΄tĭk∖: a metal orthodontic device that holds a bracket or tube and encircles a tooth
        orthognathic surgery: surgical repositioning of all or part of the maxillae or mandible
        orthognathous ∖ŏr΄thŏg-năth΄ĭk∖ adj: pertaining to or characterized by minimal protrusion of the mandible or minimal prognathism
        Orthopantomogram adj, trade name: syn, PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPH
        orthopedic craniofacial prosthesis ∖ôr-tha-pē΄dĭk∖ (1998): a dynamic orthopedic maxillofacial prosthesis used to maintain or position the craniofacial osseous segments that are malaligned as a result of trauma or craniofacial anomalies
        orthotic device ∖ôr-thŏ΄tĭk dĭ-vīs΄∖: a device designed to brace, activate, or supplement a weakened limb; in dentistry, any removable artificial occlusal surface affecting the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae used for diagnosis or therapy; syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE, orthopedic repositioning appliance; comp, DEVICE
        osseointegration n: 1. the apparent direct attachment or connection of osseous tissue to an inert, alloplastic material without intervening fibrous connective tissue; 2. the process and resultant apparent direct connection of an exogenous material’s surface and the host bone tissues, without intervening fibrous connective tissue present; 3. the interface between alloplastic materials and bone; orig, Per-Ingvar Branemark, physician/professor/surgeon, Sweden, 1982
        osseous ∖ŏs΄ē-as∖ adj (1707): bony
        osseous graft: syn, BONE GRAFT
        ossification ∖ŏs΄a-fĭ-kā΄shun∖ n (1697): 1. the natural process of bone formation; the hardening into a bony substance; 2. a mass of ossified tissue
        ostectomy ∖ŏs-tĕk΄tō-mē∖ n: the excision of bone or a portion of a bone, usually by means of a saw or chisel, for the removal of a sequestrum, the correction of a deformity, or any other purpose
        osteitis ∖ŏs΄tē-ī΄tĭs∖ n (ca. 1839): inflammation of bone
        osteoarthritis ∖ŏs΄tē-ō-är-thrī΄tĭs∖ n (1878): chronic degeneration and destruction of the articular cartilage and/or fibrous connective tissue linings of the joint components and discs, leading to bony spurs, pain, stiffness, limitation of movement, and changes in bone morphology; advanced conditions may involve erosions and disc degeneration with crepitus; syn, DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE
        osteoconduction: the process whereby bone grows on a surface or on a scaffolding that is conductive to bone deposition; this is a passive process; comp, OSTEOINDUCTION
        osteoconductive graft: a graft material that serves as a scaffold for new bone growth; this is a passive process
        osteogenesis ∖ŏs΄tē-ō-jĕn΄ĭ-sĭs∖ n: development of bone; formation of bone
        osteoinduction ∖ŏs΄tē-ō-ĭn-dŭk΄shun∖ n: the capability of chemicals or procedures to induce bone formation through the differentiation and recruitment of osteoblasts; phenotypic conversion of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts; comp, OSTEOCONDUCTION
        osteoporosis ∖ŏs΄tē-ō-pa-rō΄sĭs∖ n (1846): a medical condition characterized by a decrease in bone mass with diminished density and concurrent enlargement of bone spaces, which produces porosity and fragility of bone; -roses ∖-rō΄sĕz∖ pl; osteoporotic adj
        osteotome ∖ŏs΄tē-ō-tōm∖ n: a chisel for use in cutting bone
        osteotomy ∖ŏs΄tē-ŏt΄a-mē∖ n: the surgical cutting of a bone; frequently used to also describe smoothing, leveling, or altering external contours of the bone; comp, ALVEOLECTOMY, ALVEOPLASTY
        outline form: the shape of the area of a tooth preparation that is included within the cavosurface margins
        ovate pontic: a pontic that is elliptically shaped on its tissue surface in two dimensions, typically partially submerged in a surgically prepared, soft-tissue depression to enhance the illusion that a natural tooth is emerging from the soft tissues
        oven soldering: any soldering procedure that uses heat from a furnace to melt and fuse the solder as opposed to using a gas-air torch, gas-oxygen torch, or laser as the heat source; comp, LASER WELDING, SOLDER
        overbite ∖ō΄var-bīt΄∖ n, slang: syn, VERTICAL OVERLAP
        overclosure ∖ō΄var-klō΄zhar∖ n: an occluding vertical dimension at a reduced interarch distance; an occluding vertical dimension that results in excessive interocclusal distance when the mandible is in the rest position; it results in a reduced interridge distance when the teeth are in contact
        overdenture ∖ō΄var-dĕn΄chur∖ n: any removable dental prosthesis that covers and rests on one or more remaining natural teeth, the roots of natural teeth, and/or dental implants; a dental prosthesis that covers and is partially supported by natural teeth, natural tooth roots, and/or dental implants; nonstand/syn, OVERLAY DENTURE, OVERLAY PROSTHESIS
        overglaze ∖ō΄var-glāz∖ adj (1879): the production of a glazed surface by the addition of a fluxed glass that usually vitrifies at a lower temperature
        overhang ∖ō΄var-hăng∖ n (1864): excess restorative material projecting beyond a cavity or preparation margin
        overjet n substand: syn, HORIZONTAL OVERLAP
        overlap n substand (1726): comp, HORIZONTAL OVERLAP, VERTICAL OVERLAP
        overlay denture nonstand: syn, OVERDENTURE
        overlay prosthesis nonstand: syn, OVERDENTURE

        P

        1pack ∖păk∖ vt (14c): 1. to make into a compact form; 2. to completely fill; 3. to crowd together; 4. to compress; packability ∖păk΄a-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖ n; packable ∖păk΄a-bal∖ adj
        2pack ∖păk∖ n: any material used to protect tissue, fill space or prevent hemorrhage
        packing ∖păk΄ĭng∖ vt: the act of filling a mold; comp, DENTURE PACKING
        PACS: acronym for PICTURE ARCHIVING AND COMMUNICATION
        PAEK: acronym for POLYARYLETHERKETONE; comprising a family of semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers exhibiting high strength and shape stability over a wide range of temperatures; comp, PEEK
        pain ∖pān∖ n (13c): a subjective unpleasant sensory (afferent) and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage; comp, ACUTE PAIN, CHRONIC PAIN, HETEROTOPIC PAIN, MASTICATORY PAIN, MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN, MYOGENOUS PAIN, NEUROGENOUS PAIN, ODONTOGENOUS PAIN, PRIMARY PAIN, PROJECTED PAIN, SECONDARY PAIN, VASCULAR PAIN, VISCERAL PAIN
        palatal augmentation prosthesis ∖păl΄a-tal ôg΄mĕn-tā΄shun prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a removable maxillofacial prosthesis that alters the hard and/or soft palate’s topographical form adjacent to the tongue; it allows reshaping of the hard palate to improve tongue/palate contact during speech and swallowing to compensate for impaired tongue mobility as a result of surgery, trauma, or neurological or motor deficits
        palatal bar: syn, PALATAL BAR CONNECTOR
        palatal bar connector ∖păl΄a-tal bär ka-nĕk΄tōr∖: a major connector of a maxillary removable partial denture that crosses the palate and has a characteristic shape that is half-oval anteroposteriorly with its thickest portion at the center of the bar connector
        palatal cleft ∖păl΄a-tal klĕft∖: 1. an opening in the roof of the mouth and/or in the functional soft palate; a deformity of the palate from improper union of the maxillary processes with the median nasal process during the second month of intrauterine development; 2. a cleft in the palate between the two palatal processes; if both the hard and soft palate are involved, it is termed URANOSTAPHYLOSCHISIS; if only the soft palate is divided, it is termed URANOSCHISIS; syn, CLEFT PALATE, COMPLETE CLEFT PALATE, OCCULT CLEFT PALATE
        palatal drop prosthesis slang: syn, PALATAL AUGMENTATION PROSTHESIS
        palatal expansion ∖păl΄a-tal ĭk-spăn΄shun∖: in orthodontics, the lateral movement of the maxillae to increase palatal width
        palatal incompetence ∖păl΄a-tal ĭn-kŏm΄pĭ-tans∖: the inability of an anatomically intact soft palate to contribute to a functional palatopharyngeal sphincter usually because of disease or trauma of a neurogenic or muscular nature; lack of effective closure between the soft palate and one or more of the pharyngeal walls affecting swallowing or speech sounds that require high intraoral pressure; nasal reflux of fluids, escape of air during speech or hypernasality may result; syn, PALATOPHARYGNEAL INCOMPETENCE, VELOPHARYNGEAL DEFICIENCY
        palatal insufficiency ∖păl΄a-tal ĭn΄sa-fĭsh΄an-sē∖: an acquired or congenital anatomic inadequacy of the soft palate that makes the palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete; lack of effective closure between the soft palate affecting swallowing or speech sounds that require high intraoral pressure; nasal reflux of fluids, escape of air during speech or hypernasality may result; syn, PALATOPHARYNGEAL INSUFFICIENCY, VELOPHARYNGEAL DEFICIENCY
        palatal lift prosthesis ∖păl΄a-tal lĭft prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a maxillofacial prosthesis that elevates the soft palate superiorly and aids in restoration of soft palate functions that may be lost because of an acquired, congenital or developmental defect; a definitive palatal lift prosthesis is usually made for patients whose experience with a diagnostic palatal lift has been successful, especially if surgical alterations are deemed unwarranted; an interim palatal lift prosthesis is usually made as a diagnostic aid to assess the level of possible improvement in speech intelligibility; some clinicians believe use of a palatal lift prosthesis may stimulate an otherwise flaccid soft palate to increase functional activity, subsequently lessening its need
        palatal lift prosthesis modification ∖păl΄a-tal lĭft prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: alterations in the adaptation, contour, form, or function of an existing palatal lift prosthesis necessitated to correct tissue impingement, lack of function, poor clasp adaptation, or the like
        palatal plate ∖păl΄a-tal plāt∖: a major connector of a removable partial denture that covers a significant portion of the palatal surface
        palatal seal: syn, POSTPALATAL SEAL
        palatal stent: syn, SURGICAL STENT
        palatal strap ∖păl΄a-tal străp∖: a major connector of a maxillary removable partial denture having an anterioposterior dimension not less than 8 mm that directly or obliquely traverses the palate; it is generally located in the area of the second premolar and first molar; comp, PALATAL BAR CONNECTOR, PALATAL PLATE
        palatal vault ∖păl΄a-tal volt∖: 1. the deepest and most superior part of the palate; 2. the curvature of the palate; comp, SPACE OF DONDERS
        palate ∖păl΄ĭt∖ n (14c): comp, HARD PALATE, SOFT PALATE
        palatogram ∖pă-lĭt΄a-grăm∖ n: a graphic representation of the area of the palate contacted by the tongue during a specified activity, usually speech
        palatopharyngeal closure ∖pă-lĭt΄a-fa-rĭn΄jē-al, -jal, -făr΄ĭn-jē΄al klō΄zhur∖: a sphincteric action sealing the oral cavity from the nasal cavity during swallowing and phonation by the synchronous movement of the middle third of the soft palate in a superior and posterior direction, the lateral pharyngeal wall medially, and the posterior walls of the pharynx anteriorly; syn, VELOPHARYNGEAL CLOSURE
        palatopharyngeal inadequacy ∖pă-lĭt΄a-fa-rĭn΄jē-al, -jal, -făr΄ĭn-jē΄al ĭn-ăd΄ĭ-kwa-sē∖: a condition where there is lack of effective closure between the soft palate and one or more of the pharyngeal walls during swallowing or speech sounds that require high intraoral pressure; nasal reflux escape of air during speech or hypernasality may result; this lack of closure may be the result of palatal incompetence, palatal insufficiency, or from lack of movement of the pharyngeal walls; comp, PALATAL INCOMPETENCE, PALATAL INSUFFICIENCY
        palatopharyngeal incompetence ∖pă-lĭt΄a-fa-rĭn΄jē΄al ĭn-kŏm΄pĭ-tans∖: syn, PALATAL INCOMPETENCE; comp, PALATAL INSUFFICIENCY
        palatopharyngeal insufficiency ∖pă-lĭt΄a-fa-rĭn΄jē΄al ĭn΄sa-fĭsh΄an-sē∖: syn, PALATAL INSUFFICIENCY; comp, PALATAL INCOMPETENCE
        palatopharyngeal sphincter ∖pă-lĭt΄a-fa-rĭn΄-jē΄al sfĭngk΄tar∖: the functional sphincter that separates the nasopharynx and oropharynx during swallowing and phonation, formed by the posterior and superior movement of the middle third of the soft palate, the anterior movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall, and the medial movement of the lateral pharyngeal walls; comp, PALATOPHARYNGEAL CLOSURE; syn, VELOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER
        palatorrhaphy: surgical repair of a cleft palate
        palliative ∖păl΄ē-ā΄tĭv∖ adj (1543): affording relief but not a cure
        palpate ∖păl΄pāt΄∖ vb (1849): to examine by touch; palpated ∖păl-pā΄tĭd∖; palpating ∖păl-pā΄tĭng∖ vt, palpation ∖păl-pā΄shun∖ n
        panoramic radiograph ∖păn΄a-răm΄ĭk rā΄dē-ō-grăf΄∖: a tomogram of the maxillae and mandible taken with a specialized machine; designed to present a panoramic view of the full circumferential lengths of the maxillae and mandible on a single film
        panoramic radiography ∖păn΄a-răm΄ĭk rā΄dē-ŏg΄ra-fē∖: a method of radiography by which a continuous radiograph of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches and their associated structures may be obtained
        Panorex adj, trade name (1966): syn, PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPH
        pantogram n: syn, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING
        pantograph ∖păn΄ta-gräf΄∖ n (1723): 1. an instrument used for copying a planar figure to any desired scale; 2. in dentistry, an instrument used to graphically record, in one or more planes, the paths of mandibular movement and to provide information for the programming of an articulator; Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING MANDIBULAR TRACER, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, STYLUS TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        pantographic tracing ∖păn΄ta-gräf΄ĭk trā΄sĭng∖: a graphic record of mandibular movement usually recorded in the horizontal and sagittal planes as registered by styli on the recording tables of a pantograph or by means of electronic sensors
        papilla ∖pa-pĭl΄a∖ n, (1713): any small, sessile or pedunculated tissue elevation; papillae ∖-pĭl΄ē∖ pl; comp, INCISIVE PAPILLA, INTERDENTAL PAPILLA
        papillary index: a visual analog score that uses a reference line bisecting a line between the gingival zenith of the teeth adjacent to the papilla and the tooth contact area; score values range from 0 (absent papilla), 1, 2, 3, 4 (hyperplasia); orig, Torsten Jemt, prosthodontist, Sweden, 1997; comp, PINK ESTHETIC SCORE
        parafunction ∖păr΄a-fŭngk΄shun∖ adj: disordered or perverted function
        parallax ∖păr΄a-lăks΄∖ n: a difference in the perceived location of an object when observed from two different points not on a straight line with the object
        parallel attachment: syn, PRECISION ATTACHMENT
        parallelometer ∖păr΄a-lĕ-lŏm΄ĭ-tar∖ n: 1. an instrument used for determining the exact parallel relationships of lines, structures, and surfaces in dental casts and prostheses; 2. an apparatus used for making one object parallel with another object, as in paralleling attachments and abutments for fixed dental prostheses or precision attachments for removable dental prostheses; syn, SURVEYOR
        paralysis ∖pă-răl΄ĭ-sĭs∖ n (1525): loss or impairment of motor function as the result of a trauma or pathosis
        paresthesia ∖păr΄ĭs-thē΄zha∖ n: lacking normal afferent sensation, such as tingling or burning
        partial-coverage crown: an artificial replacement that restores missing tooth structure by surrounding part of the remaining structure with a material such as cast metal alloy, ceramics, or resin; it is retained by mechanical or adhesive means; syn, ONLAY, THREE-QUARTER CROWN
        partial-coverage restoration n: syn, ONLAY, PARTIAL-COVERAGE CROWN, PARTIAL-COVERAGE RETAINER, THREE-QUARTER CROWN
        partial-coverage retainer: the component for a fixed partial denture that is an artificial replacement that restores missing tooth structure by surrounding part of the remaining structure with a material such as cast metal alloy, ceramics, or resin; it is retained by mechanical or adhesive means
        partial denture ∖pär΄shal dĕn΄chur∖: a removable partial denture or a fixed partial denture that restores a partially edentulous arch; Editorial note for usage: a partial denture can be described as a removable partial denture or a fixed partial denture based on the patient's capability to remove or not remove the prosthesis, respectively; adjectives (modifiers) may be added to the clinical description of the partial denture, if needed, to designate the means of mechanical retention, such as, a screw retained fixed partial denture; any such prosthesis luted to dental implants (in the same manner as luting a fixed partial denture to natural teeth) needs no additional designation as to its means of retention; comp, BILATERAL DISTAL-EXTENSION REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE, NESBIT, REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, PROSTHESIS
        partial denture construction ∖pär΄shal dĕn΄chur kon-strŭk΄shun∖ obs: the science and techniques of designing and constructing partial dentures (GPT-4)
        partial denture impression ∖pär΄shal dĕn΄chur ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: a negative likeness of all supporting teeth and/or dental implants and tissues of a partially edentulous arch
        partial denture rest ∖pär΄shal dĕn΄chur rĕst∖: a rigid extension of a fixed or removable partial denture that prevents movement toward the mucosa and transmits functional forces to the teeth or dental implant
        partial denture retention ∖pär΄shal dĕn΄chur rĭ-tĕn΄shun∖: the ability of a removable partial denture to resist movement away from its foundation area and/or abutments
        partial dislocation ∖pär΄shal dĭs΄lō-kā΄shun∖: displacement of the articular disc resulting in a seriously impaired disc-condyle complex function
        partial-veneer crown ∖pär΄shal va-nîr΄ kroun∖ n, nonstand: Editorial note for usage: this is a nonspecific term that does not distinguish between the partial-coverage crown restoration of the tooth and the partial veneering of an artificial crown; syn, PARTIAL-COVERAGE CROWN, PARTIAL-COVERAGE RETAINER
        partitive color mixing ∖pär΄tĭ-tĭv∖: color mixing in which both additive and subtractive principles are involved; the eye interprets tiny dots of subtractive color too small to be individually resolved at the viewing distance; the resultant color will be the average of the colors used
        Passavant’s pad: syn, PASSAVANT’S RIDGE
        Passavant’s ridge: eponym for a prominence on the posterior wall of the nasal pharynx formed by contraction of the superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx during swallowing; contraction occurs at the level of the plane of the hard palate; orig, Philip Gustav Passavant, physician/surgeon, Germany, 1815-1893; syn, passavant's cushion, PASSAVANT’S PAD
        Passavant PG. Uber die Verschliesung des Schlunmdes beim Sprechen. Virchows Archiv Pathol Anat (Berlin) 1869;1-31
        passivate ∖păs΄ĭ-vāt∖ vb (1913): 1. to render inactive or less reactive; 2. to protect against contamination by coating or surface treating; -ated; -ating vt
        passivation ∖păs΄ĭ-vā΄shun∖ n: a process whereby metals and alloys are made more corrosion resistant through surface treatment; this process produces a thin and stable inert oxide layer on the external surfaces
        passive ∖păs΄ĭv∖ adj (14c): 1. not active or in operation; inert; latent; 2. resistant to corrosion; 3. existing or occurring without being active, direct, or open
        passivity ∖pă-sĭv΄ĭ-tē∖ n (14c): the quality or condition of inactivity or rest assumed by the teeth, tissues, and denture when a removable partial prosthesis is in place but not under masticatory pressure
        path of insertion: the specific direction in which a prosthesis is placed on the residual alveolar ridge, abutment teeth, dental implant abutment(s), or attachments; syn, PATH OF PLACEMENT
        path of placement ∖păth, path ŭv plās΄mant∖: the specific direction in which a prosthesis is placed on the residual alveolar ridge, abutment teeth, dental implant abutment(s), or attachments; syn, PATH OF INSERTION
        path of withdrawal: syn, PATH OF INSERTION, PATH OF PLACEMENT
        pathogenic occlusion ∖păth΄a-jĕn΄ĭk∖: an occlusal relationship capable of producing pathologic changes in the stomatognathic system
        patient history: the collected data about an individual, family, environmental factors (including medical and dental history), and any other information that may be useful in analyzing and diagnosing conditions or for instructional purposes
        patient series: a collection of common diagnostic findings or treatment modalities within a group of patients
        patient study: presentation of the diagnostic findings and treatment for a patient
        patrix ∖pa-trĭks∖ n: the extension of a dental attachment system that fits into the recessed extension of the attachment, the matrix; patrices ∖pa-trē΄sĭz∖ pl
        pattern ∖păt΄urn∖ n (14c): a form that is used to make a mold; a model for making a mold; comp, OCCLUSAL PATTERN
        pear-shaped area: syn; PEAR-SHAPED PAD
        pear-shaped pad ∖pâr-shāpd păd∖: the most distal extension of attached keratinized mucosa overlying the mandibular ridge crest formed by the scarring pattern after extraction of the most posterior molar; it should be differentiated from the retromolar pad
        pediatric speech aid prosthesis ∖pē΄dē-ăt΄rĭk spēch ād prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a temporary or interim maxillofacial prosthesis used to close a defect in the hard and/or soft palate of an infant or child; it may replace tissue lost as a result of developmental or surgical alterations. It is necessary for the production of intelligible speech; normal lateral growth of the palatal bones necessitates replacement of this prosthesis occasionally; intermittent revisions of the obturator section can assist in maintenance of palatal pharyngeal closure (termed a SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS MODIFICATION); frequently, such prostheses are not fabricated before the deciduous dentition is fully erupted because clasp retention is often essential; comp, BULB, CLEFT PALATE APPLIANCE, NASOPHARYNGEAL OBTURATOR, OBTURATOR, PROSTHETIC SPEECH AID, SPEECH AID
        pedicle graft: an autogenous skin flap sustained by a blood-carrying stem from the donor site during transfer; in periodontal surgery, a flap used to increase the width of attached gingiva, or to cover a root surface, by moving the attached gingiva, which remains joined at one side with intact blood supply and then suturing the free end to an adjacent position
        PEEK: acronym for POLY(ETHERETHERKETONE); poly (oxy-1,4-phenyleneoxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenylene); a member of the PAEK family; a highly ordered, flexible, resilient, shape-stable, biocompatible polymer machined to final shape, used for removable partial denture frameworks and implant components; comp, PAEK
        peg lateral incisor ∖pĕg lăt΄ar-al∖: an undersized, tapered maxillary lateral incisor
        pellucid ∖pa-lōō΄sĭd∖ adj: reflecting light evenly from all surfaces without diffusion or distortion
        pennyweight n: abbr, dwt (from Latin denarius, a small silver coin + weight); abbr, pwt is also sometimes seen in publications; a unit of mass in the troy system used to measure precious metals and equivalent to 1.555 grams. Defined also as 24 grains in a pennyweight and 20 pennyweights in the troy ounce
        perceived color ∖par-sēvd΄ kŭl΄ar∖: attribute of visual perception that can be described by color names: white, gray, black, yellow, orange, brown, red, green, blue, purple, etc., or by a combination of names
        percussion ∖pur-kŭsh΄an∖ n (1544): 1. the act of striking a part with sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition of the underlying parts by means of the sound obtained; 2. in dentistry, striking a part with short, sharp blows as a diagnostic aid in evaluation of a tooth or dental implant by the sound obtained
        peri-implantitis ∖pĕr΄ĭ-ĭm-plăn-tī΄tĭs∖: a term used to describe inflammation around a dental implant, or the dental implant abutment
        periapical ∖pĕr΄ĭ-ăp΄ĭ-kal, ā΄pĭ-∖ adj: relating to tissues surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament
        perikymata: small transverse ridges on the surface of the enamel of permanent teeth that represent overlapping prism groups within the enamel
        perimolysis ∖pĕr΄ĭ-mŏl΄ĭ-sĭs∖ (1998): acidic erosion of the teeth as a result of chronic gastric regurgitation.
        House RC, Grisius R, Biziotes MM, Licht JH. Perimolysis: unveiling the surreptitious vomiter. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path 1981;51(2):152-55
        periodontal ∖pĕr΄ē-ō-dŏn΄tl∖ adj: pertaining to or occurring around a tooth
        periodontometry ∖pĕr΄ē-ō-dŏn΄tŏm΄ĭ-trē∖ n: the measurement of tooth mobility
        periosteum ∖pĕr΄ē-ŏs΄tē-am∖ n (1597): the membrane of connective tissue that closely invests all bones except at articular surfaces; –tea ∖tē-a∖ pl
        peripheral seal: syn, BORDER SEAL
        periphery n (1571): -eries pl; syn, DENTURE BORDER
        periradicular ∖pĕr΄ĭ-răd΄ĭ-kyōō-lar∖ adj: around or surrounding a tooth root
        permanent dentition ∖pûr΄ma-nant dĕn-tĭsh΄an∖: the teeth that erupt after the primary dentition that do not shed under normal conditions
        pharyngeal flap ∖fa-rĭn΄jē-al, -jal, făr΄ĭn-jē΄al∖: tissue elevated from the posterior pharyngeal wall and inserted into the soft palate to correct palatopharyngeal inadequacy
        pharyngeal speech aid prosthesis: comp, DEFINITIVE OBTURATOR, INTERIM OBTURATOR, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS, SURGICAL OBTURATOR
        pharyngeal walls ∖fa-rĭn΄jē-al, -jal, făr΄ĭn-jē-ăl∖: posterior and lateral walls of the naso- and oropharynx
        pharynx ∖făr΄ingks∖ n (ca. 1693): an orifice of muscle and tissue between the mouth, nares, and the esophagus, which is the common pathway for food and air; the nasopharynx is above the level of the soft palate; the oropharynx lies between the upper edge of the epiglottis and the soft palate, whereas the laryngopharynx lies below the upper edge of the epiglottis and the openings into the esophagus and larynx; pharynges ∖fa-rĭn΄jĕz∖ pl
        phase transformation toughening: an increase in the fracture toughness of partially stabilized zirconia as a result of the transformation of the zirconia crystals in the vicinity of the tip of a propagating crack from the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase; this transformation does not prevent the crack from propagating, but makes it more difficult for the crack to advance; comp, stress-induced transformation toughening
        phosphate-bonded investment: any casting investment with a binder formed from magnesium oxide and mono-ammonium phosphate; the resulting colloidal multimolecular material (NH4MgPO4∙6H2O)n coagulates around MgO and fillers; this is combined with silica in the form of quartz, cristobalite or both in a concentration of approximately 80%; upon heating, the binder undergoes several changes believed to be responsible for increased strength at higher temperatures; these investments exhibit considerable thermal expansion and can be used when casting higher fusing metal-ceramic alloys and partial denture frameworks
        phosphorescence ∖fŏs΄fa-rĕs΄ans∖ n (1796): a form of photoluminescence based on the properties of certain molecules to absorb energy (either near ultraviolet or visible) and emit it in the form of visible radiation at a higher wavelength; distinguished from fluorescence in that light continues to be emitted for some time after the exciting energy has ceased; comp, FLUORESCENCE, LUMINANCE
        photoactivation n: syn, LIGHT-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION
        photoactive ∖fō΄tō-ăk΄tĭv∖ adj: reacting chemically to visible light or ultraviolet radiation
        photometer ∖fō-tŏm΄ĭ-ter∖ n (1884): an instrument for the measurement of emitted, reflected, or transmitted light; for the measurement of luminous intensity, a visual receptor element (the eye) may be used as the measuring device, or a physical receptor element may be used that can be related to the calculated response of a standard observer; comp, PHYSICAL PHOTOMETER, VISUAL PHOTOMETER
        photon ∖fō΄tŏn∖ n (ca. 1922): a massless particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field, carrying energy, momentum, and angular momentum; syn, light quantum
        photopic vision ∖fō-tŏp΄ĭk vĭzh΄an∖: vision as it occurs under illumination sufficient to permit the full discrimination of colors; it is the function of the retinal cones and is not dependent on the retinal rods; also called daylight vision as contrasted with twilight or scotopic vision
        photoreceptor process ∖fō΄tō-rĭ-sĕp΄tar prŏs΄ĕs΄, prō΄sĕs΄∖: that specific process that is set in motion in a visual sensory end organ or other photic receptor by the incidence of its adequate stimulus, i.e., light
        physical photometer ∖fĭz΄ĭ-kal fō-tŏm΄ĭ-ter∖: a photometer in which the measurement is made by some physical or chemical effect instead of by visual methods
        physiologic ∖fĭz΄ē-a-lŏj΄ĭk∖ adj (1814): 1. characteristic of or conforming to the innate function of a tissue or organ; 2. pertaining to organic processes or to functions in an organism or in any of its parts; 3. the opposite of pathologic; syn, physiological ∖fĭz΄ē-a-lŏj΄ĭ-kal∖ adj
        physiologic occlusion ∖fĭz΄ē-a-lŏj΄ik a-klōō΄zhun∖: occlusion in harmony with the functions of the masticatory system (GPT-4)
        physiologic rest position ∖fĭz΄ē-a-lŏj΄ĭk rĕst pa-zĭsh΄un∖: syn, REST VERTICAL DIMENSION, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF REST
        physiologically balanced occlusion ∖fĭz΄ē-a-lŏj΄ĭ-ka-lē băl΄ansd a-klōō΄zhun∖ obs: a balanced occlusion that is in harmony with the temporomandibular joints and the neuromuscular system (GPT-4)
        pick-up impression n: an impression that incorporates a prosthesis, framework, copings, or attachments for the purpose of making a cast as a relationship record within the arch; comp, COPING PICK-UP IMPRESSION, transfer impression
        1pickle ∖pĭk΄al∖ n (15c): a solution or bath for preserving or cleaning; any of various baths used in cleaning or processing
        2pickle ∖pĭk΄al∖ vt (1552): to treat, preserve, or clean in or with an agent; pickled ∖pĭk΄ald∖, pickling ∖pĭk΄lĭng
        picture archiving and communication system: acronym is PACS; a medical imaging system for consolidating images originating from many sources
        pier abutment: syn, INTERMEDIATE ABUTMENT
        pigment ∖pĭg΄mant∖ n (14c): finely ground, natural or synthetic, inorganic or organic, insoluble dispersed particles (powder), which, when dispersed in a liquid vehicle, may provide, in addition to color, many other essential properties such as opacity, hardness, durability, and corrosion resistance; the term is used to include an extender, white or colored pigments; the distinction between powders that are pigments and those that are dyes is generally considered on the basis of solubility; pigments are insoluble and dispersed in the material, and dyes are soluble or in solution as used
        pin ∖pĭn∖ n (bef. 12c): a small cylindrical piece of metal; comp, ANTERIOR GUIDE PIN, CEMENTED PIN, FRICTION RETAINED PIN, SELF-THREADING PIN, STEINMANN’S PIN
        pin-retained cast metal core: a cemented cast foundation restoration for an extensively damaged vital tooth, retained by cast tapered pins that are incorporated into the core and insert into corresponding pinholes prepared in the tooth; an extracoronal restoration is subsequently placed over the core
        pin-retained restoration: a restoration for an extensively damaged tooth that in part relies on threaded or cemented pins placed in the dentin for its retention and resistance form
        pinhole n: a feature of a tooth preparation used to provide retention and resistance to displacement; typically a 1-2 mm hole is prepared into the dentin
        pink esthetic score: a visual analog scale applied to the esthetics of gingiva; the seven parameters include: presence of a mesial papilla, presence of a distal papilla, curvature of the buccal tissues, level of the buccal mucosa, buccal convexity, color, texture; a value of 0 (disapproved), 1, or 2 (approve) is assigned to each parameter in comparison to a control; Rudolf Furhauser, prosthodontist, Austria, 2005; comp, PAPILLARY INDEX
        pink porcelain nonstand: a term for the porcelain that replaces gingival tissues; syn, GINGIVAL PORCELAIN
        pinledge ∖pĭn΄lĕj∖ n (1998): a partial-coverage crown or retainer that incorporates pins that insert into corresponding pinholes prepared in the tooth
        placement ∖plās΄mant∖ vb: the process of directing a prosthesis to a desired location; the introduction of a prosthesis into a patient’s mouth; syn, DELIVERY, INSERTION, DENTURE PLACEMENT, PROSTHESIS PLACEMENT
        plane ∖plān∖ n (1570): a flat surface defined by three points; comp, AXIS ORBITAL PLANE, CAMPER’S PLANE, CORONAL PLANE, CUSP PLANE, FRANKFORT HORIZONTAL PLANE, FRONTAL PLANE, HORIZONTAL PLANE, INCLINED PLANE, MANDIBULAR PLANE, MEDIAN PLANE, OCCLUSAL PLANE, SAGITTAL PLANE
        plane motion ∖plān mō΄shun∖: 1. motion that is a combination of rotation and translation in a given plane; the motion is described by instantaneous centers of rotation; 2. the combined motions of translation and rotation of a rigid body within a given plane
        plane of occlusion: syn, OCCLUSAL PLANE
        plane of reference ∖plān ŭv rĕf΄ar-ans∖: any plane with defined landmarks from which measurements can be made; syn, HORIZONTAL PLANE OF REFERENCE
        plaster ∖plăs΄tar∖ n: in dentistry, the term “plaster” applies to a mixture consisting of water and β-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSo4・½ H2O); β-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (dental plaster) crystals are irregular and porous, created by dry heating the gypsum dihydrate under atmospheric conditions; dental stone is physically superior to dental plaster; obs, dental plaster of Paris
        1plastic ∖plăs΄tĭk∖ adj (1632): 1. capable of being shaped or formed; 2. pertaining to the alteration or reformation of living tissues
        2plastic ∖plăs΄tĭk∖ n (ca. 1909): any of numerous organic synthetic or processed materials that generally are thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers, usually of high molecular weight; they can be cast, extruded, molded, drawn, or laminated into films, filaments, and objects
        plastic base ∖plăs΄tĭk bās∖ obs: a denture or record base made of a plastic material (GPT-4)
        platform switching: a concept of using a dental implant abutment of smaller diameter than the dental implant; longitudinal radiographic observation has demonstrated decreased vertical bone resorption
        platinum foil ∖plăt΄n-um foil∖: a precious-metal foil with a high fusing point that makes it suitable as a matrix for various soldering procedures, as well as to provide an internal form for porcelain restorations during their fabrication
        Pleasure curve: eponym for a type of curve of occlusion; orig, Max Pleasure, dentist, U.S.A., 1903-1965; syn, CURVE OF PLEASURE
        plunger cusp ∖plŭn΄jer kŭsp∖: a cusp that tends to force food into interproximal areas
        pogonion ∖pa-gōn΄yun∖ n: the most anterior point on the mandible
        point A ∖point Ā∖: a bony landmark representing the deepest point of the premaxillary concavity between the anterior nasal spine and prosthion as viewed on a lateral cephalometric radiograph
        point angle ∖point ăng΄gal∖: in the development of a cavity preparation, that place of convergence of three planes or surfaces; comp, LINE ANGLE
        point B: syn, SUPRAMENTALE
        1polish ∖pŏl΄ĭsh∖ vb (14c): to make smooth and glossy, usually by friction; giving luster; the act or process of making a denture or casting smooth and glossy
        2polish ∖pŏl΄ĭsh∖ n (1704): a smooth, glossy surface; having luster
        polished denture surface ∖pŏl΄ĭsht dĕn΄chur sûr΄fas∖ obs: syn, CAMEO SURFACE
        polished layer: syn, BEILBY LAYER
        polishing ∖pŏl΄ĭsh-ĭng∖ vb: 1. to make smooth and glossy, usually by friction; to give luster to (GPT-1); 2. the act or process of making a denture or casting smooth and glossy (GPT-1)
        polishing agent ∖pŏl΄ĭsh-ĭng ā΄jants∖: any material used to impart luster to a surface
        poly(aryletherketone): acronym is PAEK; a family of semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers exhibiting high strength and shape stability over a wide range of temperatures; comp, PEEK, POLY (ETHERETHERKETONE), poly(etherketoneketone)
        polycarboxylate cement: syn, ZINC POLYCARBOXYLATE CEMENT
        polyether ∖pŏl΄ē-ē΄thar∖ n: an elastomeric impression material of ethylene oxide and tetra-hydrofluro copolymers that polymerizes under the influence of an aromatic ester
        poly(etheretherketone): acronym is PEEK; a member of the PAEK family; a highly ordered, flexible, strong, shape-stable, biocompatible polymer machined to final shape, used for removable partial denture frameworks and dental implant components; comp, POLY(ARYLETHERKETONE), poly(etherketoneketone)
        polymer ∖pŏl΄a-mar∖ n (1866): a chemical compound consisting of large organic molecules built by repetition of smaller monomeric units
        polymerization ∖pa-lĭ΄ar-ī-zā΄shun∖ n (1872): the forming of a compound by the joining together of molecules of small molecular weight into a compound of large molecular weight; the reaction uses chemical, heat, or light activation; comp, AUTOPOLYMERIZATION, CHEMICALLY-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION, HEAT-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION, LIGHT-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION
        polymerize ∖pŏl΄a-ma-rīz΄, pa-lĭm΄a-∖ vb: to affect a chemical reaction by joining together individual molecules to form large molecules made up of many repeated units
        poly(methylmethacrylate) n: a stable, hard transparent resin of marked clarity with a Knoop hardness number ranging from 18-20, a tensile strength of approximately 60 MPa, a density of 1.19 and a modulus of elasticity of approximately 2.4 GPa
        poly(oxymethylene): a thermoplastic polyaldehyde exhibiting flexibility, toughness, and clinically acceptable shape stability. The flexural modulus of these acetal resins exceeds that of all other thermoplastic, thermoformed flexible resins; syn, acetal resin
        polysomnography ∖pŏl΄ĭ-sŏm-ŏg΄ră-fē∖ n: the all-night recording of a variety of physiologic parameters (e g., brain waves, eye movements, muscle tonus, respiration, heart rate) as an aid in the diagnosis of sleep related disorders
        polysulfide ∖pŏl΄ē-sŭl΄fīd∖ n (1849): an elastomeric impression material of polysulfide polymer (mercaptan) that cross-links under the influence of oxidizing agents such as lead peroxide
        poly(vinyl siloxane) ∖pŏl΄ē-vī΄nal sī-lŏks΄ān΄∖ n: an addition reaction silicone elastomeric impression material of silicone polymers having terminal vinyl groups that cross-link with silanes on activation by a platinum or palladium salt catalyst.
        pontic ∖pŏn΄tĭk∖ n: an artificial tooth on a fixed partial denture that replaces a missing natural tooth, restores its function, and usually restores the space previously occupied by the clinical crown
        porcelain ∖pôr΄sa-lĭn, pōr΄-∖ n (known in France, ca. 1540): a ceramic material formed of infusible elements joined by lower fusing materials; most dental porcelains are glasses and are used in the fabrication of artificial teeth for dentures, pontics and facings, metal- ceramic restorations, including fixed dental prostheses, as well as all-ceramic restorations such as crowns, laminate veneers, inlays, onlays, and other restorations
        porcelain butt margin nonstand: syn, PORCELAIN MARGIN
        porcelain-fused-to-metal restoration: syn, METAL-CERAMIC RESTORATION
        porcelain-fused-to-zirconia restoration: comp, ZIRCONIA RESTORATION
        porcelain jacket crown obs, nonstand: syn, CERAMIC CROWN
        porcelain margin ∖pôr΄sa-lĬn, pōr΄- lā΄bē-al mär΄jĭn∖: the extension of ceramic material to the finish line of the preparation without visible metal substructure in the marginal area; syn, COLLARLESS METAL-CERAMIC CROWN, PORCELAIN BUTT MARGIN, SHOULDER PORCELAIN; comp, SHOULDER FINISH LINE
        porcelain laminate veneer: a thin, bonded ceramic restoration that restores the facial, incisal, and part of the proximal surfaces of teeth requiring esthetic restoration; comp, FACING
        porcelain release agent: any coating that facilitates separation of unfired porcelain from a die
        porcelain veneer: layered porcelain that is bonded to a framework; comp, FACING, METAL-CERAMIC RESTORATION
        porcelain wax technique: application of a mixture of body porcelain and wax (approximately 6:1 ratio by weight) to the die to achieve optimal adaptation of a porcelain margin of a metal-ceramic restoration
        porosity ∖pa-rŏs΄ĭ-tē, pô-∖ n (14c): 1. the presence of voids or pores within a structure; 2. the state or quality of having minute pores, openings, or interstices; -ties pl; comp, BACK PRESSURE POROSITY, OCCLUDED GAS POROSITY, SHRINK-SPOT POROSITY, SOLIDIFICATION POROSITY
        positional record ∖pa-zĭsh΄a-nal rĕk΄ard∖ nonstand: syn; JAW RELATION RECORD, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATION RECORD
        post: a post usually made of metal or fiber-reinforced composite resin that is fitted into a prepared root canal of a natural tooth; yttria-stabilized zirconia is also used as a post material; when combined with a core, it provides retention and resistance for an artificial crown; it is also used as a platform for retentive attachment systems and for a non-retentive overdenture post-coping
        post-and-coping: a post with an incorporated coping; the coping encompasses the tooth root and functions as an abutment for an overdenture, fixed partial denture, or fixed complete denture; obs/nonstand/syn, POST-AND-DOME; syn, post-coping
        post-and-core: a post with incorporated core; it provides retention and resistance for an artificial crown; it is also used as a platform for retentive attachment systems and non-retentive overdenture abutments
        post-and-core crown ∖pōst-kôr,kōr kroun∖: syn, RICHMOND CROWN
        post-and-dome obs, nonstand: syn, POST-AND-COPING
        post-ceramic solder: 1. a soldering procedure to join metal-ceramic restorations after final shaping and glazing of the ceramic veneer; also used to join Type III or Type IV gold castings to metal-ceramic units; 2. an alloy formulated for post-ceramic soldering
        post dam: syn, POSTPALATAL SEAL
        post dam area: syn, POSTPALATAL SEAL AREA
        posterior ∖pŏ-stîr΄ē-ar, pō-∖ adj (1534): 1. situated behind or in back of; caudal; 2. in human anatomy, dorsal
        posterior bite collapse slang: syn, POSTERIOR OVERCLOSURE
        posterior border movement ∖pŏ-stîr΄ē-ar, pō- bôr΄dar mōōv΄mant∖: movements of the mandible along the posterior limit of the envelope of motion; comp, ENVELOPE OF MOTION, POSSELT’S ENVELOPE OF MOTION
        posterior determinants of mandibular movement ∖pŏ-stîr΄ē-ar, pō- dĭ-tûr΄ma-nant ŭv măn΄dĭb-ū-lar mōōv΄mant∖: the temporomandibular articulations and associated structures; syn, DETERMINANTS OF MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT
        posterior determinants of occlusion: syn, DETERMINANTS OF MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT
        posterior open bite slang: syn, POSTERIOR OPEN OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIP, comp, APERTOGNATHIA
        posterior open occlusal relationship ∖pŏ-stîr΄ē-ar ō΄pan a-klōō΄zal rĭ-lā΄shun-shĭp∖: lack of posterior tooth contact in any occluding position of the anterior teeth; comp, APERTOGNATHIA
        posterior opening movement ∖pŏ-stîr΄ē-ar ō΄pa-nĭng mōōv΄mant∖ obs: the opening movement of the mandible about the terminal hinge axis (GPT-4)
        posterior overclosure ∖pŏ-stîr΄ē-ar ō΄var-klō΄zher∖: the loss of occluding vertical dimension as a result of the loss or drifting of posterior teeth
        posterior palatal seal: that portion of the intaglio surface of a maxillary removable complete denture, located at its posterior border, which places pressure, within physiologic limits, on the posterior palatal seal area of the soft palate; this seal ensures intimate contact of the denture base to the soft palate and improves retention of the denture; syn, postpalatal seal
        posterior palatal seal area: the soft tissue area limited posteriorly by the distal demarcation of the movable and nonmovable tissues of the soft palate and anteriorly by the junction of the hard and soft palates on which pressure, within physiologic limits, can be placed; this seal can be applied by a removable complete denture to aid in its retention syn, POSTPALATAL SEAL AREA
        posterior reference points ∖pŏ-stĭr΄ē-ar rĕf΄ar-ans points∖: two points, located one on each side of the face in the area of the transverse horizontal axis, which, together with an anterior reference point, establish the HORIZONTAL PLANE OF REFERENCE
        posterior tooth form ∖pŏ-stĭr΄ē-ar tōōth form∖: the distinguishing contours of the posterior teeth
        postpalatal seal area ∖pōst-păl΄a-tal sēl âr΄ē-a∖ : syn, POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA
        postsurgical mandibular prosthesis: a maxillofacial prosthesis used to optimize intraoral/extraoral contours to improve speech and deglutition after mandibular or contiguous soft tissue surgery because of a tumor ablation or the reconstruction of acquired or congenital defects where mandibular continuity is maintained or reestablished
        postsurgical maxillary prosthesis: a maxillofacial prosthesis used to optimize maxillary contours to improve speech and deglutition after a maxillary resection as a result of a tumor or the reconstruction of acquired or congenital defects of the maxillae where there is no oroantral or oronasal communication
        postsurgical prosthesis: comp, DEFINITIVE OBTURATOR, INTERIM OBTURATOR, POSTSURGICAL MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS, POSTSURGICAL MAXILLARY PROSTHESIS
        postural contraction ∖pŏs΄chur-al kan-trăk΄shun∖: that minimal tonic muscle activity necessary to resist the forces of gravity and thus maintain posture; maintenance of muscle tension (usually isometric) sufficient to maintain posture, dependent on muscle tone
        postural position ∖pŏs΄chur-al pa-zĭsh΄an∖: any mandibular relationship occurring during minimal muscle contraction
        Pound’s triangle: eponym for a triangle that extends from the mesial proximal contact of the mandibular canine to the buccal and lingual aspects of the retromolar pad; this triangle is used as a guide for the positioning of mandibular artificial teeth; the lingual surfaces of the posterior teeth should be within this triangle, close to the lingual line
        Pound E. Esthetic dentures and their phonetic values. J Prosthet Dent 1951;1:98-111
        pour hole ∖pôr, pōr hōl∖ obs: an aperture in investment or any other mold material leading to the prosthesis space into which prosthetic material is poured (GPT-4)
        pre-ceramic soldering: a soldering procedure joining framework components of a metal-ceramic prosthesis prior to application of the ceramic veneer
        pre-extraction cast: comp, DIAGNOSTIC CAST, PRELIMINARY CASTS
        precious metal ∖∖prĕsh΄as mĕt΄l∖: a metal containing primarily elements of the platinum group, gold, and silver
        precious metal alloy ∖prĕsh΄as mĕt΄l ăl΄oi΄, a-loi΄∖: an alloy predominantly composed of elements considered precious, such as gold, the six metals of the platinum group (platinum, osmium, iridium, palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium), and silver
        precision attachment ∖prĭ-sĭzh΄un a-tăch΄mant∖: 1. a retainer consisting of a metal receptacle (matrix) and a closely fitting part (patrix); the matrix is usually contained within the normal or expanded contours of the crown on the abutment tooth/dental implant and the patrix is attached to a pontic or a removable partial denture; 2. an interlocking device, one component of which is fixed to an abutment or abutments, and the other is integrated into a removable partial denture to stabilize and/or retain it; syn, ATTACHMENT
        precision rest ∖prĭ-sĭzh΄un rĕst∖: a prefabricated, rigid metallic patrix in a fixed or removable partial denture that fits intimately into the matrix portion of a precision attachment in a restoration
        preliminary cast ∖prĭ-lĭm΄a-nĕr΄ē∖: a cast formed from a preliminary impression for use in diagnosis and/or the fabrication of a custom impression tray; syn, DIAGNOSTIC CAST, PREOPERATIVE CAST, STUDY CAST
        preliminary impression ∖prĭ-lĭm΄a-nĕr΄ē ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: a negative likeness made for the purpose of diagnosis, treatment planning, and/or the fabrication of a custom impression tray
        preload n: the tension created in a screw, especially the threadings, when tightened; an engineering term used in dentistry to describe the degree of tightness or clamping force of a screw, usually in implant prosthodontics; comp, EMBEDMENT RELAXATION
        premature contact: syn, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        prematurity n, obs: syn, DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT
        premolar n: a tooth that replaces a deciduous molar and is located distal to the canine and mesial to the permanent molar teeth; premolars have two or three cusps
        preoperative cast ∖prē-ŏp΄ar-a-tĭv, -ŏp΄ra-, -ŏp΄a-rā- kăst∖: a positive likeness of a part or parts of the oral cavity for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment planning; syn, DIAGNOSTIC CAST, PRELIMINARY CAST, STUDY CAST
        preoperative record ∖prē-ŏp΄ar-a-tĭv, -ŏp΄ra-, -ŏp΄a-rā- rĕk΄ard∖ obs: any record made for the purpose of study or treatment planning (GPT-4)
        preoperative wax try-in: a dental diagnostic procedure in which planned restorations are developed in wax on a diagnostic cast to determine optimal clinical and laboratory procedures necessary to achieve the desired esthetics and function; syn, DIAGNOSTIC DENTURE WAX-UP, SETUP, WAX TRY-IN
        preprosthetic surgery ∖prē-prŏs-thĕt΄ĭk sûr΄ja-rē∖: surgical procedures designed to facilitate fabrication of a prosthesis or to improve the prognosis of prosthodontic care
        presolder nonstand: syn, PRE-CERAMIC SOLDERING
        pressed ceramics n: a technique designed to produce a desired form by injecting a molten homogeneous ceramic material into a mold
        pressed-on-metal ceramics: a technique designed to produce a desired form by injecting a molten homogeneous ceramic material into a mold containing a metal framework that is veneered with opaque porcelain; comp, METAL-CERAMIC RESTORATION
        pressed-on-zirconia ceramics: a technique designed to produce a desired form by injecting a molten homogeneous ceramic material into a mold containing a zirconia framework that may be veneered with porcelain; comp, ZIRCONIA RESTORATION
        pressure area ∖prĕsh΄ar∖: a region of mucosa that is being subjected to excessive pressure from a dental prosthesis
        pressure indicating paste ∖prĕsh΄ar ĭn΄dĭ-kā-tĭng pāst∖: acronym is PIP; any substance applied to a dental prosthesis that when seated on a structure, demonstrates the adaptation of the prosthesis to the structure it opposes
        pressure relief ∖prĕsh΄ar rĭ-lēf΄∖ obs: alteration of the denture-bearing surface of a denture to reduce force on the underlying tissues (GPT-4)
        pressure welding ∖prĕsh΄ar wĕl΄dĭng∖: bonding of two metals together by sufficiently large force applied perpendicular to the surfaces; such force must be of magnitude to produce permanent distortions that expose a film-free metal contact
        pretreatment records ∖prē-trēt΄mant rĕk΄ardz∖: any records made for the purpose of diagnosis, recording of the patient history, or treatment planning in advance of therapy
        primary colors ∖prī΄mĕr΄ē, -ma-rē kŭl΄erz∖: three basic colors used to make most other colors by mixture, either additive mixture of lights or subtractive mixture of colorants
        primary colors (additive) ∖prī΄mĕr΄ē, -ma-rē kŭl΄erz ăd΄ĭ-tĭv∖: three colored lights from which all other colors can be produced by additive mixture; the three must be selected so that no one of them can be produced by mixture of the other two; generally, red, green, and blue are used; additive primaries are the complements of the subtractive primaries
        primary colors (subtractive) ∖prī΄mĕr΄ē, -ma-rē kŭl΄erz sab-trăk΄tĭv∖: colors of three colorants or colored materials which, when mixed together subtract from one another, resulting in black or a very dark neutral color; subtractive primaries are generally cyan, magenta, and yellow
        primary dentition ∖prī΄mĕr΄ē dĕn-tĭsh΄an∖: the teeth that erupt first and are normally shed and replaced by permanent (succedaneous) teeth; syn, DECIDUOUS DENTITION
        primary hyperalgesia ∖prī΄mĕr΄ē hī΄par-ăl-gē΄zha∖: stimulation evoked primary pain as a result of lowered pain threshold
        primary impression nonstand: syn, PRELIMINARY IMPRESSION
        primary occlusal trauma ∖prī΄mĕr΄ē a-klōō΄al trou΄ma∖: the effects induced by abnormal or excessive occlusal forces acting on teeth with normal periodontal support
        primary pain ∖prī΄mĕr΄ē pān∖: pain that identifies the true source of nociceptive input
        primary stability: contributing factors of mechanical stabilization of a dental implant during the healing phase
        1process ∖prŏs΄ĕs, prō΄sĕs΄∖ n (14c): 1. in anatomy, a prominence or projection of bone; 2. in dentistry, any technical procedure that incorporates a number of steps; 3. the procedure of bringing about polymerization of dental resins for prostheses or bases; processes pl; syn, DENTURE PROCESSING
        2process ∖prŏs΄ĕs, prō΄sĕs΄∖ vb (14c): in dentistry, to perform any technical procedure to polymerize dental resins for prostheses; comp, DENTURE PROCESSING, REBASE, RELINE, reveneer
        processed denture base ∖prŏ΄sĕsd dĕn΄chur bās∖: syn, DEFINITIVE DENTURE BASE
        profile ∖prō΄fīl΄∖ n (ca. 1656): an outline or contour, especially one representing a side view of a human head
        profile record ∖prō΄fīl rĕk΄ard∖: a registration or record of the facial profile of a patient; comp, EMERGENCE PROFILE
        prognathic ∖prŏg-năth΄ĭk, -nā΄thĭk∖ n: a protruded position of the mandible in relation to the maxillae; obs, caput progeneum, exognathia, progenia, prognathia
        prognathism ∖prŏg-na-thĭz΄um∖ n (ca. 1864): an overgrowth of the mandible in an anteroposterior direction; a protrusion of the mandible in relation to the maxillae
        prognosis ∖prŏg-nō΄sĭs∖ n (1655): a forecast as to the probable result of a disease or a course of therapy
        progressive loading ∖pra-grĕs΄ĭv lō΄dĭng∖ (1998): the gradual increase in the application of force on a dental implant whether intentionally applied with a dental prosthesis or unintentionally applied with forces placed by adjacent anatomic structures or parafunctional loading
        progressive mandibular lateral translation ∖pra-grĕs΄ĭv măn-dĭb΄ya-lar lăt΄ar-al trăns-lā΄shun∖: acronym is PMLT; the translatory portion of mandibular movement as viewed in a specific body plane that occurs at a rate or amount that is directly proportional to the forward movement of the nonworking-side condyle; syn, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION; comp, EARLY IMMEDIATE MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION, IMMEDIATE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION
        progressive side shift: syn, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION, PROGRESSIVE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION
        projected pain ∖pra-jĕk΄tĭd pān∖: heterotopic pain felt in the anatomical peripheral distribution of the same nerve that mediates the primary pain
        proportional limit ∖pra-pôr΄sha-nal lĭm΄ĭt∖: that unit of stresses beyond which deformation is no longer proportional to the applied load
        proprioception ∖prō΄prē-ō-sĕp΄shun∖ n (1906): the reception of stimulation of sensory nerve terminals within the tissues of the body that give information concerning movements and the position of the body; perception mediated by proprioceptors
        prosthesis ∖prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖ n (1900) [figure 1]: an artificial replacement of part of the human anatomy restoring form, function, and esthetics; –ses ∖-sĕz΄∖ pl; comp, DEFINITIVE PROSTHESIS, DENTAL PROSTHESIS, INTERIM PROSTHESIS, MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESIS, PROVISIONAL PROSTHESIS, SURGICAL PROSTHESIS
        prosthesis placement: syn, PLACEMENT
        prosthetic ∖prŏs-thĕt΄ĭk∖ adj (ca. 1890): relating to a prosthesis or prosthetics; prosthetically ∖prŏs-thĕt΄ĭ-kă-lē∖ adv
        prosthetic dentistry: syn, PROSTHODONTICS
        prosthetic dressing: a maxillofacial interim prosthesis veneered with a gauze-like dressing that artificially replaces a deficient anatomy of the face as a result of surgery, trauma, or congenital absence
        prosthetic restoration ∖prŏs-thĕt΄ĭk∖ obs: an artificial replacement for an absent part of the human body (GPT-4)
        prosthetic speech aid: syn, ADULT SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS, PEDIATRIC SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        prosthetics ∖prŏs-thĕt΄ĭks∖ n, pl but sing or pl in constr (ca. 1894): the art and science of supplying artificial replacements for missing parts of the human body; comp, MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHETICS
        prosthetist ∖prŏs΄thĭ-tĭst∖ n: a person involved in the construction of an artificial replacement for any part of the human body
        prosthodontia n, obs: syn, PROSTHODONTICS
        prosthodontic diagnostic index: a clinical diagnostic index classification for (1) the edentulous patient, (2) the partially edentulous patient, and (3) the completely dentate patient; (refer to Appendix B, C and D) the classifications use specific diagnostic criteria to delineate treatment complexity into four classes: Class I (minimally compromised), Class II (moderately compromised), Class III (substantially compromised), or Class IV (severely compromised); copyrighted, American College of Prosthodontists © (2004)
        McGarry TJ, Nimmo A, Skiba JF, Ahlstrom RH, Smith CR, Koumjian JH. Classification system for complete edentulism. American College of Prosthodontists. J Prosthodont 1999 Mar;8(1):27-39
        McGarry TJ, Nimmo A, Skiba JF, Ahlstrom RH, Smith CR, Koumjian JH, Arbree NS. Classification system for partial edentulism. J Prosthodont 2002 Sep;11(3):181-93
        McGarry TJ, Nimmo A, Skiba JF, Ahlstrom RH, Smith CR, Koumjian JH, Guichet GN; American College of Prosthodontists. Classification system for the completely dentate patient. J Prosthodont 2004 Jun;13(2):73-82
        prosthodontics ∖prŏs΄tha-dŏn΄tĭks∖ n, pl but sing or pl in constr (1947): prosthodontics is the dental specialty pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment planning, rehabilitation, and maintenance of the oral function, comfort, appearance, and health of patients with clinical conditions associated with missing or deficient teeth and/or maxillofacial tissues by using biocompatible substitutes; comp, FIXED PROSTHODONTICS, IMPLANT PROSTHODONTICS, MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHETICS, REMOVABLE PROSTHODONTICS
        prosthodontist ∖prŏs΄tha-dŏn-tĭst∖ n (1917): 1. a specialist in prosthodontics; 2. a dentist who has successfully completed an advanced education program in prosthodontics that is accredited by the appropriate accrediting body; in the United States, that authoritative body is the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association; comp, BOARD-CERTIFIED PROSTHODONTIST, BOARD-ELIGIBLE PROSTHODONTIST, EDUCATIONALLY-QUALIFIED PROSTHODONTIST
        protanomalous vision ∖prō΄ta-nŏm΄a-lŭs vĭzh΄un∖: a form of color-deficient vision in which the ability to perceive blue and yellow is retained; hue discrimination is poor in the red to green region of the spectrum
        protanopia ∖prō΄ta-nō΄pē-a∖: a form of dichromatism in which red and blue-green stimuli are confused
        protrusion ∖prō-trōō΄zhan∖ n (1646): a position of the mandible anterior to centric relation without lateral deviation; comp, LATEROPROTRUSION
        protrusive ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv, -zĭv∖ adj (1676): thrusting forward; adjective denoting protrusion; protrusively ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv-lē∖ adv; protrusiveness ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv-nĕs∖ n
        protrusive checkbite slang: syn, PROTRUSIVE INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        protrusive condylar inclination: the angle formed by the path of the moving condyles within the sagittal plane compared with the horizontal plane (anterior-posterior movement); syn, SAGITTAL CONDYLAR INCLINATION
        protrusive condylar path ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv kŏn΄dīl΄, -dl păth∖: the path the condyle travels when the mandible is moved forward from its initial position
        protrusive deflection ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv dĭ-flĕk΄shun∖: a continuing eccentric displacement of the midline incisal path on protrusion, symptomatic of a restriction of movement
        protrusive deviation ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv dē΄vē-ā΄shun∖: discursive movement on protrusion that ends in the centered position and is indicative of interference during movement
        protrusive interocclusal record ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv ĭn΄tar-a-klōō΄zal rĕk΄ard∖: a registration of the mandible in relation to the maxillae when both condyles are advanced in the glenoid fossa
        protrusive jaw relation ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv jô rĭ-lā΄shun∖ obs: a jaw relation resulting from a protrusion of the mandible (GPT-4)
        protrusive movement: mandibular movement anterior to centric relation; comp, ECCENTRIC POSITION
        protrusive occlusion ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv a-klōō΄zhun∖: an occlusion of the teeth when the mandible is protruded (GPT-4)
        protrusive record: syn, PROTRUSIVE INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD
        protrusive relation ∖prō-trōō΄sĭv rĭ-lā΄shun∖: the relation of the mandible to the maxillae when the mandible is thrust forward (GPT-4)
        provisional cementation: cementation of an interim or definitive restoration with a luting agent that has weak retentive properties to allow the planned future removal of the restoration
        provisional denture: syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS, PROVISIONAL PROSTHESIS
        provisional prosthesis: a fixed or removable dental prosthesis, or maxillofacial prosthesis designed to enhance esthetics, stabilization, and/or function for a limited period of time, after which it is to be replaced by a definitive dental or maxillofacial prosthesis; often such prostheses are used to assist in determination of the therapeutic effectiveness of a specific treatment plan or the form and function of the planned definitive prosthesis; syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        provisional restoration: syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS, PROVISIONAL PROSTHESIS
        provisional splint ∖pra-vĭzh΄a-nal splĭnt∖: an interim device designed to stabilize teeth during diagnosis or therapy; syn, INTERIM SPLINT
        provisionalization nonstand: syn, TEMPORIZATION
        proximal ∖prŏk΄sa-mal∖ adj (1727): 1. situated close to; 2. next to or nearest the point of attachment or origin, a central point especially, located toward the center of a body; comp DISTAL; proximally adj
        proximal contact: syn, INTERPROXIMAL CONTACT
        pseudoisochromatic color tests ∖sōō΄dō-ī΄sa-krō-măt΄ĭk kŭ΄lar tĕsts∖: tests for detecting color vision deficiency; the charts are made up of colored spots that yield a legible pattern (number, letter, figure, etc.,) for a normal observer but yield no legible pattern for observers with anomalous types of color vision
        psychophysical ∖sī΄kō-fĭz΄ĭ-kal∖ adj (1847): used to describe the sector of color science that deals with the relationship between physical description or specification of stimuli and the sensory perception arising from them
        psychophysical color ∖sī΄kō-fĭz΄ĭ-kal kŭ΄lar∖: a specification of color stimulus in terms of operationally defined values, such as three tristimulus values
        pterygoid implant: an endosseous implant placed through the maxillary tuberosity and engaging the pterygoid plate; indicated for retention of a dental prosthesis or maxillofacial prosthesis in the maxillae
        pterygoid notch: syn, PTERYGOMAXILLARY NOTCH
        pterygoid plates ∖tĕr΄ĭ-goid΄ plātz∖: broad, thin, wing-shaped processes of the sphenoid bone separated by the pterygoid fossa. The inferior end of the medial plate terminates in a long curved process or hook for the tendon of the tensor veli palatini muscle. The lateral plate gives attachment to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles
        pterygomaxillary notch ∖tĕr΄ĭ-ga-măk΄sa-lĕr΄ē nŏch∖: the palpable notch formed by the junction of the maxilla and the pterygoid hamulus of the sphenoid bone; syn, HAMULAR NOTCH, PTERYGOID NOTCH
        pulp ∖pŭlp∖ n: the richly vascularized connective tissue of mesodermal origin with much innervation contained in the central cavity of the tooth
        pulp capping ∖pŭlp kăp΄ĭng∖: application of a material to protect the pulp from external influences and promote healing, done either directly or indirectly
        pulpectomy ∖pŭlp-ĕk΄tō-mē∖ n: the complete removal of the dental pulp
        pulpitis ∖pŭl΄pĭ-tĭs∖ n: inflammation of the dental pulp
        pulpotomy ∖pŭl-pa-ta΄mē∖ n: surgical amputation of the coronal portion of the dental pulp
        1pumice ∖pŭm΄ĭs∖ n (15c): 1. a type of volcanic glass used as an abrasive. It is prepared in various grits and used for finishing and polishing; 2. a polishing agent, in powdered form, used for natural teeth and fixed and removable restorations
        2pumice ∖pŭm΄ĭs∖ vt (15c): to finish or dress with pumice; pumiced ∖pŭm΄isd∖ pumicing ∖pŭm΄ĭ-sĭng∖
        PVAc-PE: acronym for vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymers; used in thermomolding
        pyramidal fracture ∖pĭr΄a-mĭd frăk΄chur∖: a fracture of the midfacial bones, with the principal fracture lines meeting at an apex in the area of the nasion; syn, LE FORT II FRACTURE

        Q

        QD: acronym for L. Qad’que Di’e, every day
        QH: acronym for L. Qua’que Ho’ra, every hour
        QID: acronym for L. Qua’ter In Di’e, four times a day
        QL: acronym for L. Quan’tum Li’bet, as much as desired
        QQH: acronym for L. Qua’que Qua’ta Ho’ra, every 4 hours; commonly noted as Q4H
        quadrant ∖kwŏd΄rant∖ n (15c): 1. any of the four quarters into which something is divided by two real or imaginary lines that intersect each other at right angles; 2. in dentistry, one of the four sections of the dental arches, divided at the midline; comp, SEXTANT
        quartz ∖kwôrts∖ n (ca. 1631): an allotropic form of silica; the mineral SiO2 consisting of hexagonal crystals of colorless, transparent silicon dioxide
        quick-cure resin slang: syn, AUTOPOLYMERIZING RESIN; CHEMICALLY-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION

        R

        rad obs (1953): acronym for radiation absorbed dose, a unit of measurement of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation; the biologic effect of one rad varies with the type of radiation to which tissue is exposed; comp, GRAY, SIEVERT
        radiation ∖rā΄dē-ā΄shun∖ n (1570): the emission of electromagnetic waves, such as light, short wave, radio, ultraviolet, or x-rays, or particulate rays such as alpha, beta, and gamma
        radiation carrier ∖rā΄dē-ā΄shun kăr΄ē-ar∖: device used to administer radiation to confined areas by means of capsules, beads, or needles of radiation-emitting materials such as radium or cesium; its function is to hold the radiation source securely in the same location during the entire period of treatment; radiation oncologists occasionally request these devices to achieve a close approximation and controlled application of radiation to a tumor deemed amiable to eradication; syn, carrier prosthesis, intracavity applicator, intracavity carrier, radiation applicator, radium carrier, radiotherapy device
        radiation cone locator ∖rā΄dē-ā΄shun kōn lō΄kātar∖: a device used to direct and reduplicate the path of radiation to an oral tumor during a split course of irradiation; syn, DEVICE, DOCKING DEVICE
        radiation shield ∖rā΄dē-ā΄shun shēld∖: a intraoral device designed to shield adjacent tissues from radiation during orthovoltage treatment of malignant lesions of the head and neck region; syn, DEVICE, lead shield, RADIATION STENT, tongue protector
        radiation shield positioner ∖rā΄dē-ā΄shun shēld/pa-zĭsh΄nar∖: a custom-made device to direct, align, and protect adjacent tissues during irradiation; the shield/positioner will prevent radiation damage to tissues that are unaffected by a tumor; syn, DEVICE
        radiation source device ∖rā΄dē-ā΄shun sôrs, sōrs dĭ-vīs΄∖: custom-made device designed to align a radiation source to a specific anatomic site; syn, DEVICE
        radiation stent: syn, DEVICE, RADIATION SHIELD
        radicular ∖ră-dĭ-kyōō΄lar∖ adj (1830): pertaining to the root of a tooth
        radiogram n: syn, RADIOGRAPH
        1radiograph ∖rā΄dē-ō-grăf΄∖ n (1880): an image produced on any detector, either photographic (emulsion coated acetate) or amorphous silicon photodiode (digital), by means of electromagnetic radiation other than light
        2radiograph ∖rā΄dē-ō-grăf΄∖ vt (1896): to make a radiograph of
        radiolucent ∖rā΄dē-ō-lōō΄sant∖: permitting the passage of radiant energy with relatively little attenuation by absorption
        radiopaque ∖rā΄dē-ō-pāk΄∖ (1917): a structure that strongly inhibits the passage of radiant energy
        ramus endosteal implant ∖rā΄mas ĕn-dŏs΄tē-al ĭm-plănt΄∖: an endosteal dental implant that is attached, in part, to the ramus of the mandible
        ramus frame endosteal implant ∖rā΄mas frām ĕn-dŏs΄tē-al ĭm-plănt΄∖: a dental implant design that consists of a horizontal intraoral supragingival abutment in the form of a bar and endosteal implant body segments that are placed into the rami and symphysis areas as one section (implants fabricated from one piece of metal), or two sections (implants of anterior and horizontal segments that are connected at the time of placement), or five sections (an implant consisting of five sections in which the endosteal implant body segments are independently placed and connected with fitted components); orig, Frank H Skinner, 1915; Harold D. Roberts, 1972
        range of motion ∖rănj ŭv mō΄shun∖: the range, measured in degrees of a circle, through which a joint can be extended or flexed. The range of the opening, lateral, and protrusive excursions of the temporomandibular joint
        raphe ∖rā΄fē∖ n (1753): 1. line of union of symmetrical parts; 2. in dentistry, the pterygomandibular raphe represents the tendinous union of the buccinator and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
        rapid prototyping: a general term used for several additive layer manufacturing techniques; syn, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY; comp, fused deposition modeling, selective deposition modeling, SELECTIVE LASER MELTING, SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
        raster graphics image: format of an image of a spatial grid of pixels; examples are BMP, TIFF, GIF, and JPEG; syn, BITMAP
        reattachment ∖rē-a-tăch΄mant∖ n: in periodontics, the reunion of epithelial and connective tissues with root surfaces and bone such as occurs after incision or injury
        rebase ∖rē-bās΄∖ n: the laboratory process of replacing the entire denture base material on an existing prosthesis
        receptor sites ∖rĭ-sĕp΄tar sītz∖: specific sites at which molecular binding occurs that results in specific biologic responses
        recipient site ∖rĭ-sĭp΄ē-ant sīt∖: the site into or onto which a graft or transplant material is placed
        reciprocal ∖rĭ-sĭp΄ra-kal∖ adj: the manner in which one part of a prosthesis is made to counter the effect created by another part (GPT-1)
        reciprocal arm: syn,BRACING ARM, RECIPROCAL CLASP
        reciprocal clasp ∖rĭ-sĭp΄ra-kal klăsp∖: a component of the clasp assembly specifically designed to provide reciprocation by engaging a reciprocal guiding plane; it counteracts the action of the clasp during removal and insertion of a removable partial denture; syn, BRACING ARM, RECIPROCAL ARM
        reciprocal click ∖rĭ-sĭp΄ra-kal klĭk∖: clicks emanating from the temporomandibular joint, one of which occurs during opening movement and the other during closing movement
        reciprocation ∖rĭ-sĭp΄ra-kā΄shun∖ n (1561): 1. the mechanism by which lateral forces generated by a retentive clasp passing over a height of contour are counterbalanced by a reciprocal clasp passing along a reciprocal guiding plane; 2. a mutual exchange; 3. an alternating motion; reciprocative ∖rĭ-sĭp΄ra-kā΄tĭv∖ adj
        1record ∖rĭ-kōrd∖ vb (14c): 1. to register data relating to specific conditions that exist currently or previously; 2. to register permanently by mechanical means, such as jaw relationship; comp, INDEX
        2record ∖rĭ-kōrd∖ n (14c): 1. an official document; 2. a body of known or recorded facts about someone or something; 3. a registration of jaw position; comp, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD, ECCENTRIC INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD, INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD, OCCLUDING JAW RECORD, TERMINAL JAW RELATION RECORD
        record base ∖rĕk΄ard bās∖: an interim denture base used to support the record rim material for recording maxillomandibular records
        record rim ∖rĕk΄ard rĭm∖: the occlusal surfaces fabricated on a record base for the purpose of making maxillomandibular relationship records and/or arranging teeth; syn, OCCLUSION RIM
        reduced interarch distance ∖rĭ-dōōsd΄ ĭn΄tar-ärch∖: an occluding vertical dimension that results in an excessive interocclusal rest distance when the mandible is in the rest position and in a reduced inter-ridge distance when the teeth are in contact; syn, OVERCLOSURE
        reduction ∖rĭ-dŭk΄shun∖ n (1546): 1. the correction of a fracture or dislocation; the restoration by surgical or manipulative procedures of a part to its normal anatomic location; 2. the removal of tooth structure to allow adequate thickness of a restorative material
        reference plane locator ∖rĕf΄ar-ans, rĕf΄rans plān lō΄kā΄tar∖: a device used to facilitate location of the horizontal reference plane on the face of a patient
        reflectance ∖rĭ-flĕk΄tans∖ n (1926): the ratio of the intensity of reflected radiant flux to that of the incident flux. In popular usage, it is considered as the ratio of the intensity of reflected radiant flux to that reflected from a defined reference standard; specular reflection is the angle of reflection equal to the angle of incidence; surface reflection is associated with objects having optically smooth surfaces; these objects are usually termed glossy; comp, GLOSS
        reflection ∖rĭ-flĕk΄shun∖ (14c) n: 1. the elevation and folding back of all or part of the mucosa to expose underlying structures; 2. the return of light or sound waves from a surface
        refraction ∖rĭ-frăk΄shun∖ n (1603): the deflection of light or energy waves from a straight path that occurs when passing obliquely from one medium into another in which its velocity is different
        refractory ∖rĭ-frăk΄ta-orē∖ adj (1606): difficult to fuse or corrode; capable of enduring high temperatures
        refractory cast ∖rĭ-frăk΄ta-rē kăst∖: a cast made of a material that will withstand high temperatures without disintegrating; syn, INVESTMENT CAST
        refractory die: any die material that is capable of enduring the high temperatures that occur during firing or casting procedures; the die is an integral part of the mold; the restoration is directly cast, molded, or fired onto the refractory die
        refractory flask: syn, CASTING FLASK
        refractory investment ∖rĭ-frăk΄ta-rē ĭn-vĕst΄mant∖: an investment material that can withstand the high temperatures used in soldering or casting
        refractory mold ∖rĭ-frăk΄ta-rē mōld∖: a refractory cavity into which a substance is shaped or cast
        refractory prosthodontic patient: a patient unable to achieve treatment expectations despite the thoroughness or frequency of the treatment provided
        regeneration ∖rĭ-jĕn΄a-rā΄shun∖ n (14c): renewal or restoration of a body or bodily part after injury or as a normal process; syn, GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION
        registration ∖rĕj΄ĭ-strā΄shun∖ n (1566): 1. the making of a record of the jaw relationships present, or those desired, thus allowing their transfer to an articulator to assist in the fabrication of a dental prosthesis; 2. a record made of the desired maxillomandibular relationship and used to relate casts to an articulator; syn, JAW RELATION RECORD, MAXILLOMANDIBULAR RELATIONSHIP RECORD, RECORD
        reimplantation ∖rē-ĭm-plăn-tā΄shun∖ n: the act of replacing a tooth in the same alveolar socket from which it had been removed, either surgically or as a result of trauma
        relief ∖rĭ-lēf΄∖ n: 1. the reduction or elimination of undesirable pressure or force from a specific region under a denture base, artificial crown, or coping; 2. the creation of space in an impression tray for impression material; 3. coating of a die with a pain-on material to produce an oversized die dimension that allows for the flow of luting agent during cementation and eliminates any undesirable binding at the intaglio surface; comp, CUSTOM TRAY RELIEF
        relief area ∖rĭ-lēf΄ âr΄ē-a∖: that portion of the dental prosthesis that is reduced to eliminate excessive pressure; that portion of a die that is relieved with a paint-on material
        relief chamber: syn, RELIEF AREA
        reline ∖rē-līn΄∖ vt (1851): the procedures used to resurface the intaglio of a removable dental prosthesis with new base material, thus producing an accurate adaptation to the denture foundation area; comp, REBASE
        remodel ∖rē-mŏd΄l∖ vt: the morphologic change in bone as an adaptive response to altered environmental demands. The bone will progressively remodel where there is a proliferation of tissue with regressive remodeling when osteoclastic resorption is evident
        remount cast ∖rē-mount΄∖: a cast formed inside the intaglio of a prosthesis for the purpose of mounting the prosthesis on an articulator
        remount procedure ∖rē-mount΄ pra-sē΄jur∖: any method used to relate restorations to an articulator for analysis and/or to assist in development of a plan for occlusal equilibration or reshaping
        remount record index ∖rē-mount΄ rĕk΄ard ĭn΄dĕks΄∖: a record of maxillary structures affixed to the mandibular member of an articulator useful in facilitating subsequent transfers; syn, FACEBOW PRESERVATION
        removable appliance slang: syn, REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESIS
        removable bridge slang: syn, REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESIS
        removable complete denture: a removable dental prosthesis that replaces the entire dentition and associated anatomy of the maxillae or mandible; the removable complete denture can be readily inserted and removed from the mouth by the patient; comp, COMPLETE DENTURE
        removable dental prosthesis ∖rĭ-mōō΄va-bal prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a removable complete or partial denture, overdenture, or maxillofacial prosthesis that replaces some or all missing teeth; the dental prosthesis can be readily inserted and removed by the patient.
        removable die system: a segmented definitive cast system that permits accurate removal and replacement of dies of individually prepared teeth and partially edentulous areas
        removable partial denture ∖rĭ-mōō΄va-bal păr΄shal dĕn΄chur∖: a removable denture that replaces some teeth in a partially edentulous arch; the removable partial denture can be readily inserted and removed from the mouth by the patient
        removable prosthodontics ∖rĭ-mōō΄va-bal prŏs-tha-dŏn΄tĭks∖: the branch of prosthodontics concerned with the replacement of teeth and contiguous structures for edentulous or partially edentulous patients by artificial substitutes that are readily removable from the mouth by the patient
        replica ∖rĕp΄lĭ-ka∖ n (1852): 1. a reproduction or facsimile of an original; 2. a copy or duplicate, such as, a duplicate of the surface of a component of a dental implant used to process a restoration
        repositioning ∖rē-pa-zĭsh΄a-nĭng∖ n adj: the changing of any relative position of the mandible to the maxillae, usually by altering the occlusion of the natural or artificial teeth
        repositioning splint ∖rē-pa-zĭsh΄a-nĭng splĭnt∖ nonstand, n: syn, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        residual bone ∖rĭ-zĭj΄ōō-al bōn∖: that component of maxillary or mandibular bone that remains after the teeth are lost
        residual ridge ∖rĭ-zĭj΄ōō-al rĭj∖: the portion of the residual bone and its soft tissue covering that remains after the removal of teeth
        residual ridge crest ∖rĭ-zĭj΄ōō-al rĭj krĕst∖: the most prominent continuous surface of the residual ridge, not necessarily coincident with the center of the ridge; syn, CREST OF RIDGE; comp, RESIDUAL RIDGE
        residual ridge resorption ∖rĭ-zĭj΄ōō-al rĭj rē-sôrb΄shun, -zôrb΄-∖: a term used for the diminishing quantity and quality of the residual ridge after the teeth are extracted
        Atwood DA. Some clinical factors related to rate of resorption of residual ridges. J Prosthet Dent 1962;12:441-50.
        Ortman HR. Factors of bone resorption of the residual ridge. J Prosthet Dent 1962;12:429-40
        resilient ∖rĭ-zĭl΄yant∖ adj (1674): characterized or noted by resilience, as (1) capable of withstanding shock without permanent deformation or rupture or (2) tending to recover from or easily adjust to change; resiliently adv; syn, ELASTIC
        resilient attachment ∖rĭ-zl΄yant a-tăch΄mant∖ (1998): an attachment designed to give a tooth-, soft tissue-, or implant-borne removable dental prosthesis sufficient mechanical flexion to withstand the variations in seating of the prosthesis as a result of deformations of the mucosa and underlying tissues to avoid placing excessive stress on the abutments
        resilient denture liner: an interim (ethyl methacrylate with phthalate plasticizers) or definitive (processed silicone) liner of the intaglio surface of a removable complete denture, removable partial denture, or intraoral maxillofacial prosthesis
        resin ∖rĕz΄ĭn∖ n (14c): 1. any of various solid or semisolid amorphous natural organic substances that usually are transparent or translucent and brown to yellow; usually formed in plant secretions; are soluble in organic solvents but not water; are used chiefly in varnishes, inks, plastics, and medicine; and are found in many dental impression materials; 2. a broad term used to describe natural or synthetic substances that form plastic materials after polymerization; they are named according to their chemical composition, physical structure, and means for activation of polymerization; comp, AUTOPOLYMERIZING RESIN, COPOLYMER RESIN
        resin-bonded prosthesis ∖rĕz΄ĭn-bŏn΄dĭd prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a fixed partial denture that is luted to tooth structures, primarily enamel, which has been etched to provide micro mechanical retention for the resin luting agent; early designs incorporated perforations on the lingual partial-coverage retainer (ROCHETTE BRIDGE) through which the resin luting agent passed to achieve a mechanical lock; subsequently, use of acid etching of the metal partial-coverage retainer (MARYLAND BRIDGE or RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS) eliminated the need for perforations; recently, ADHESIVE RESINS that bond to the metallic oxides of non-acid etched alloy or to the triborosilicate-coated alloy have been used; also recently, the resin impregnated fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRC) retainer and framework has eliminated the metal alloy; glass, polyethylene, and carbon fibers are used in resin-bonded prostheses
        Rochette AL. Attachment of a splint to enamel of lower anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent 1973;30:418-23
        Livaditis GJ, Thompson VP. Etched castings: an improved retentive mechanism for resin-bonded retainers. J Prosthet Dent 1982;47-52
        Goldberg AJ, Burstone CJ. The use of continuous fiber reinforcement. Dent Mater 1992;8(3):197-202
        resin-bonded splint ∖rĕz΄ĭn bŏn΄dĭd splĭnt∖: a fixed splint made of heavy wire, fibrous resin materials, and/or cast metal that is bonded to the labial or lingual surfaces of natural teeth with an acid-etch technique; it is used to stabilize traumatically displaced or periodontally compromised teeth
        resin crown ∖rĕz΄ĭn kroun∖: a resin restoration that restores a clinical crown without a metal substructure
        resin-modified ceramics: a porous ceramic material interpenetrated by a polymer that can render a tougher dental material; comp, INTERPENETRATING PHASE COMPOSITE, resin matrix ceramics
        resin-modified glass ionomer: a modified glass ionomer cement that incorporates polymerizing resin monomer and a cross-linking agent; this type of cement has a longer working time and is less sensitive to water contamination than conventional glass ionomer cements; syn, HYBRID IONOMER CEMENT; comp, GLASS IONOMER
        resin-retained prosthesis: syn, RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS
        resin-veneered restoration: a fixed restoration that uses a metal framework on which an esthetic resin veneer is applied
        resistance form ∖rĭ-zĭs΄tans form∖: the features of a tooth preparation that enhance the stability of a restoration and resists dislodgment along an axis other than the path of placement
        resorption ∖rē-sôrp΄shun, zôrp΄-∖ n (1818): the loss of tissue substance by physiologic or pathologic processes; syn, ALVEOLAR RESORPTION
        rest ∖rĕst∖ n (15c): 1. a projection or attachment, usually on the side of an object; 2. a rigid extension of a removable partial denture that contacts the occlusal, incisal, cingulum, or lingual surface of a tooth or restoration, the surface of which is commonly prepared to receive it; comp, CINGULUM REST, INCISAL REST, LINGUAL REST, OCCLUSAL REST, PARTIAL DENTURE REST, PRECISION REST, SEMIPRECISION REST
        rest area: syn, REST SEAT
        rest bite slang: syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION
        rest jaw relation ∖rĕst jô rĭ-lā΄shun∖ obs: the postural jaw relation when the patient is resting comfortably in an upright position and the condyles are in a neutral, unstrained position in the glenoid fossae (GPT-4); syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF REST
        rest occlusion: syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION
        rest position: syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION
        rest relation: syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION
        rest seat ∖rĕst sēt∖: the prepared recess in a tooth or restoration developed to receive the occlusal, incisal, cingulum, or lingual rest; syn, rest preparation, REST AREA
        rest vertical dimension ∖rĕst vûr΄tĭ-kal dĭ-mĕn΄shun∖: the postural position of the mandible when an individual is resting comfortably in an upright position and the associated muscles are in a state of minimal contractual activity syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF REST
        restoration ∖rĕs΄ta-rā΄shun∖ n (1660): a broad term applied to any material or prosthesis that restores or replaces lost tooth structure, teeth, or oral tissues
        retainer ∖rĭ-tā΄nar∖ n (1540): any type of device used for the stabilization or retention of a prosthesis; comp, DIRECT RETAINER, FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE RETAINER, INDIRECT RETAINER
        retention ∖rĭ-tĕn΄shun∖ n (15c): that quality inherent in the dental prosthesis acting to resist the forces of dislodgment along the path of placement; comp, DIRECT RETENTION, INDIRECT RETENTION
        retention arm ∖rĭ-tĕn΄shun ärm∖: syn, RETENTIVE CLASP
        retention form ∖rĭ-tĕn΄shun form∖: the feature of a tooth preparation that resists dislodgment of a crown in a vertical direction or along the path of placement; syn, retentive form
        retention of the denture ∖rĭ-tĕn΄shun ŭv the dĕn΄chur∖: the resistance of a denture to dislodgment (GPT-4)
        retentive circumferential clasp ∖rĭ-tĕn΄tĭv sur-kŭm΄fa-rĕn΄shal klăsp∖: a circumferential clasp arm that is flexible and engages the infrabulge area of the abutment tooth at the terminal end of the arm
        retentive clasp ∖rĭ-tĕn΄tĭv klăsp∖: 1. a clasp specifically designed to provide retention by engaging an undercut; 2. a flexible segment of a removable partial denture that engages an undercut on an abutment and that is designed to retain the prosthesis
        retentive fulcrum line ∖rĭ-tĕn΄tĭv fŭl΄krum līn∖: 1. an imaginary line connecting the retentive points of clasp arms on retaining teeth adjacent to mucosa-borne denture bases; 2. an imaginary line, connecting the retentive points of clasp arms, around which the removable partial denture tends to rotate when subjected to dislodging forces
        retinal fovea ∖rĕt΄n-al fō΄vē-a∖: a small elliptical-shaped depression in the central region of the retina somewhat less than a degree of visual angle in maximal diameter and characterized by the sharpest cone vision; the fovea centralis is the normal center for visual fixation and attention
        retrodiscal tissue ∖rĕt΄rō-dĭs΄kal tĭsh΄ōō∖: a mass of loose, highly vascular and highly innervated, connective tissue attached to the posterior band of the articular disc and extending to and filling the loose folds of the posterior capsule of the temporomandibular joint; it contains collagen fibers, elastic fibers, fat cells, numerous blood and lymph vessels, and nerves; this zone of tissue has been described by using multiple names such as posterior attachment, bilaminar zone, and retrodiscal pad; this retrodiscal tissue has a superior and an inferior lamina (layer) of connective tissue with many elastic fibers in the superior lamina, hence the name bilaminar zone
        retrognathic ∖rĕt΄rō-nā΄thĭk∖ adj: a retruded position of the mandible in relation to the maxillae
        retromolar pad ∖rĕt΄ra-mō΄lar păd∖: a mass of tissue comprised of non-keratinized mucosa located posterior to the retromolar papilla and overlying loose glandular connective tissue; this freely movable area should be differentiated from the pear-shaped pad
        retromylohyoid area ∖rĕt΄rō-mī΄lō- hyoid âr-ē-a∖: syn, RETROMYLOHYOID SPACE
        retromylohyoid space ∖rĕt΄rō-mī΄lō-hyoid spās∖: an anatomic area in the alveololingual sulcus just lingual to the retromolar pad bounded anteriorly by the mylohyoid ridge, posteriorly by the retromylohyoid curtain, inferiorly by the floor of the alveololingual sulcus, and lingually by the anterior tonsillary pillar when the tongue is in a relaxed position; retromylohyoid fossa
        retromolar trigone: triangular area of mucosa with the base posterior to the mandibular third molar, superior apex posterior to maxillary third molar, laterally limited to lateral buccal sulcus, medially limited to anterior tonsillar pillar; underlying anatomy includes the buccinator muscle, and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, the tendinous pterygomandibular raphe, and the deep tendon of the temporalis muscle
        retruded contact ∖rĭ-trōō΄dĭd kŏn΄tăkt∖: contact of a tooth or teeth along the retruded path of closure; initial contact of a tooth or teeth during closure around a transverse horizontal axis; comp, CENTRIC OCCLUSION
        retrusion ∖rĭ-trōō΄shun∖ vb: movement toward the posterior
        retrusive ∖rĭ-trōō΄sĭv∖ adj: denotes a posterior location
        reverse articulation ∖rĭ-vûrs΄ är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: an occlusal relationship in which the mandibular teeth are located facial to the opposing maxillary teeth; the maxillary buccal cusps are positioned in the central fossae of the mandibular teeth
        reverse articulation teeth ∖rĭ-vûrs΄ är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun tēth∖: posterior teeth designed to accommodate the buccal cusps of the maxillary teeth positioned in the fossae of the mandibular teeth
        reverse curve ∖rĭ-vûrs΄ kŭrv∖: a helicoid curve of occlusion that, when viewed in the frontal plane, conforms to a curve in which the lingual surfaces of the teeth are more coronal to the buccal surfaces; in excessive wear of the teeth, the obliteration of the cusps and formation of either flat or cupped-out occlusal surfaces, associated with reversal of the occlusal plane of the premolar, first and second molar teeth (the third molars being generally unaffected), whereby the occlusal surfaces of the mandibular teeth slope facially instead of lingually and those of the maxillary teeth incline lingually; anteroposterior curve slopes inferiorly; comp, CURVE OF PLEASURE, CURVE OF SPEE
        reverse occlusal curve: syn, REVERSE CURVE
        reverse swallow: syn, TONGUE THRUSTING
        reversible hydrocolloid ∖rĭ-vûr΄sa-bal hī΄dra-kŏl΄oid΄∖: colloidal gels in which the gelation is brought about by cooling and can be returned to the sol condition when the temperature is sufficiently increased
        reversible splint ∖rĭ-vûr΄sa-bal splĭnt∖: any means of stabilizing teeth that does not irreversibly alter the structure of the teeth
        Richmond crown obs: 1. eponym for a post-retained crown made for an endodontically treated tooth that uses a porcelain facing; 2. an artificial crown with an attached metal post that fits the prepared natural tooth and inserts into the endodontically treated root canal; orig, C. M. Richmond, dentist, U.S.A., 1835-1902; obs, porcelain-faced dowel crown
        Richmond CM. New method of attaching gold crowns to natural roots of teeth. Am J Dent Sci 1878;79:425
        ridge ∖rĭj∖ n (bef. 12c): an elevated body part; a long, narrow, raised crest; comp, ALVEOLAR RIDGE, CENTER OF THE RIDGE, CREST OF THE RIDGE, RESIDUAL RIDGE
        ridge augmentation ∖rĭj ôg΄mĕn-tā΄shun∖: any procedure designed to enlarge or increase the size, extent, or quality of a deformed residual ridge
        ridge crest ∖rĭj krĕst∖: the highest continuous surface of the residual ridge not necessarily coincident with the center of the ridge
        ridge lap ∖rĭj lăp∖: the surface of a pontic for a fixed partial denture that has been shaped to accommodate the residual ridge; the tissue surface of a ridge lap design is concave and envelops both the buccal and lingual surfaces of the residual ridge
        ridge relation: syn, RIDGE RELATIONSHIP
        ridge relationship ∖rĭj rĭ-lā΄shun-shĭp∖: the positional relationship of the mandibular residual ridge to the maxillary residual ridge
        ridge resorption: syn, RESIDUAL RIDGE RESORPTION
        ridge slope ∖rĭj slōp∖ obs: the slope of the crest of the mandibular residual ridge from the third molar region to its most anterior aspect in relation to the inferior border of the mandible as viewed in profile (GPT-4)
        rigid connector ∖rĭj΄ĭd ka-nĕk΄tar∖: a cast, soldered, or fused union between the retainer(s) and pontic(s) or splinted crowns
        ringless investment technique: an investing technique that uses a removable cylindrical outer form permitting unrestricted expansion of the investment by comparison to the use of a steel casting ring
        Roach clasp: eponym for INFRABULGE CLASP; orig, Finnis Ewing (Frank) Roach, prosthodontist, U.S.A., 1865-1960
        Roach FE. Principles and essentials of bar clasp partial dentures. J Am Dent Assoc 1930;17:124-38
        Rochette Bridge: a resin-bonded fixed partial denture incorporating holes within the metal framework that lutes to the lingual aspect of teeth adjacent to an edentulous space and replaces one or more teeth; orig, Alain L. Rochette, physician/dentist, France; syn, RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS
        Rochette AL. Attachment of a splint to enamel of lower anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent 1973;30:418-23
        Rockwell hardness number: acronym is RHN; a hardness measurement obtained from the depth of an indentation after use of either a steel ball or conical diamond point; the Rockwell hardness number is designated to the particular indenter and load used
        rod ∖rŏd∖ n (bef. 12c): the photoreceptor in the retina that contains a light-sensitive pigment capable of initiating the process of scotopic vision; i.e., low intensity for achromatic sensations only
        1roentgen ∖rĕnt΄gan, -jan, rŭnt΄-∖ adj: relating to x-rays; orig, W. C. Roentgen, physicist, Germany, 1845-1923
        2roentgen ∖rĕnt΄gan, -jan, rŭnt΄-∖ n (ca. 1929): the international unit of measurement of x or gamma radiation in air; abb r or R
        roentgen ray ∖rĕnt΄gan, -jan, rŭnt΄- rā∖ n, often cap 1st R (1898): 1. the electromagnetic radiation [greater than 100eV] emitted from a highly evacuated tube, excited by the bombardment of the target anode with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode; 2. electromagnetic radiation produced by the excitation of the inner orbital electron of an atom
        roentgenogram ∖rĕnt΄gan-a-grăm, -jan-, rŭnt΄-∖ n (1904) obs: a photograph made with x-rays
        roentgenograph ∖rĕnt΄gan-a-grăf, -jan-, rŭnt΄-∖ n (ca. 1905) obs: a shadow image record made on a sensitized film or plate by roentgen rays
        roentgenographic interpretation ∖rĕnt΄gan-a-grăf΄ĭk ĭn-tûr΄prĭ-tā΄shun∖ obs: an opinion formed from the study of a roentgenograph (GPT-1)
        root ∖rōōt, rŏŏt∖ n (bef. 12c): the portion of the tooth apical to the cemento-enamel junction that is normally covered by cementum and is attached to the periodontal ligament and hence to the supporting bone
        root fracture ∖rōōt frăk΄chur∖: a microscopic or macroscopic cleavage of the root in any direction
        rotating condyle obs: syn, WORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        rotation ∖rō-tā΄shun∖ n (1555): 1. the action or process of rotating on a mechanical center or on an axis; 2. the movement of a rigid body in which the parts move in circular paths with their centers on a fixed line called the axis of rotation; the plane of the circle in which the body moves is perpendicular to the axis of rotation
        rotational center ∖rō-tā΄shun sĕn΄tur∖: a point around which all other points in a body move
        rotational line obs: syn, FULCRUM LINE
        rotational path removable partial denture ∖rō-tā΄shun-al păth rē-mōōv΄a-bal pär΄shal dĕn΄chur∖: a removable partial denture that incorporates a curved, arcuate, or variable path of placement allowing one or more of the rigid components of the framework to gain access to and engage an undercut area
        rouge ∖rōōzh∖ n (1753): a compound composed of ferric oxide and binders used for imparting a high luster to a polished surface of glass, metal, or gems
        RPD: acronym for REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE
        RPI: acronym for rest, proximal plate, and I-BAR; the clasp components of one type of removable partial denture clasp assembly
        Kratochvil FJ. Influence of occlusal rest position and clasp design on movement of abutment teeth. J Prosthet Dent 1963;13:114-12
        Krol AJ. Clasp design for extension-base removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1973;29:408-15
        rugae ∖rōō΄ga∖ n, pl ⋅gae ∖-gĕ΄, -gī∖ (ca. 1775): an anatomic fold or wrinkle—usually used in the plural sense; the irregular fibrous connective tissue ridges located in the anterior third of the hard palate
        rugae area: syn, RUGAE
        rugae zone: syn, RUGAE

        S

        saddle n, obs, slang: syn, DENTURE BASE
        saddle pontic obs, slang: syn, RIDGE LAP
        sagittal ∖săj΄ĭ-tl∖ adj (1541): situated in the plane of the cranial sagittal suture or parallel to that plane; syn, SAGITTAL PLANE
        sagittal axis ∖săj΄ĭ-tl ăk΄sĭs∖: an imaginary anteroposterior line around which the mandible may rotate when viewed in the frontal plane
        sagittal axis of the mandible: syn, SAGITTAL AXIS
        sagittal condylar inclination: acronym is SCI; the angle formed by the path of the moving condyles within the sagittal plane compared with the horizontal plane (anterior-posterior movement); syn, HORIZONTAL CONDYLAR INCLINATION
        sagittal plane ∖săj΄ĭ-tl plān∖: any vertical plane or section parallel to the median plane of the body that divides a body into right and left portions
        sand-blasting nonstand: syn, AIR ABRASION, AIRBORNE-PARTICLE ABRASION
        sandwich technique: a restorative technique when applying a glass ionomer to dentin and then overlaying it with composite resin; the synergy of the two materials provides a physiomechanical and esthetic property; orig, John McLean, dentist, United Kingdom, 1985
        sanitary bridge obs: syn, HYGIENIC PONTIC
        sanitary pontic obs: a trade name originally designed as a manufactured convex blank with a slotted back; the name was used occasionaly as a synonym for a hygienic pontic, wherein the pontic does not contact the residual ridge; syn, HYGIENIC PONTIC
        saturation ∖săch΄a-rā΄shun∖ n (1554): the attribute of color perception that expresses the degree of color (hue) intensity; syn, CHROMA
        scaffold ∖skăf΄ald∖ n (14c): a supporting surface, either natural or prosthetic, which maintains the contour of tissue; a supporting framework
        1scallop ∖skŏl΄ap∖ n (15c): one of a continuous series of circles
        2scallop ∖skŏl΄ap∖ vt (1737): to shape, cut, or finish in scallops; segments or angular projections forming a border
        scanner: a device for the 3D acquisition of the surfaces of an object by mechanical contact, laser, or photographic image; comp, coordinate measuring machine, CONTACT SCANNER, LASER SCANNER, WHITE LIGHT SCANNER
        scanning electron micrograph: acronym SEM; a micrograph of specimens that are coated with heavy metal and then scanned by an electron beam; the image is built up on a monitor screen (in the same way as the raster builds a conventional television image); the resolution is less than transmission electron microscopy, but the preparation is easier (often by fixation followed by critical point drying); the depth of focus is relatively large allowing significant magnification and observation of the specimen's surface
        scattered radiation ∖skăt΄ard rā΄dē-ā΄shun∖: radiation that during passage through a substance has been deviated in direction; it may also have been modified by an increase in wavelengths. It is one form of secondary radiation
        scattering ∖skăt-a-rĭng∖ n (14c): diffusion or redirection of radiant energy encountering particles of a different refractive index; scattering occurs at any such interface, at the surface, or inside a medium containing particles
        scattering coefficient ∖skăt΄ar-ĭng kō΄ĭ-fĭsh΄ant∖: single scattering coefficient of a particle in a medium with a different refractive index, expressed as a ratio between scattering cross section and geometric cross section of the particle; it should properly be called scattering efficiency, but in popular use, called scattering coefficient
        scotopic vision ∖ska-tō΄pĭk vĭ΄shun∖: vision that occurs in faint light or dark adaptation and is attributable to the retinal rods; the maximum of the relative spectral visual sensitivity is shifted to 510 nm and the spectrum is seen uncolored
        scribe ∖skrīb∖ vt (1678): to write, trace, or mark by making a line or lines with a pointed instrument; scribed ∖skrībd∖, scribing ∖skrī΄bĭng∖
        second-stage dental implant surgery ∖sĕk΄and stăj dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt sûr΄ja-rē∖: 1. for eposteal dental implant surgery, the term refers to the procedure involving placement of the eposteal framework fabricated after the first stage implant surgery; 2. for endosteal dental implant surgery, after surgical reflection, the occlusal aspect of the dental implant is exposed, the healing screw is removed, and either the interim or definitive dental implant abutment is placed; after these procedures, the investing tissues are (when needed) sutured
        secondary bonds ∖sĕk΄an-dĕr-ē bŏndz∖: weak interatomic bonds arising from dipoles within atoms or molecules
        secondary crown: syn, TELESCOPIC CROWN
        secondary dentition: syn, PERMANENT DENTITION
        secondary fracture ∖sĕk΄an-dĕr-ē∖: a fracture occurring as a consequence of infection, necrosis, or some other disease of the bone
        secondary occlusal trauma ∖sĕk΄an-dĕr-ē a-klōō΄zal∖: the effects induced by normal occlusal force acting on teeth with decreased periodontal support
        secondary pain ∖sĕk΄an-dĕr-ē pān∖: heterotopic pain and/or secondary hyperalgesia induced by deep somatic pain as a central excitatory effect
        section ∖sĕk΄shun∖ n: the portion of a maxillofacial prosthesis that serves to fill a defect as a part of the prosthesis; syn, CONFORMER
        sectional facial moulage impression: a procedure used to record the soft tissue contours of a portion of the face; occasionally several separate sectional impressions are made, and then reassembled to provide a full facial contour cast; the impression is used to create a partial facial moulage and generally is not reusable
        sectional impression ∖sĕk΄shun-al ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: a negative likeness that is made in sections
        segment ∖sĕg΄mant∖ n (1570): any of the parts into which a body naturally separates or is divided either actually or by an imaginary line or plane
        Seibert classification: eponym for the classification of residual alveolar ridge form into three categories identified as class I, II, and III. Class I defects—faciolingual loss of tissue width with normal ridge height; Class II defects—loss of ridge height with normal ridge width; Class III defects—a combination of loss in both dimensions
        Seibert JS. Reconstruction of deformed, partially edentulous ridges, using full-thickness onlay grafts. Part I. Technique and wound healing. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1983;4:437-53
        selective grinding: syn, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING
        selective laser melting: acronym is SLM; an additive CAM continuous layering buildup process in which elemental metal or alloy powder deposition is closely followed by laser melting to create a finished shape under computer control
        selective laser sintering: acronym is SLS; an additive CAM technique by sintering plastics, glass, or ceramics into 3D structures; comp, DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING
        self-curing resin slang: syn, AUTOPOLYMERIZING RESIN
        self-etching primer: a solution composed of acidic resin and volatile ingredients that simultaneously etches and primes dentin prior to the restorative composite resin bonding
        self-separating plaster ∖sĕlf-sĕp΄a-rāt΄ĭng plăs΄tar∖ obs: an impression plaster that disintegrates in hot water (GPT-4)
        self-threading pin ∖sĕlf-thrĕd΄ĭng pĭn∖: a pin screwed into a hole prepared in dentin to enhance retention
        sella turcica ∖sĕl-lă tŭr-sē΄kă∖: a cephalometric landmark in the geometric center of the pituitary fossa of the sphenoid bone; a bony anatomic landmark
        semi-adjustable articulator ∖sĕm΄ē-a-jŭst΄a-bal är-tĭk΄ya-lā-tor∖: an articulator that allows adjustment to simulate mandibular movements; syn, Class III articulator
        semi-anatomical teeth: modified denture tooth occlusal forms with a 20-degree or less cuspal incline
        semiprecious metal alloy ∖sĕm΄ē-prĕsh΄as mĕt΄l ăl΄oi΄, a-loi΄∖ nonstand: an alloy composed of precious and base metals; there is no distinct ratio of components separating semiprecious alloys from another group. Editorial note for usage: the preferred terminology to be used with dental alloys is HIGH NOBLE ALLOY, NOBLE ALLOY, and BASE METAL
        semiprecision attachment: a laboratory fabricated rigid metallic patrix of a fixed or removable partial denture that fits into a matrix in a cast restoration, allowing some movement between the components; attachments with plastic components are often called semiprecision attachments even if prefabricated (not laboratory fabricated); comp, PRECISION ATTACHMENT
        semiprecision rest ∖sĕm΄ē-prĭ-sĭzh΄an rĕst∖: a rigid metallic extension of a fixed or removable partial denture that fits into an intracoronal preparation in a cast restoration
        separating medium ∖sĕp΄a-rāt΄ĭng mē΄dē-am∖: 1. a coating applied to a surface and serving to prevent a second surface from adhering to the first; 2. a material, usually applied on an impression, to facilitate removal of the cast; comp, TIN FOIL SUBSTITUTE
        septum ∖sĕp΄tum∖ n (1726): a dividing wall or membrane, especially between bodily spaces or masses; septa ∖sĕp΄ta∖ pl
        sequestrectomy: surgical removal of a sequestrum
        sequestrum: a portion of devitalized bone entirely separated from the adjacent vital bone
        setting expansion ∖sĕt΄tĭng ĭk-spăn΄shun∖: the dimensional increase that occurs concurrent with the hardening of various materials, such as dental stone, die stone, and dental casting investment
        setup n, obs: syn, DIAGNOSTIC DENTURE WAX-UP, TOOTH ARRANGEMENT, TRIAL PLACEMENT, TRIAL DENTURE
        sextant ∖sekstənt∖ n, New Latin sextant-, sextans, from Latin, sixth part of anything, from sextus sixth +-ant-, -ans, -ant: 1. the sixth part of a circle; 2. in dentistry, a subdivision of the dental arch by adjacent tooth grouping; the maxillary and mandibular arches may be divided into a total of 6 areas each termed a SEXTANT; in the maxillae, the right posterior sextant extends from third molar to first premolar, the anterior maxillary sextant extends from canine to canine, and the left posterior maxillary sextant extends from first premolar to third molar; the mandibular arch may be divided into three similar sextants
        shade ∖shād∖ n: 1. a term used to describe a particular hue, or variation of a primary hue, such as a greenish shade of yellow; 2. a term used to describe a mixture with black (or gray) as opposed to a tint that is a mixture with white; comp, TOOTH COLOR SELECTION
        shade selection: syn, TOOTH COLOR SELECTION
        shearing stress ∖shîr΄ĭng strĕs∖: the internal induced force that opposes the sliding of one plane on an adjacent plane or the force that resists a twisting action
        shell crown ∖shĕl kroun∖ obs: 1. an artificial crown swaged from a metal plate; 2. an artificial crown that is adapted like a shell or cap over the remaining clinical crown of a tooth; the space between the crown and the shell is filled with cement
        shellac base ∖sha-lăk΄ bās∖ obs: a record base constructed by using a shellac-based wafer that has been adapted to the cast with heat (GPT-4)
        shim stock n: a thin (8-12 micrometer) strip of polyester film used to identify the presence or absence of occlusal or proximal contacts
        shoulder finish line ∖shŏl΄dar fĭn΄ĭsh līn∖ n: a finish line design for a tooth preparation in which the gingival floor meets the external axial surfaces at approximately a right angle
        shoulder porcelain: a low-shrinkage porcelain applied for an artificial crown margin design for a PORCELAIN MARGIN; comp, BODY PORCELAIN, INCISAL PORCELAIN, GINGIVAL PORCELAIN
        shrink-spot porosity ∖shrĭngk-spŏt pa-rŏs΄ĭ-tē∖ nonstand: syn, BACK PRESSURE POROSITY, OCCLUDED GAS POROSITY, SOLIDIFICATION POROSITY, SUCK-BACK POROSITY
        sialorrhea: excessive flow of saliva
        side-shift: syn, MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION
        Sievert: abbr, Sv; a unit of radiation therapy relating health effects using the International System of Units (SI); comp, GRAY
        silent period ∖sī΄lant pĭr΄ē-ad∖: a momentary electromyographic decrease in elevator muscle activity on initial tooth contact presumably as the result of the inhibitory effect of stimulated periodontal ligament receptors
        silica ∖sĭl΄ĭ-ka∖ n (ca. 1301): silicon dioxide occurring in crystalline, amorphous, and usually impure forms (as quartz, opal, and sand)
        silica-bonded investment: a casting investment with ethyl silicate or a silica gel as a binder, the latter reverting to silica upon heating; this is combined with cristobalite or quartz as the refractory material; such investments exhibit considerable thermal expansion and can be used when casting higher fusing chromium alloys
        simple fracture ∖sĭm΄pl frăk΄chur∖: a linear bony fracture that is not in communication with the exterior
        simple joint ∖sĭm΄pul joint∖: a joint in which only two bones articulate
        simulation film ∖sĭm΄ya-lā΄shun fĭlm∖: radiographs made with the same field size, source-to-skin distance, and orientation for the visualization of a therapeutic beam
        1sinter ∖sĭn΄tar∖ n (1780): a deposit formed by evaporation of lake or spring water
        2sinter ∖sĭn΄tar∖ vt (1871): to cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting; comp, SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
        sinus tract: an abnormal passage from a pathological process to an external surface
        skiagraph ∖skī΄a-grăf΄, -gräf΄∖ n, obs (1801): 1. a figure formed by shading in the outline of a shadow; 2. a radiograph; syn, skiagram (GPT-1)
        SLA: acronym for STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
        sleeper ∖slē΄par∖ slang: any dental implant body not used for support and stabilization of a dental prosthesis
        sliding movement: syn, TRANSLATION
        slip-cast ceramics: a fine-grain ceramic material that is partially sintered to form a porous substructure; the ceramic material can be either aluminum oxide, magnesium aluminum oxide, or a combination of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide; the porous substructure is subsequently infused with a molten glass to form a strong framework for a fixed dental prosthesis
        slotted attachment nonstand: syn, PRECISION ATTACHMENT
        SLS: acronym for SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
        1sluice ∖slōōs∖ n (14c): an artificial passage for water fitted with a valve or gate for stopping or regulating the flow
        2sluice ∖slōōs∖ vb (1593): 1. to draw off by or via a sluice; 2. to wash with or in water through or from a sluice; 3. to drench with a sudden flow; sluiced ∖slōōsd∖; sluicing ∖slōō΄sĭng∖ vt
        smile design: a contemporary term for DENTOGENICS; a concept of using gender, personality, and age as factors in tooth arrangement and anatomy by means of waxing of casts, interim composite resin on teeth, or digital image enhancements; syn, DENTOGENICS
        SNA angle: acronym for Sella-Nasion-A point; in cephalometrics, an angle measuring the anteroposterior relationship of the maxillary basal arch to the anterior cranial base; it relates to the degree of maxillary prognathism
        snap impression obs: syn, PRELIMINARY IMPRESSION
        SNB angle: acronym for Sella-Nasion-B point; in cephalometrics, an angle showing the anterior limit of the mandibular basal arch in relation to the anterior cranial base
        socket ∖sŏk΄ĭt∖ (15c): any opening or hollow that forms a holder for something, e.g., a tooth
        soft palate ∖soft, sŏft păl΄ĭt∖: the displaceable part of the palatal anatomy posterior to the hard palate
        soft palate obturator: syn, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        soft splint ∖soft, sŏft splĭnt∖: a resilient device covering either the maxillary or the mandibular teeth for the purpose of preventing trauma to the dentition or acting as a deprogrammer
        1solder ∖sŏd΄ar∖ n (15c): a fusible metal alloy, distinguishable between the two uniting metals, used to unite the edges or surfaces of two pieces of metal; something that unites or cements
        2solder ∖sŏd΄ar∖ vb: to unite, bring into, or restore to a firm union; the act of uniting two pieces of metal by the proper alloy of metals; syn, BRAZE; soldered ∖sŏd΄ard∖; soldering ∖sŏd΄ar-ĭng∖; solderability ∖sŏd΄ar-ă-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖ n; solderer ∖sŏd΄ar-er∖ n
        soldering antiflux: a material, such as iron oxide (rouge) dissolved in a suitable solvent, such as turpentine, placed on a metal surface to confine the flow of molten solder
        soldering flux: a material such as borax glass (Na2B4O7) applied to a metal surface to remove oxides or prevent their formation to facilitate the flow of solder
        soldering index: 1. a mold used to record the relative position of multiple cast restorations prior to investing for a soldering procedure; 2. a rigid resin connection between multiple cast restorations fixing their relative position prior to a soldering procedure
        solidification porosity ∖sa-lĭd΄a-fĭ-kā΄shun pa-rŏs΄ĭ-tē∖: an area of porosity in cast metal that is caused by shrinkage of a portion of the metal as it solidifies from the molten state without flow of additional molten metal from surrounding areas; syn, BACK PRESSURE POROSITY, OCCLUDED GAS POROSITY, SHRINK-SPOT POROSITY, SUCK-BACK POROSITY
        sonicate ∖sŏn΄ĭ-kāt∖ vt (1961): to disrupt (i.e., bacterial membranes or surface particle contaminants) by means of application of high-frequency sound waves; –cated ∖-kā΄tĭd∖; -cating ∖-kā΄tĭng∖; sonication ∖sŏn΄ĭ-kā΄shun∖ n
        space ∖spās∖ n (14c): a delimited, 3D region; physical space independent of what occupies it; comp, DENTURE SPACE, INTERDENTAL GINGIVAL SPACE, INTEROCCLUSAL REST SPACE, INTERPROXIMAL SPACE, INTERRADICULAR SPACE, RETROMYLOHYOID SPACE, SPACE OF DONDERS
        space analysis n: treatment planning for the prosthesis dimensions necessary for restorative materials relative to supporting anatomy; this applies to, but is not limited to, dental implant components, tooth or implant overdentures, extracoronal attachments, pontic design, and smile design; comp, PREOPERATIVE RECORD, VIRTUAL SURGICAL PLANNING
        space of Donders: eponym for the space that lies above the dorsum of the tongue and below the hard and soft palates when the mandible and tongue are in the rest position; orig, F.C. Donders Donders FC. Ueber den Mechanismus des Saugens. Pflugers Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie Des Menschen Und Der Tiere 1875;10:91-94
        span length ∖spăn lĕngkth∖: the length of a beam between two supports
        spatula ∖spăch΄a-la∖ n (1525): a flat-bladed instrument used for mixing or spreading materials
        1spatulate ∖spăch΄a-lĭt∖ adj (1760): shaped like a spatula
        2spatulate ∖spăch΄a-lĭt∖ vt: to work or treat with a spatula; -ed/-ing/-s
        spatulation ∖spăch΄a-lā΄shun∖ n: the manipulation of material with a spatula to produce a homogenous mass
        speaking space ∖spē΄kĭng spās∖: the space that occurs between the incisal and/or occlusal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth during speech
        spectral curve: syn, SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC CURVE
        spectral reflection ∖spĕk΄tral rĭ-flĕk΄shun∖: reflection in which the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence; associated with objects having optically smooth (glossy) surfaces; syn, mirrored reflection
        spectrophotometer ∖spĕk΄trō-fō-tŏm΄ĭ-tar∖ n: a photometry device for the measurement of spectral transmissions, reflectance, or relative emissions; spectrophotometers are normally equipped with dispersion optics (prism or grating) to give a continuous spectral curve
        spectrophotometric curve ∖spĕk΄trō-fō-ta-mĕt΄rĭk kûrv∖: a curve measured on a spectrophotometer, hence, a graph of relative reflectance or transmittance (or absorption) as the ordinate, plotted versus wavelengths or frequency as the abscissa; the most common curves in the visible region use wavelength units of a nanometer, with the short wavelength to the left of the scale; the word spectral is frequently used in place of the longer spectrophotometric, but they are not necessarily synonymous
        spectrum ∖spĕk΄trum∖ n: 1. band of colors produced when sunlight is passed through a prism; 2. spatial arrangements of components of radiant energy in order of their wavelengths, wave numbers, or frequency; spectral adj
        speech aid ∖spēch ād∖: any therapy or any instrument, apparatus, or device used to improve speech quality
        speech aid prosthesis ∖spēch ād prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: a removable maxillofacial prosthesis used to restore an acquired or congenital defect of the soft palate with a portion extending into the pharynx to separate the oropharynx and nasopharynx during phonation and deglutition, thereby completing the palatopharyngeal sphincter; comp, ADULT SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS, PEDIATRIC SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS, PHARYNGEAL SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS, CLEFT PALATE PROSTHESIS
        speech aid prosthesis modification ∖spēch ād prŏs-thē΄sĭs mŏd΄a-fĭ-kā΄shun∖: any revision of a pediatric or adult speech aid prosthesis not necessitating its replacement
        speech articulation ∖spēch är-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: 1. the phonation of sounds in connected discourse; 2. the movement and placement during speech of the organs that serve to interrupt or modify the voiced or unvoiced air stream into meaningful sounds; 3. the speech function performed largely through the movements of the lower jaw, lips, tongue, and soft palate
        speech bulb: syn, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        speech prosthesis: syn, SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS
        spherical form of occlusion ∖sfîr΄ĭ-kal, sfĕr΄- form ŭv a-klōō΄shun∖ obs: an arrangement of teeth that places their occlusal surfaces on the surface of an imaginary sphere (usually 8 inches in diameter) with its center above the level of the teeth (GPT-4); syn, CURVE OF MONSON
        sphincter ∖sfĭngk΄ter∖ n (1578): a ringlike band of muscle fibers that constricts to close an orifice or passage
        1splint ∖splĭnt∖ n (14c): 1. a rigid or flexible device that maintains in position a displaced or movable part; also used to keep in place and protect an injured part; 2. a rigid or flexible material used to protect, immobilize, or restrict motion in a part; comp, ANDERSON SPLINT, CAP SPLINT, ESSIG SPLINT, FUNCTIONAL OCCLUSAL SPLINT, GUNNING’S SPLINT, INTERDENTAL SPLINT, KINGSLEY SPLINT, LABIAL SPLINT, LINGUAL SPLINT, PROVISIONAL SPLINT, RESIN-BONDED SPLINT, SOFT SPLINT, SURGICAL SPLINT, WIRE SPLINT
        2splint ∖splĭnt∖ vb (1543): to immobilize, support, or brace
        splinting ∖splĭn΄tĭng∖ n: 1. in dentistry, the joining of two or more teeth into a rigid unit by means of fixed or removable restorations or devices; 2. in physiology, prolonged muscle contraction that inhibits or prevents movement
        split-cast method ∖splĭt-kăst mĕth΄ad∖: syn, SPLIT CAST MOUNTING
        split-cast mounting ∖splĭt-kăst moun΄tĭng∖: 1. a procedure for placing indexed casts on an articulator to facilitate their removal and replacement on the instrument; 2. the procedure for verifying the accuracy of the maxillomandibular relation record
        Needles JW. Mandibular movements and articulator design. J Am Dent Assoc 1923;10:927-35
        split-dowel crown ∖splĭt-dou΄al kroun∖ obs: an artificial crown supported and retained by a post that was split longitudinally in an attempt to use spring retention in an undersized post space; syn, DAVIS CROWN
        split-thickness graft ∖splĭt-thĭk΄nĭs grăft∖: a transplant of skin or mucous membrane consisting of epithelium and a portion of the dermis (skin) or lamina propria (mucous membrane)
        spontaneous anterior dislocation: syn, MANDIBULAR DISLOCATION
        sports dentistry ∖sports, spōrts dĕn΄tĭ-strē∖: all aspects of dentistry, either preventive or therapeutic, directly or indirectly involved with sports and recreation
        spot grinding: syn, OCCLUSAL ADJUSTMENT, OCCLUSAL RESHAPING
        sprue ∖sprōō∖ n (1880): 1. the channel or hole through which plastic or metal is poured or cast into a gate or reservoir and then into a mold; 2. the cast metal or plastic that connects a casting to the residual sprue button
        sprue button ∖sprōō bŭt΄n∖: the excess material remaining at the base of the mold after a dental casting
        sprue former ∖sprōō fôr΄mar∖: a wax, plastic, or metal pattern used to form the channel or channels allowing molten metal to flow into a mold to make a casting
        sprue pin: syn, SPRUE FORMER
        stability ∖stă-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖ n (15c): 1. that quality of maintaining a constant character or position in the presence of forces that threaten to disturb it; the quality of being stable; to stand or endure; 2. the quality of a complete or removable partial denture to be firm, steady, or constant, to resist displacement by functional horizontal or rotational stresses; 3. resistance to horizontal displacement of a prosthesis; comp, DENTURE STABILITY, DIMENSIONAL STABILITY, OCCLUSAL STABILITY
        stabilization ∖stā΄ba-lĭ-zā΄shun∖ n, obs: the seating of a fixed or removable denture so that it will not tilt or be displaced under pressure (GPT-1)
        stabilize ∖stā΄ba-līz΄∖ vb (1861): 1. to make firm, steadfast, stable; 2. to hold steady, as to maintain the stability of any object by means of a stabilizer; -lized ∖līzd∖; -lizing ∖lī-zĭng∖ vt, stabilization ∖stā΄ba-lĭ-zā΄shun∖ n
        stabilized record base ∖stā΄ba-līzd rĕk΄ard bās∖ obs: a record base lined with a material to improve its fit and adaptation to the underlying supporting tissues; syn, RECORD BASE; comp, DEFINITIVE DENTURE BASE
        stabilizing circumferential clasp ∖stā΄ba-lī΄zĭng sar-kŭm΄fa-rĕn΄shul klăsp∖: a circumferential clasp that is relatively rigid and contacts the height of contour of the tooth without retentive force
        1stain ∖stān∖ n (1583): 1. a soiled or discolored spot; a spot of color in contrast to the surrounding area; 2. a preparation used in staining; 3. in dentistry, the discoloration of a tooth surface or surfaces as a result of ingested materials, bacterial action, tobacco, and/or other substances; this may be intrinsic, extrinsic, acquired, or developmental; syn, characterization
        2stain ∖stān∖ vb (14c): 1. to suffuse with color; 2. to color by processes affecting chemically or otherwise the material itself; 3. in dentistry, to intentionally alter restorations through the application of intrinsic or extrinsic colorants to achieve a desired effect; syn, to characterize a restoration
        stanch ∖staw nch∖ vb: 1. to check or stop the flow of; to stop the flow of blood from (a wound); 2. to stop or check in its course; 3. to make watertight
        standard abutment: dental implant abutment with screw specifically referring to the original Branemark design; DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT
        standard illuminant ∖stăn΄dard ĭ-lōō΄ma-nant∖: the illuminants A, B, C, D, (and others) defined by the CIE in terms of their relative power distribution curves. “A” is an illuminant with a Planckion temperature of approximately 2854 K. It is intended to represent a common tungsten filament source. “B” approximates solar radiation— 4870 K—and is obsolete. “C” is average daylight, 6740 K. “D” is daylight with the near ultraviolet source included
        standard light source ∖stăn΄dard līt sôrs, sōrs∖: a reference light source whose spectral power distribution is known
        standard observer ∖stăn΄dard ob-zûr΄vur∖: a hypothetical observer with a visual response mechanism possessing the calorimetric properties defined by the CIE in 1931 as representative of the human population having normal color vision
        standard of care: the level of care that reasonably prudent healthcare providers in the same or a similar locality would provide under similar circumstances
        standard tessellation language (STL): a digital file used in stereolithographic display and printing; the 3D image surface is interpreted by a series of triangles
        staphyloschisis: a bifid uvula with or without cleft palate
        static ∖stăt΄ĭk∖ adj: related to bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium
        static fatigue ∖stăt΄ĭk fa-tēg∖: the delayed failure of glass and ceramic materials resulting from stress-enhanced reactions aided by water vapor acting on surface cracks; analogous to stress corrosion occurring in metals
        static relation ∖stăt΄ĭk rĭ-lā΄shun∖: the relationship between two parts that are not in motion
        steam cleaning: the process of debris removal from a restoration, framework, or dental prosthesis through use of pressurized steam
        Steinmann’s pin: eponym for a firm metal pin that is sharpened on one end; used for the internal fixation of fractures; orig, Fritz Steinmann, surgeon, Switzerland, 1872-1932
        stenosis ∖sta-nō΄sĭs∖ n (ca. 1860): a narrowing or constriction in the diameter of a passage or orifice; -noses pl; stenotic ∖sta-nŏt΄ĭk∖ adj
        stent ∖stĕnt∖ n: eponym for any supplementary device used in conjunction with a surgical procedure to keep a skin graft in place; often modified with acrylic resin or dental modeling plastic impression compound that was previously termed Stent’s mass; also refers to any device or mold used to hold a skin graft in place or provide support for anastomosed structures; orig, Charles R. Stent, dentist, United Kingdom, 1845-1901; syn, SURGICAL STENT; comp, NASAL STENT
        Stephan curve: a line graph representing the decreasing pH of dental plaques relative to time following a sugar or carbohydrate exposure
        stereograph ∖stĕr΄ē-ō-grăf΄, stĭr΄-∖ n (1859): syn, PANTOGRAPH
        stereolithography: acronym is SLA; a computer numerical control (CNC) additive fabrication of an object; in dentistry, it relates to the laser initiation of light-reactive resin layering to make replicas of casts and devices; alternative to processes of casting, injection molding and vacuum thermoforming; orig, the photo sculpturing principle is credited to Francois Willeme, 1860; the term and manufacturing process is credited to Charles Hull,1986; comp, fused deposition modeling, RAPID PROTOTYPING, SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
        stereotactic facebow record: the maxillary occlusal registration record obtained by means of a radiographic image and viewed in a raster graphic image
        stereotactic surgery: surgery guided with the use of endoscope or radiologic imaging; comp, robotic surgery, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery; orig, Sir Victor Horsley, neurosurgeon, United Kingdom and Robert H. Clark, physiologist, United Kingdom, 1908
        sterile ∖stĕr΄al∖ adj (1558): free from living microorganisms; aseptic
        sterile technique ∖stĕr΄al tĕk-nēk΄∖: a standard surgical technique in which an aseptic area is established and maintained, including proper sterilization of instruments, drapes, gowns, gloves, and the surgical area; with respect to dental implant placement, the systematic maintenance of asepsis with special emphasis on non-contamination of instruments and implant elements throughout an implant placement procedure
        sterilization ∖stĕr΄a-lī-zā΄shun∖ n: the process of completely eliminating microbial viability
        stipple ∖stĭp΄al∖ vt (1760): 1. to make small pointed indentations that together produce an even or softly graded shadow; 2. to speckle or fleck; stippled ∖stĭ΄puld∖ stippling ∖stĭp΄lĭng∖ stippler ∖stĭp΄lar∖ n
        STL: acronym for STANDARD TESSELLATION LANGUAGE
        stock tray coll: a metal or plastic prefabricated impression tray typically available in various sizes and used principally for preliminary impressions; comp, CUSTOM TRAY
        stoma ∖stō΄ma∖ n (ca. 1684): 1. any simple bodily opening; 2. an artificial permanent opening usually made surgically; stomata ∖stō΄ma-ta∖ pl, also stomas ∖stō΄mäs∖
        stomatognathic ∖stō-măt΄a-nā΄thĭk∖ n: denoting the jaws and mouth collectively
        stomatognathic system ∖stō-măt΄a-nā΄thĭk sĭs΄tum∖: the combination of structures involved in speech, receiving food, mastication, and deglutition as well as parafunctional actions; syn, MASTICATORY SYSTEM
        stomatology ∖stō΄mă-tŏl΄a-jē∖ n: the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the mouth
        stone n: syn, DENTAL STONE; GYPSUM
        stone die: a replica of a prepared tooth in dental stone used in the fabrication of a dental restoration; comp, MODEL, REPLICA
        strain ∖strān∖ n: change in length per unit length when stress is applied; the change in length/original length; the deformation caused in a body by an external force
        stress ∖strĕs∖ n (14c): force per unit area; a force exerted on one body that presses on, pulls on, pushes against, or tends to invest or compress another body; an internal force that resists an externally applied load or force; it is normally defined in terms of mechanical stress, which is the force divided by the perpendicular cross sectional area over which the force is applied; comp, COMPRESSIVE STRESS, SHEARING STRESS, TENSILE STRESS
        stress-bearing area: syn, STRESS-BEARING REGION
        stress-bearing region ∖strĕs-bâr΄ĭng∖: 1. the surfaces of oral structures that resist forces, strains, or pressures brought on them during function; 2. the portion of the mouth capable of providing support for a denture; syn, DENTURE FOUNDATION AREA
        stress breaker: syn, STRESS DIRECTOR
        stress concentration: an area or point of significantly higher stress associated with a structural discontinuity such as a crack or pore
        stress director ∖strĕs dĭ-rĕk΄tar, dī-∖: a device or system that relieves specific dental structures of part or all of the occlusal forces and redirects those forces to other load bearing structures or regions
        stress distribution n: avoiding stress concentration; allowing stresses to be dispersed; comp, STRESS
        stress-strain curve: the graphic representation of the tensile or compressive stress and associated strain of a material
        study cast obs: syn, DIAGNOSTIC CAST, PRELIMINARY CAST, PREOPERATIVE CAST
        stumpf shade: blunt or dull; in dentistry, a term referring to the tooth’s dentin shade; syn, stump shade
        stylus tracing ∖stī΄lus trā΄sĭng∖: a planar tracing that resembles an arrowhead or gothic arch made by means of a device attached to the opposing arches; the shape of the tracing depends on the location of the marking point relative to the tracing table, i.e., in the incisal region as opposed to posteriorly; the apex of a properly made anterior tracing is considered to indicate the centric relation position; Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING, MANDIBULAR TRACER, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, TRACING DEVICE
        sub-antral augmentation ∖sŭb΄ăn-trăl ôg΄mĕn-tā΄shun∖: augmentation of the antral floor with autologous bone or bone substitutes to provide a host site for dental implants; syn, sinus lift, antralplasty
        subcondylar fracture ∖sŭb-kŏn΄dĭ-lar frăk΄chur∖: a fracture beneath the condylar head and within the condylar neck
        subgingival finish line: the tooth preparation finish line that is located apical to the crest of the free gingival margin; syn, intracrevicular finish line
        subgingival margin: the restoration margin that is located apical to the crest of the free gingival margin; syn, intracrevicular margin
        sublingual ∖sŭb΄lĭng΄gwal∖ adj (1661): pertaining to the region or structures located beneath the tongue
        sublingual crescent ∖sŭb΄lĭng΄gwal krĕs΄ant∖: the crescent-shaped area at the anterior floor of the mouth formed by the lingual wall of the mandible and the adjacent sublingual fold. It is the area of the anterior alveolingual sulcus
        sublingual fold ∖sŭb΄lĭng΄gwal fōld∖: the crescent-shaped area at the floor of the mouth following the inner wall of the mandible and tapering toward the molar region; formed by the sublingual gland and submandibular ducts
        sublingual fossa ∖sŭb΄lĭng΄gwal fŏs΄a∖: a smooth depression on the lingual surface of the body of the mandible near the midline, above the mylohyoid line and below the alveolus; this fossa accommodates part of the sublingual gland
        subluxation ∖sŭb΄lŭk-sā΄shun∖ n (ca. 1688): an incomplete or partial dislocation that is self-reducing; comp, CONDYLAR SUBLUXATION
        submersible endosteal implant obj: syn, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        submersible implant obj: syn, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        submucosal insert: syn, MUCOSAL IMPLANT
        submucous cleft palate: syn, OCCULT CLEFT PALATE
        subocclusal connector ∖sŭb΄a-klōō΄zal ka-nĕk΄tar∖: an interproximal nonrigid connector positioned apical to and not in communication with the occlusal plane
        subperiosteal dental implant ∖sŭb-pĕr΄ē-ŏs΄tē-al dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt΄∖: an eposteal dental implant that is placed beneath the periosteum while overlying the bony cortex; orig, G.S. Dahl, dentist, Sweden
        Dahl GS. Om mojlighenten for implantation, kaken av metall skelett som bas eller retention for fasta eller avatagbara protesor. Odontol Foren Tidskr 1943;51:440
        Goldberg NI, Gershkoff A. The implant lower denture. Dent Digest 1945;55:490
        Linkow LI. Evolutionary design trends in the mandibular subperiosteal implant. J Oral Implant 1984;11:402-38
        subperiosteal dental implant abutment ∖sŭb-pĕr΄ē-ŏs΄tē-al dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt a-bŭt΄mant∖: that portion of the implant that protrudes through the mucosa into the oral cavity for the retention or support of a crown, a fixed partial denture, or an overdenture; syn, ABUTMENT
        subperiosteal dental implant substructure ∖sŭb-pĕr΄ē-ŏs-tē-al ĭm-plănt sŭb΄strŭk΄chur∖: a cast metal framework of an eposteal dental implant that is embedded on the residual ridge beneath the periosteum and provides support for a dental prosthesis by means of abutments or other mechanisms protruding through the mucosa; syn, SUBPERIOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT
        subperiosteal dental implant superstructure ∖sŭb-pĕr΄ē-ŏs-tē-al dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt΄ sōō΄par-strŭk΄chur∖ nonstand: the metal framework of an eposteal dental implant; usually within a removable overdenture that fits onto the dental implant abutment(s) or bar connector and provides retention for artificial teeth and the denture base material of the prosthesis; syn, COMPLETE OVERDENTURE, PARTIAL OVERDENTURE; comp, BAR CONNECTOR
        subperiosteal fracture ∖sŭb-pĕr΄ē-ŏs-tē-al frăk΄chur∖: a bony fracture occurring beneath the periosteum, without displacement
        subtractive color system ∖sub-trăk΄tĭv kŭ΄lar sĭs΄tum∖: the system whereby light is removed by filtration or absorption from a white source; the primary colors of the subtractive system are magenta, cyan, and yellow; syn, pigment mixture color system
        subtractive primary colors ∖sub-trăk΄tĭv prī΄mĕr΄ē, -ma-rē∖: the primary colorant substances for pigment and filtering mixtures typically evoking responses of cyan (blue-green), magenta (red-blue), and yellow (red-green); the complementary colors of the subtractive primary colors are red, green, and blue; magenta is a mixture of red and blue and is the complement of green; cyan is a mixture of blue and green and is the complement of red; yellow is a mixture of red and green and is the complement of blue
        suck-back porosity coll: a shrinkage void in a solidified casting opposite the location of the sprue attachment, resulting from a heat swell and localized lingering of molten metal after the casting, as a whole, has solidified; syn, BACK PRESSURE POROSITY, OCCLUDED GAS POROSITY, SHRINK-SPOT POROSITY, SOLIDIFICATION POROSITY, SUCK-BACK POROSITY
        suck-down n, slang: syn, VACUUM THERMOMOLD
        suction chamber ∖sŭk΄shun chăm΄bar∖ obs: relief provided in the midline palatal area of a maxillary denture in an attempt to obtain additional retention by means of the theoretical vacuum created (GPT-4)
        sulcular epithelium: the non-keratinized epithelium of the gingival sulcus that makes the transition between the junctional epithelium and the gingival epithelium
        sulcus n: syn, GINGIVAL CREVICE
        superjacent ∖soo-per-JAY-sunt∖ adj: lying above or upon; overlying
        superstructure ∖sōō΄par-strŭk΄chur∖ n, obs, nonstand: a fixed or removable dental prosthesis retained by a bar connector; syn, OVERDENTURE
        1support ∖sa-pôrt, -pōrt∖ n (14c): the foundation area on which a dental prosthesis rests; with respect to dental prostheses, the resistance to forces directed toward the basal tissue or underlying structures
        2support ∖sa-pôrt, -pōrt∖ vt (14c): to hold up, serve as a foundation, or prop
        supporting area ∖sa-pôrt΄ĭng âr-ē΄a∖: 1. the surface of the mouth available for support of a denture (GPT-1); 2. those areas of the maxillary and mandibular edentulous ridges that are considered best suited to carry the forces of mastication when the dentures are in function (GPT-1)
        supporting cusps ∖sa-pôrt΄ĭng kŭsps∖: those cusps of teeth that contact in and support maximal intercuspal position; usually facial cusps of the mandibular posterior teeth and the maxillary palatal cusps
        suprabulge ∖sōō΄pra-bŭlj∖ adj: that portion of a tooth or crown that converges toward the occlusal surface, i.e., above the height of contour
        suprabulge clasp ∖sōō΄pra-bŭlj klăsp∖: any removable partial denture retentive clasp that approaches the retentive undercut from an occlusal or suprabulge direction
        supraeruption ∖sōō΄pra-ĭ-rŭp΄shun∖ n: movement of a tooth or teeth, along with the tooth-supporting structures, in discontinuity with the normal occlusal plane
        supragingival ∖sōō΄pra-jĭn΄ja-val∖ adj: 1. located above the gingiva; 2. that portion of a natural or artificial tooth that is coronal to the gingival crest
        supramentale ∖sōō΄pra-mĕn΄tāl∖ n: a landmark representing the deepest point of the symphyseal cavity between infradentale and pogonion
        supraocclusion ∖sōō΄pra-a-klōō΄zhun∖ n: malocclusion in which the occluding surfaces of teeth extend beyond the normal occlusal plane; syn, SUPRAERUPTION
        surface tension ∖sûr΄fas tĕn΄shun∖: a property of liquids in which the exposed surface tends to contract to the smallest possible area, as in the spherical formation of drops; a phenomenon attributed to the attractive forces, or cohesion, between the molecules of the liquid
        surfactant n: a surface active substance (as a detergent) applied to a substrate to facilitate its wetting by another material
        surgical baseplate nonstand: syn, SURGICAL OBTURATOR
        surgical guide : 1. any device used as a guide for surgically shaping the alveolar process or positioning of gingival tissues; 2. a guide used to assist in proper surgical placement and angulation of dental implants; 3. a guide used to assist in establishing the desired occlusion during orthognathic or grafting surgery; syn, SURGICAL TEMPLATE; comp, SURGICAL STENT
        surgical maxillomandibular relation ∖sûr΄jĭ-kal măk-sĭl΄ō-măn-dĭb΄ya-lar rĭ-lā΄shun∖: the establishing and recording of the vertical dimension and centric relation between a surgically exposed bone surface and opposite arch at the time of making a surgical bone impression
        surgical obturator ∖sûr΄jĭ-kal ŏb΄ta-rā΄tor∖: a temporary maxillofacial prosthesis inserted during or immediately following surgical or traumatic loss of a portion or all of one or both maxillae and contiguous alveolar structures (i.e., gingival tissue, teeth); frequent revisions of surgical obturators are necessary during the ensuing healing phase (approximately six months); further surgical revisions may require fabrication of another interim obturator (i.e., an initially planned small defect may be surgically revised and greatly enlarged after the final pathologic report indicates margins are not free of cancer); comp, INTERIM OBTURATOR
        surgical prosthesis ∖sûr΄jĭ-kal prŏs-thē΄sĭs∖: any interim prosthesis prepared for insertion during a surgical procedure and intended for short-term use
        surgical splint ∖sûr΄jĭ-kal splĭnt∖: any device designed to use existing teeth and/or alveolar processes as points of anchorage to assist in stabilization and immobilization of broken bones during healing; it is used to re-establish, as much as possible, normal occlusal relationships, during the process of immobilization; frequently, an existing prosthesis (i.e., a patient’s removable complete denture) can be modified to serve as a surgical splint; frequently surgical splints have arch bars added to facilitate intermaxillary fixation. Rubber elastics may be used to assist in this process; circummandibular eyelet hooks can be used for enhanced stabilization with wiring to adjacent bone; comp, CAST METAL SPLINT, FENESTRATED SPLINT, GUNNING SPLINT, KINGSLEY SPLINT, LABIOLINGUAL SPLINT, MODIFIED GUNNING SPLINT
        surgical stay plate nonstand, slang: syn, SURGICAL OBTURATOR
        surgical stent ∖sûr΄jĭ-kal stĕnt∖: eponym for a device used to apply pressure to soft tissues to facilitate healing and prevent cicatrization or collapse; orig, Charles R. Stent, dentist, United Kingdom, 1807-1885; syn, STENT; comp, columellar stent, periodontal stent, skin graft stent, SURGICAL GUIDE, SURGICAL TEMPLATE
        surgical template ∖sûr΄jĭ-kal tĕm΄plĭt∖ nonstand: syn, SURGICAL GUIDE; comp, SURGICAL STENT
        survey ∖sur-vā΄, sûr΄vā΄∖ vb: 1. to examine as to condition, value, or situation; to appraise; 2. to determine the form and position of a given entity by means of taking linear and angular measurements; 3. to inspect or scrutinize; 4. the procedure of locating and delineating the contour and position of the abutment teeth and associated structures before designing a removable partial denture (GPT-1); surveyed, surveying
        survey line ∖sûr΄vā΄ līn∖: a line produced on a cast by a surveyor marking the greatest prominence of contour in relation to the planned path of placement of a restoration; syn, HEIGHT OF CONTOUR
        surveyed diagnostic cast for fixed partial denture: a diagnostic cast after tooth preparations with the essential survey for diagnosis and treatment planning for a fixed partial denture; the cast is commonly used to ensure an acceptable path of placement and may be used to evaluate locations of precision attachments
        surveyed diagnostic cast for removable partial denture: a diagnostic cast before tooth preparations with essential survey for diagnosis and treatment planning for a removable partial denture; the cast is used to determine an acceptable path of placement, guiding planes, location and measurement of retentive undercuts indicative with clasp flexibility, location of tooth and bony interferences, a favorable design relative to aesthetics, charting of existing foundation restorations relative to design, location of occlusal contacts relative to design, location of horizontal height of contours, and placement of tripodal marks; comp, DEFINITIVE CAST, DIAGNOSTIC CAST
        surveyed definitive cast for removable partial denture: a master cast after tooth preparations with survey for blockout and duplication or optical scan for a removable partial denture; this cast is used to determine an acceptable path of placement, guiding planes, location and measurement of retentive undercuts indicative with clasp flexibility, location of tooth and bony undercuts, location of occlusal contacts relative to design, location of horizontal height of contours, and placement of tripodal marks; comp, DIAGNOSTIC CAST, MASTER CAST
        surveying ∖sur-vā΄ĭng∖ n: an analysis and comparison of the prominence of intraoral contours associated with the fabrication of a dental prosthesis
        surveyor ∖sur-vā΄or∖ n (15c): a paralleling instrument used in making a dental prosthesis to locate and delineate the contours and relative positions of abutment teeth and associated structures; syn, PARALLELOMETER
        suturing ∖sōō΄chur-ĭng∖ vt (1777): the process of uniting the tissues separated by either a traumatic or a surgical wound in a specific manner by using an appropriate material
        1swage ∖swāj∖ n (ca. 1812): any tool used for shaping metal by striking with a hammer or sledgehammer
        2swage ∖swāj∖ vt (1881): to shape a material by hammering or adapting it onto a die with a swage instrument; swaged ∖swājd∖; swaging ∖swāj΄ĭng∖
        swallowing threshold ∖swŏl΄ō-ĭng thrĕsh΄ōld∖: the critical moment of reflex action initiated by sufficient stimulation before the act of deglutition
        sympathetic nervous system ∖sĭm΄pa-thĕt΄ĭk nûr΄vas sĭs΄tum∖: the part of the autonomic nervous system that responds to dangerous or threatening situations by preparing a person physiologically for “fight or flight”; comp, PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
        symphysis ∖sĭm΄fĭ-sĭs∖ n (ca. 1578): 1. a type of cartilaginous joint in which the opposed bony surfaces are firmly united by a plate of fibrocartilage; 2. the immovable dense midline articulation of the right and left halves of the adult mandible; -physes pl
        symptom ∖sĭm΄tum, sĭmp-∖ n (14c): subjective evidence of a disease or physical disturbance; something that indicates the presence of a bodily disorder
        syndrome ∖sĭn΄drōm΄∖ n (1541): a group of signs and/or symptoms that occur together
        syneresis n: the separation of water from its component base, for example, a gel or impression material
        synovial fluid ∖sĭ-nō΄vē-al flōō΄ĭd∖: a viscid fluid contained in joint cavities and secreted by the synovial membrane
        synovial membrane: the articular membrane composed of specialized endothelial cells capable of producing synovial fluid filling the joint cavity surrounded by the membrane
        systemic etiologic factors ∖sĭ-stĕm΄ĭk ē΄tē-ō-lŏj΄ĭk făk΄turs∖: generalized biologic factors that are implicated in the causation, modification, and/or perpetuation of a disease entity

        T

        table ∖tā΄bal∖ n (bef. 12c): a flat surface; a raised horizontal surface; comp, GUIDE TABLE, OCCLUSAL TABLE
        taper: in dentistry, the angle, measured in degrees as viewed in a given plane, formed between an external wall and the path of placement of a tooth preparation or machined surfaces on a metal or ceramic material when prepared for fixed dental prosthesis; comp, CONVERGENCE ANGLE, TOTAL OCCLUSAL CONVERGENCE ANGLE
        technique ∖tĕk-nēk΄∖ n (1817): a body of technical methods; a method of accomplishing a desired end; the method or procedure and its details
        telescopic coping: syn, COPING
        telescopic crown ∖tĕl΄a-skŏp΄ĭk kroun∖: an artificial crown (framework) constructed to fit over a coping, another crown, a bar connector or any other suitable rigid support for the dental prosthesis; comp, COPING
        telescopic denture nonstand: syn, OVERDENTURE
        template ∖tĕm΄plĭt∖ n (1877): 1. a pattern, mold, or gauge used as a guide; 2. a curved or flat surface pattern that is used as an aid in visualizing anatomic form; syn, SURGICAL GUIDE, DEVICE
        temporary base: syn, RECORD BASE
        temporary denture: syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        temporary prosthesis: syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        temporary restoration: syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        temporization: to establish esthetics, occlusal stability, and function for a limited time in preparation for the definitive prosthesis; to verify therapeutic outcome and patient acceptance before the definitive prostheses; syn, PROVISIONALIZATION
        temporomandibular articulation: syn, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
        temporomandibular disorders ∖tĕm΄pa-rō΄măn-dĭb΄ya-lar dĭs-ôr΄derz∖: acronym is TMD; 1. conditions producing abnormal, incomplete, or impaired function of the temporomandibular joint(s) and/or the muscles of mastication; 2. (obs) a collection of symptoms frequently observed in various combinations first described by Costen (1934, 1937), which he claimed to be reflexes because of irritation of the auriculotemporal and/or chorda tympanic nerves as they emerged from the tympanic plate caused by altered anatomic relations and derangements of the temporomandibular joint associated with loss of occlusal vertical dimension, loss of posterior tooth support, and/or other malocclusions; the symptoms can include headache about the vertex and occiput, tinnitus, pain about the ear, impaired hearing, and pain about the tongue
        temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome: syn, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS
        temporomandibular joint ∖tĕm΄pa-rō΄măn-dĭb΄ya-lar joint∖: 1. the articulation between the temporal bone and the mandible. It is a bilateral diarthrodial, bilateral ginglymoid joint; 2. the articulation of the condylar process of the mandible and the intra-articular disc with the mandibular fossa of the squamous portion of the temporal bone; a diarthrodial, sliding hinge (ginglymus) joint; movement in the upper joint compartment is mostly translational, whereas that in the lower joint compartment is mostly rotational; the joint connects the mandibular condyle to the articular fossa of the temporal bone with the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT ARTICULAR DISC interposed
        temporomandibular joint articular disc: relative to the temporomandibular joint, the articular disc is a fibrous connective tissue disc located between the articulating surfaces of the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone; syn, ARTICULAR DISC, DISC
        temporomandibular joint derangement: a deviation in position or form of the tissues within the capsule of the temporomandibular joint; an abnormal relationship of the articular disc to the condyle, fossa, and/or articular eminence; syn, INTERNAL DERANGEMENT, JOINT DERANGEMENT
        temporomandibular joint hypermobility ∖tĕm΄pa-rō΄măn-dĭb΄ya-lar joint hī΄par-mō΄bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖: excessive mobility of the temporomandibular joint
        temporomandibular joint remodeling: syn, REMODEL
        temporomandibular joint syndrome: syn, TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS
        TENS: acronym for TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NEURAL STIMULATION
        tensile stress ∖tĕn΄sal, -sĭl strĕs∖: the internal induced force that resists the elongation of a material in a direction parallel to the direction of the stresses
        tension ∖tĕn΄shun∖ n (1533): the state of being stretched, strained, or extended
        terminal hinge axis: syn, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS
        terminal hinge position: syn, CENTRIC RELATION
        terminal jaw relation record ∖tûr΄ma-nal jô rĭ-lā΄shun rĕk΄ard∖: syn, CENTRIC RELATION RECORD
        thermal expansion ∖thûr΄mal ĭk-spăn΄shun∖: expansion of a material caused by heat
        thermal tempering: creating a differential in cooling rate between the external and interior of a glass-ceramic resulting in a surface compressive layer and increased flexural strength
        thermomolding: heat transfer to a sheet of vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer (PVAc-PE) material without a chemical change. Softened PVAc-PE, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (glycol) can be adapted to the surface of a refractory cast by using vacuum, air, or mechanical pressure (sponge or putty); syn, VACUUM THERMOMOLDING
        thermoplastic ∖thûr΄ma-plăs΄tĭk∖ adj (1883): a characteristic or property of a material that allows it to be softened by heating and then return to the hardened state on cooling; thermoplasticity n
        thread ∖’thred∖ n (before 12c): 1. a filament, a group of filaments grouped together, or a filamentous length formed by spinning and twisting short fibers into a continuous strand; 2. a projecting helical rib (as on a pipe) by which parts can be screwed together; a screw thread
        thread crest: the top part of the thread; for external threads, the thread crest is the region of the thread, which is on its outer surface, whereas for internal threads, it is the region that forms the inner diameter
        thread flank: the thread flanks join the thread roots to the crest of a screw
        thread root: the bottom of the thread where it meets the shaft of the screw
        thread run out: that portion at the end of a threaded shank that is not cut or rolled to full depth, but which provides a transition between full depth threads and the fastener shank
        threaded post: any post used for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth that has a screw thread to engage radicular dentin
        three-dimensional (3D) printing: syn, RAPID PROTOTYPING, SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
        three-quarter crown: syn, PARTIAL-COVERAGE CROWN, PARTIAL-COVERAGE RETAINER
        tic ∖tĭk∖ n (ca. 1822): an intermittent, involuntary, spasmodic movement of a group of muscles, often without a demonstrable external stimulus
        TID: acronym for L. Ter In Di’e, three times a day
        tilted dental implant nonstand: syn, ANGULATED DENTAL IMPLANT
        tinfoil ∖tĭn΄foil΄∖ n (15c): 1. paper thin metal sheeting usually of a tin-lead alloy or aluminum (a misnomer); 2. a base-metal foil used as a separating material between the cast and denture base material during flasking and polymerizing
        tinfoil substitute: sodium alginate with ammonia, glycerine in a soluble form that will react with the calcium in the gypsum cast to form calcium alginate, the insoluble salt of alginic acid; the insoluble salt acts as a barrier between the polymerizing resin and the moisture and salts of the gypsum; orig, George R. Dickson and Irl C. Schooner, inventors, U.S.A., 1942; comp, SEPARATING MEDIUM
        tinners’ joint: 1. an overlapping folded joint between two abutting sheets of metal of uneven length in which the longer portion is first folded over the shorter after which the combined layers are folded over once more resulting in a quadruple layer of material; originally used by tinsmiths to join sheets of tin; 2. in dentistry, it is used to secure a thin platinum matrix that is applied to a die of a prepared tooth to support dental porcelain during firing
        tinnitus ∖tĭn΄ĭtus∖ n (1843): a noise in the ears, often described as ringing or roaring
        tinted denture base ∖tĭnt΄ĭd dĕn΄chur bās∖: syn, CHARACTERIZED DENTURE BASE
        tissue ∖tĭsh΄ōō∖ n (1771): 1. the various cellular combinations that make up the body; 2. an aggregation of phenotypically similar cells united in the performance of a particular function; comp, HYPERPLASTIC TISSUE
        tissue-bearing area: syn, DENTURE FOUNDATION AREA
        tissue conditioner: 1. a resilient denture liner resin placed into a removable prosthesis for a short duration to allow time for tissue healing; 2. used in functional removable relining procedures to evaluate denture function and patient acceptance prior to laboratory reline processing
        tissue conditioning: a procedure in prosthodontics usually performed by relining a removable complete denture, removable partial denture, or a maxillofacial prosthesis with a resilient resin and allowing a short duration of time for the patient’s soft tissue to heal
        tissue displaceability ∖tĭsh΄ōō dĭs-plās΄a-bĭl΄ĭ-tē∖: 1. the quality of oral tissues that permits them to be placed in other than a relaxed position; 2. the degree to which tissues permit displacement
        tissue displacement ∖tĭsh΄ōō dĭs-plās΄mant∖: the change in the form or position of tissues as a result of pressure; frequently used to describe gingival tissue placement prior to impression making.
        tissue engineering: a field of research for the growth of tissues or organs used as therapeutic placement in the human body
        tissue-integrated prosthesis: any dental implant-supported fixed complete or partial denture supported by osseointegrated dental implants; orig, P-I. Branemark, physician/professor/surgeon, Sweden, 1929-2014; syn, IMPLANT-SUPPORTED CROWN, IMPLANT-SUPPORTED DENTURE, IMPLANT-SUPPORTED PROSTHESIS
        tissue integration ∖tĭsh΄ōō ĭn΄tĭ-grā΄shun∖: as clinically observed, the apparent direct and healthy attachment of living tissue to an alloplastic material, i.e., a dental implant; syn, OSSEOINTEGRATION
        tissue molding: syn, BORDER MOLDING
        tissue reaction ∖tĭsh΄ōō rē-ăk΄shun∖: the response of tissues to a condition
        tissue registration ∖tĭsh΄ōō rĕj΄ĭ-strā΄shun∖ obs 1. the accurate registration of the shape of tissues under any condition by means of a suitable material (GPT-1); 2. an impression (GPT-1)
        tissue trimming: syn, BORDER MOLDING
        titanium: abbr, Ti; the 22nd element in the periodic table; in dentistry, titanium is used for non-cast prosthodontic restorations and endosseous dental implants; it is a biocompatible surface, promoting cell growth on the titanium oxide surface; cell activity on the surface is dependent on cell type, sterilization protocol, surface cleaning, and surface topography; physical property advantages include high yield strength and noncorrosiveness
        TMD: acronym for TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS
        tomogram ∖tŏm΄a-grăm∖ n (1940): a radiograph made by using a tomograph
        tomograph ∖tŏm΄a-grăf∖ n: a radiograph produced from a machine that has the source of radiation moving in one direction and the film moving in the opposite direction
        tomography ∖tō-mŏg΄ra-fē∖ n: a general term for a technique that provides a distinct image of any selected plane through the body, while the images of structures that lie above and below that plane are blurred; also, the term body-section radiography has been applied to the procedure, although the several ways of accomplishing it have been given distinguishing names
        tongue habit ∖tŭng hăb΄ĭt∖: conscious or unconscious movements of the tongue that are not related to purposeful functions; such habits may produce malocclusion or injuries to tissues of the tongue or the attachment apparatus of the teeth
        tongue thrusting ∖tŭng thrŭst-ĭng∖: the infantile pattern of suckle-swallow in which the tongue is placed between the incisor teeth or alveolar ridges during the initial stages of deglutition, resulting sometimes in an anterior open occlusion, deformation of the jaws, and/or abnormal function
        tooth ∖tōōth∖ n (bef. 12c): any hard calcified structure in the alveolar processes of the maxillae or mandible used for the mastication of food; teeth ∖tēth∖ pl; comp, ANATOMIC TOOTH, CUSPLESS TOOTH, METAL INSERT TOOTH, NONANATOMIC TOOTH, REVERSE ARTICULATION TOOTH, TUBE TOOTH, ZERO-DEGREE TOOTH
        tooth arrangement ∖tōōth a-rănj΄mant∖: 1. the placement of teeth on a denture with definite objectives in mind; 2. the placement of teeth on trial bases; syn, ANTERIOR TOOTH ARRANGEMENT, TOOTH PLACEMENT, WAX TRIAL DENTURE, WAX TRY-IN, WAXING
        tooth bleaching: syn, TOOTH WHITENING
        tooth borne: syn, TOOTH SUPPORTED
        tooth color selection ∖tōōth kŭl΄ar sĭ-lĕk΄shun∖: the determination of the color and other attributes of appearance of an artificial tooth or set of teeth for a given individual; syn, SHADE SELECTION
        tooth form ∖tōōth form∖: the characteristics of the curves, lines, angles, and contours of various teeth that permit their identification and differentiation; comp, ANTERIOR TOOTH FORM, POSTERIOR TOOTH FORM
        tooth placement: syn, ANTERIOR TOOTH ARRANGEMENT, TOOTH ARRANGEMENT, TRIAL DENTURE, TRIAL PLACEMENT, WAX TRY-IN, WAXING
        tooth preparation: 1. the process of removal of diseased and/or healthy enamel and dentin and cementum to shape a tooth to receive a restoration; 2. the resulting prepared tooth
        tooth selection ∖tōōth sĭ-lĕk΄shun∖: the selection of a tooth or teeth of a shape, size, and color to harmonize with the individual characteristics of a patient; comp, DENTOGENICS
        tooth size discrepancy ∖tōōth sīz dĭ-skrĕp΄an-sē∖: abnormally sized teeth or groups of teeth
        tooth-supported ∖tōōth sa-pôr΄tĭd∖: a term used to describe a dental prosthesis or part of a prosthesis that depends entirely on the natural teeth for support
        tooth-supported base ∖tōōth-sa-pôr΄tĭd bās∖: a removable dental prosthesis base that restores an edentulous region that has abutment teeth at each end for support. The tissue that it covers is not used for primary support
        tooth-supported denture: syn, OVERDENTURE
        tooth whitening: the application of an agent (a form of carbamide peroxide) or abrasive to the surface of the tooth for beautifying (stain removal), enhancing esthetics, or altering the appearance; comp, TOOTH BLEACHING
        torque ∖tôrk∖ n (ca. 1884): a twisting or rotary force; the movement of a system of forces producing rotation
        torus ∖tôr΄us∖ n (1563): 1. a smooth rounded anatomical protuberance; 2. in dentistry, a bony prominence sometimes seen on the lingual surface of the mandible and the midline of the hard palate; tori ∖tôr΄ī, tōr΄ī∖ pl
        total elasticity of muscle ∖tōt΄l∖ obs: the combined effect of physical and physiologic elasticity of muscle (GPT-4)
        total occlusal convergence: the total angle of convergence, measured in degrees as viewed in a given plane, formed by opposing axial walls when a tooth or machined surfaces of a metal or ceramic material is prepared for a fixed dental prosthesis; comp, CONVERGENCE ANGLE, TAPER
        toughness ∖tŭf΄nĕs∖ n: the ability of a material to withstand stresses and strains without breaking; resistance to fracture
        toxic dose ∖tŏk΄sĭk∖: the amount of a drug that causes untoward symptoms in most persons
        toxicity ∖tŏk-sĭs΄ĭ-tē∖ n: the adverse reactions (dose-response-time relationships) of tissues to selected foreign substances resulting in unacceptable in vivo interactions; the toxicity can be at the local or systemic level depending on the amount, rate of release, and specific type of substance available to the tissues
        tracer n (ca. 1552): syn, TRACING DEVICE
        tracing ∖trā΄sĭng∖ n (15c): 1. a line or lines scribed by a pointed instrument; 2. a traced copy of a drawing, photograph, radiograph, or similar entity; comp, TRACING DEVICE
        tracing device ∖trā΄sĭng dĭ΄vīs∖: a device that provides a central point of bearing, or support, between maxillary and mandibular occlusion rims or dentures, it consists of a contacting point that is attached to one occlusion rim or denture and a plate attached to the opposing occlusion rim or denture that provides the surface on which the bearing point rests or moves; Editorial note for usage: extraoral tracer (ing), intraoral tracer (ing), and tracing device are the primary terms; comp, ARROW POINT TRACER, CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE, CEPHALOMETRIC TRACER, COBLE BALANCER, EXTRAORAL TRACER, GOTHIC ARCH TRACER, INTRAORAL TRACING MANDIBULAR TRACER, NEEDLE POINT TRACING, PANTOGRAPHIC TRACING, STYLUS TRACING
        transcranial oblique radiograph ∖trăns-krā΄nē-al ō-blēk΄, a-blēk΄ rā΄dē-ō-grăf΄∖: a flat radiographic projection in which the central beam travels across the cranium and through the temporomandibular joint on the opposite side showing an oblique lateral view of the condyle
        transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation ∖trăns-kyōō-tā΄nē-us ĭ-lĕk΄trĭ-kal nōōr΄al stĭm΄yu-lā΄shun∖: acronym is TENS; application of low-voltage electrical stimulation through the skin to nerves to interfere with the sensation of pain in the brain and increase blood flow to the region
        transepithelial ∖trăns-ĕp΄a-thē΄lē-al∖ adj: penetrating or passing through the epithelium, as in a dental implant
        transepithelial abutment ∖trăns-ĕp΄a-thē΄lē-al a-bŭt΄mant∖ slang: syn, DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT
        transfer coping ∖trăns-fûr΄, trăns΄fur kō΄pĭng∖: a metallic, acrylic resin, or other covering or cap used to position a die in an impression; comp, IMPLANT TRANSFER COPING
        transit dose ∖trăn΄sĭt, -zĭt dōs∖: a measure of the primary radiation transmitted through the patient and measured at a point on the central ray at some point beyond the patient
        transitional denture∖trăn-zĭsh΄an-al dĕn΄chur∖: a removable partial denture serving as an interim prosthesis to which artificial teeth will be added as natural teeth are lost and that will be replaced after post-extraction tissue changes have occurred; a removable transitional denture may become an interim complete removable prosthesis when all of the natural teeth in the dental arch have been extracted (or used as overdenture abutments); syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        transitional prosthesis: syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        translating condyle: syn, NONWORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        translation ∖trăn-zĭsh΄an, -sĭsh΄-∖ n (14c): that motion of a rigid body in which a straight line passing through any two points always remains parallel to its initial position; the motion may be described as a sliding or gliding motion
        translatory movement ∖trăns-lă΄tōr-ē∖ obs: the motion of a body at any instant when all points within the body are moving at the same velocity and in the same direction (GPT-1); syn, TRANSLATION
        translucency ∖trăns΄lōō΄san-sē∖ n (1611): having the appearance between complete opacity and complete transparency; partially opaque
        translucency parameters: optical coefficient measurements of translucent dental materials taking into account the edge effect
        transmucosal ∖trăns-myōō-kō΄sal∖ adj: passing through the gingiva or oral mucosa
        transosteal ∖trăns-ŏs΄tē-al∖ adj: the penetration of both the internal and external cortical plates of a bone
        transosteal dental implant ∖trăns΄ŏs-tē-al dĕn΄tl ĭm-plănt΄∖: 1. a dental implant that penetrates both cortical plates and passes through the full-thickness of the alveolar and basal bone; 2. a dental implant composed of a metal plate with retentive pins to hold it against the inferior border of the mandible that supports transosteal pins that penetrate through the full thickness of the mandible and pass into the mouth in the parasymphyseal region; syn, staple bone implant, mandibular staple implant, transmandibular implant
        transverse axis: syn, TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS
        transverse facial fracture: syn, LE FORTE III FRACTURE, MIDFACIAL FRACTURE
        transverse horizontal axis ∖trăns-vûrs΄, trănz-, trăns΄vûrs΄, trănz΄-∖: an imaginary line around which the mandible may rotate within the sagittal plane
        transversion ∖trăns-vûr΄shun∖ n: displacement of a tooth from its usual position or proper numerical position in the jaw
        trauma ∖trou΄ma, trô΄-∖ n (1693): an injury or wound, whether physical or psychic; traumata ∖trou΄ma-ta∖ pl or traumas ∖trou΄mas∖ pl; traumatic ∖trou΄măt-ĭk∖ adj; traumatically ∖trou΄măt-ĭ-kă-lē∖ adv
        trauma from occlusion: syn, OCCLUSAL TRAUMA
        traumatic occlusion: syn, OCCLUSAL TRAUMA
        traumatogenic ∖trou΄ma-ta-jĕn΄ĭk∖ adj: capable of producing a wound or injury
        traumatogenic occlusion ∖trou΄ma-ta-jĕn΄ĭk a-klōō΄zhun∖ obs: an occluding of the teeth that is capable of producing injury to oral structures (GPT-4)
        treatment denture ∖trēt΄mant dĕn΄chur∖: 1. a removable denture used for the purpose of treating or conditioning the tissues that are called on to support and retain it; 2. a denture that is placed in preparation for future therapy; syn, INTERIM PROSTHESIS
        treatment plan ∖trēt-mant plăn∖: the sequence of procedures planned for the treatment of a patient after diagnosis; syn, DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT PLANNING
        treatment position: a treatment position of maximal intercuspal position (MIP) if it differs from the preoperative position
        trephine n: a hollow rotary instrument (resembling a hole saw) used to make circular cuts. Used in dentistry to create a trough around pins or posts in a natural tooth prior to their removal or for removal of a dental implant from bone
        trial base ∖trī΄al bās∖: an interim material or device representing the base of a removable denture or maxillofacial prosthesis; used for making maxillomandibular relationship records and for the waxing of the trial denture; comp, DEFINITIVE DENTURE BASE
        trial denture ∖trī΄al dĕn΄chur∖: a preliminary arrangement of artificial teeth that has been prepared for placement into the patient’s mouth to evaluate esthetics, phonetics, and maxillomandibular relationships; comp, DEFINITIVE DENTURE BASE
        trial flask closure ∖trī΄al flăsk klō΄zhar∖: any preliminary closure made for the purpose of eliminating excess material and ensuring that the mold is completely filled
        trial placement ∖trī΄al plās΄mant∖: the process of placing a trial denture in the patient’s mouth for evaluation; syn, TRIAL DENTURE, WAX TRY-IN
        tribochemical silica airborne-particle abrasion: a method to activate a metal surface with airborne-particle abrasion to form a resin bonding surface; syn, cold silicatization
        tribology: the science of surface interactions that result in abrasion and wear
        tricalcium phosphate ∖trī-kăl΄sē-um fŏs΄fāt∖: an inorganic particulate or solid form of relatively biodegradable ceramic material that is used as a scaffold for bone regeneration; it may be used as a matrix for new bone growth
        trichromatic system ∖trī-krō-măt΄ĭk sĭs΄tam∖: a system for specifying color stimuli in terms of the tristimulus value based on matching colors by additive mixtures of three primary colored lights
        trichromatism ∖trī-krō΄ma-tĭz΄um∖ n: a type of vision in which the colors seen require, in general, three independently adjustable primaries (such as red, green, and blue) for their duplication by mixture; trichromatism may be either anomalous trichromatism or normal vision
        trigger area: syn, TRIGGER POINT
        trigger point ∖trĭg΄ur point∖: a focus of hyperirritability in tissue that when palpated, is locally tender and gives rise to heterotopic pain
        trigger spot: syn, TRIGGER POINT
        trigger zone: syn, TRIGGER POINT
        trigone: syn, GINGIVAL TRIGONE, GINGIVAL ZENITH
        tripod markings ∖trĭg΄ur mär΄kĭng∖: those marks or lines drawn on a cast in a single plane perpendicular to the survey rod to assist with repositioning the cast on a dental surveyor in a previously defined orientation; comp, SURVEY, SURVEYED DIAGNOSTIC CAST FOR REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, SURVEYED DEFINITIVE CAST FOR REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, tripodal markings
        tripodization ∖trĭp΄a-dĭ-zā΄shun∖ n: an occlusal scheme characterized by a cusp to fossa relationship in which there are three points of contact about the cusp and opposing fossa with no contact on the cusp tip
        trismus n (ca. 1693): syn, MANDIBULAR TRISMUS
        trismus appliance ∖trĭz΄mus a-plī΄ans∖ n, slang: comp, DYNAMIC BITE OPENER, OCCLUSAL DEVICE
        tristimulus value ∖trī-stĭm΄ya-lus văl΄yōō∖: (R, G, B: X, Y, Z, etc.) amounts of the three reference color stimuli, in a given trichromatic system, required to match the color of the stimulus considered
        tritanopia ∖trī-tă΄nō-pē΄a∖ n: form of dichromatism in which reddish blue and greenish yellow stimuli are confused; a common result of retinal disease but may be inherited; syn, blue blindness, tritanope
        try-in: syn, TRIAL PLACEMENT
        tube impression ∖tōōb, tyōōb ĭm-prĕsh΄an∖: 1. a cylinder used as a tray to confine and direct impression material to make an impression of a single tooth; 2. the impression resulting from this procedure; syn, copper-band impression
        tube teeth ∖tōōb tēth∖: artificial teeth with an internal, vertical, cylindrical aperture extending from the center of the base upward into the body of the tooth, into which a pin may be placed or cast for the attachment of the tooth to a fixed or removable denture base
        tubercule ∖tōō-bûr΄kyōōl∖ n (1578): a small bony prominence or excrescence; a nodule
        tuberosity n (ca. 1611): -ties pl; syn, MAXILLARY TUBEROSITY
        tunnel dissection ∖tŭn΄ul∖: a dissection of the periosteum from bone through a small incision, in a tunnel-like fashion
        turgid ∖tûr΄jĭd∖ adj (1620): being on a state of distention; swollen
        typodont ∖tī΄pō-dĕnt∖: a replica of the natural dentition and alveolar mucosa, set to average condylar motions, used in training students in dental care; syn, typodent, dentoform

        U

        UCLA abutment nonstand: a colloquial term used to describe a dental abutment that is attached directly to the implant body by means of a screw; syn, CUSTOM DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT, DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT
        UCLA crown: a dental crown that is attached directly to the implant body by means of a screw without an intervening abutment
        ultimate strength ∖ŭl΄ta-mĭt∖: the greatest stress that may be induced in a material at the point of rupture; syn, ultimate tensile strength
        ultraviolet ∖ŭl΄tra-vī΄a-lĭt∖: radiant energy of wavelengths shorter than extreme violet and lying beyond the ordinarily visible spectrum; usually assigned to wavelengths shorter than 380 nm
        1undercut ∖ŭn΄dur-kŭt∖ n (1859): 1. the portion of the surface of an object that is below the height of contour in relationship to the path of placement; 2. the contour of a cross-sectional portion of a residual ridge or dental arch that prevents the insertion of a dental prosthesis; 3. any irregularity in the wall of a prepared tooth that prevents the withdrawal or seating of a wax pattern or indirect restoration
        2undercut ∖ŭn΄dur-kŭt∖ vb (ca. 1598): to create areas that provide mechanical retention for dental materials placement
        uniform color space ∖yōō΄na-fôrm kŭl΄ar spās∖: color space in which equal distances are intended to represent threshold or above threshold perceived color differences of equal size
        unilateral ∖yōō΄na-lăt΄ur-al∖ adj (1802): relating to one side; one-sided
        unilateral partial denture: a removable partial denture that restores lost or missing teeth on only one side of the arch and without a cross-arch major connector; Editorial note for usage: this term is incorrectly used for a Kennedy class II or III removable partial denture that has a cross-arch major connector; syn, NESBIT PROSTHESIS
        unilateral subperiosteal implant ∖yōō΄na-lăt-ur-al sŭb-pĕr΄ē-ŏs΄tē-al ĭm-plănt΄∖: an eposteal dental implant that provides abutments for support of a removable or fixed partial denture in a partially edentulous arch
        upper impression slang: syn, MAXILLARY IMPRESSION
        upright ∖ŭp΄rīt∖ adj: the movement of a tooth into an erect or normal position
        uranoschisis n (1927): congenital hard palate cleft; comp, PALATAL CLEFT
        uranostaphyloschisis /yur a nō stāf a lǒsk ĭsĭs/ n: cleft of the hard and soft palate; comp, PALATAL CLEFT

        V

        vacuum casting ∖väk΄yōō-um kăst΄ĭng∖: the casting of a material (i.e., metal, plastic) in the presence of a partial vacuum
        vacuum investing ∖väk΄yōō-um ĭn-vĕst΄ĭng∖: the process of investing a pattern within a partial vacuum
        vacuum mixing ∖väk΄yōō-um mĭks΄ĭng∖: a method of mixing a material, such as dental stone or casting investment, below atmospheric pressure
        vacuum thermomold: a polymeric material formed by vacuum thermomolding; a polymer matrix; syn, MATRIX, vacuum mold
        vacuum thermomolding: primary term for making a vacuum thermomold; heat transfer to a sheet of vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer (PVAc-PE) material; softened PVAc-PE can be adapted to the surface of a refractory cast by using vacuum, air, or mechanical pressure (sponge or putty)
        value ∖văl΄yōō∖ n (14c): the quality by which a light color is distinguished from a dark color, the dimension of a color that denotes relative blackness or whiteness (grayness, brightness); value is the only dimension of color that may exist alone; comp, MUNSELL VALUE
        Munsell AH. A color notation. Baltimore, MD: Munsell Color Co.; 1975:14-17
        van der Waals bond (ca. 1926): eponym for a bond that involves weak interatomic attractions such as variation in physical mass or location of electrical charge; e.g., molecular polarization, electrical dipoles, and dispersion effects—hydrogen bridges; orig, Johannes D. van der Waals, physicist, Netherlands; syn, SECONDARY BONDS
        vascular pain ∖văs΄kya-lur pān∖: a type of deep somatic pain of visceral origin that emanates from the afferent nerves that innervate blood vessels
        velopharyngeal closure: syn, PALATOPHARYNGEAL CLOSURE
        velopharyngeal deficiencies: comp, PALATAL INCOMPETENCE, PALATAL INSUFFICIENCY
        velum ∖vĕl΄um∖ n (1771): a covering; a general term for a veil-like structure; comp, SOFT PALATE
        veneer ∖va-nîr΄∖ n (1702): 1. a thin sheet of material usually used as a finish; 2. a protective or ornamental facing; 3. a superficial or attractive display in multiple layers, frequently termed a laminate veneer
        1vent n: 1. a small auxiliary sprue to aid and improve casting procedures; 2. a small perforation placed in a cast restoration to facilitate complete cementation by minimizing hydraulic pressure
        2vent vb: 1. to place an auxiliary sprue; 2. to place a perforation; venting p.pr
        verification cast substand : syn, IMPLANT INDEX CAST
        vertical axis: syn, VERTICAL AXIS OF THE MANDIBLE
        vertical axis of the mandible ∖vûr΄tĭ-kul ăk΄sĭs ŭv tha măn΄dĭ-bal∖: an imaginary line around which the mandible may rotate through the horizontal plane
        vertical dimension ∖vûr΄tĭ-kal dĭ-mĕn΄shun∖: the distance between two selected anatomic or marked points (usually one on the tip of the nose and the other on the chin), one on a fixed and one on a movable member; comp, OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION, REST VERTICAL DIMENSION, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF REST, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF OCCLUSION, VERTICAL DIMENSION OF SPEECH
        vertical dimension decrease ∖vûr΄tĭ-kal dĭ-mĕn΄shun dĭ-krēs∖: decreasing the vertical distance between the mandible and the maxillae by modifications of teeth, the positions of teeth or occlusion rims, or through alveolar or residual ridge resorption (GPT-1); comp, OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION
        vertical dimension increase ∖vûr΄tĭ-kal dĭ-mĕn΄shun∖: increasing the vertical distance between the mandible and the maxillae by modifications of teeth, the positions of teeth, or occlusion rims (GPT-1); comp, OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION
        vertical dimension of occlusion: the distance between two selected anatomic or marked points (usually one on the tip of the nose and the other on the chin) when in maximal intercuspal position; syn, OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION
        vertical dimension of rest: syn, PHYSIOLOGIC REST POSITION, REST VERTICAL DIMENSION
        vertical dimension of speech ∖vûr΄tĭ-kal dĭ-mĕn΄shun ŭv spēch∖: that distance measured between two selected points when the occluding members are in their closest proximity during speech
        vertical opening: syn, VERTICAL DIMENSION
        vertical overlap ∖vûr΄tĭ-kal ō΄var-lăp∖: 1. the distance teeth lap over their antagonists as measured vertically; especially the distance the maxillary incisal edges extend below those of the mandibular teeth; it may also be used to describe the vertical relations of opposing cusps; 2. the vertical relationship of the incisal edges of the maxillary incisors to the mandibular incisors when the teeth are in maximal intercuspal position
        verticentric ∖vûr΄tē-sĕn΄trĭk∖ n: a record used in removable complete denture fabrication; it involves the simultaneous recording of the vertical dimension of occlusion with the jaws in centric relation; orig, Earl Pound, prosthodontist, U.S.A., 1901-1986
        vestibule ∖vĕs΄ta-byōōl∖ n (ca. 1728): 1. any of various bony cavities, especially when serving as or resembling an entrance to another; 2. the portion of the oral cavity that is bounded on the medial side by the teeth, gingiva, and alveolar ridge or the residual ridge, and on the lateral side by the lips and cheeks; syn, BUCCAL VESTIBULE, LABIAL VESTIBULE
        vestibuloplasty ∖vĕ-stĭb΄ū-lō-plăs-tē∖ n: a surgical procedure designed to increase the effective residual ridge height by lowering muscles attaching to the buccal, labial, and lingual aspects of the jaws
        vibrating line ∖vī΄brā-tĭng līn∖: an imaginary line across the posterior part of the soft palate marking the division between the movable and immovable tissues; this line can be identified when the movable tissues are functioning
        Vickers hardness number: acronym is VHN; a measure of hardness obtained with a diamond pyramidal indenter with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees; VHN is proportional to the ratio of the applied load to the area of the indentation; orig, by engineers at Vickers, Ltd. in the United Kingdom, 1920s
        videofluoroscopy ∖vĭd΄ē-ō΄flōō΄a-rŏs΄ka-pē, flōō-rŏs΄-∖ n: dynamic x-rays recorded on videotape
        viewing conditions ∖vyōō΄ĭng kun-dĭsh΄unz∖: various conditions under which visual observation is made including the size of the stimulus, characteristics of the surrounding area, nature of the illuminant, angle of viewing, area of the retina, etc.
        virtual reality modeling language (1995): acronym is VRML; the first web-based 3D format
        virtual surgical planning: pre-surgical manipulation of 3D images of an anatomic site for the purpose of measuring outcomes and to design devices, grafts, and techniques; comp, SPACE ANALYSIS
        visceral pain ∖vĭs΄ur-al pān∖: deep somatic pain originating in visceral structures, such as mucosal linings, walls of hollow viscera, parenchyma of organs, glands, dental pulps, and vascular structures
        visible-light polymerization: syn, LIGHT-ACTIVATED POLYMERIZATION, PHOTOINITIATOR, POLYMERIZATION
        visible spectrum ∖vĭz΄a-bal spĕk΄trum∖: the section of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye; it ranges from 380 nm to 760 nm
        visual adaptation ∖vĭzh΄ōō-al ăd΄äp-tā΄shun∖: adjustive change in visual sensitivity as a result of continued visual stimulation or lack of stimulation; three recognized types are (1) scotopic or dark adaptation, (2) photopic or light adaptation, and (3) chromatic or color adaptation
        visual photometry ∖vĭzh΄ōō-al fō-tŏm΄ĭ-trē∖: the measurement of luminous radiation based on its effect on the visual receptors
        vitrification n: in ceramics, the progressive fusing of porcelain at high temperatures into an amorphous, more glassy material; comp; SINTER
        voxel: contr of Volume and piXEL; a volumetric digital image in a 3D grid
        VRML: acronym for VIRTUAL REALITY MODELING LANGUAGE
        vulcanite ∖vŭl΄ka-nīt∖ n: an obsolete denture base material that is a combination of caoutchouc and sulfur; these harden in the presence of suitable heat and application of pressure
        vulcanize ∖vŭl΄ka-nīz΄∖ vb (1846): to produce flexible or hard rubber, as desired, by subjecting caoutchouc, in the presence of sulfur, to heat and high steam pressure in a processing unit, termed a vulcanizer, made for that purpose; -nized; -nizing vt

        W

        warp ∖wôrp∖ vt (13c): torsional change of shape or outline; to turn or twist out of shape
        wash impression slang: syn, FINAL IMPRESSION
        wave length ∖wāv lĕngkth∖: the distance at any instant between two adjacent crests (or identical phases) of two series of waves that are advancing through a uniform medium; the wavelength varies inversely with the vibration rate or number of waves passing any given point per unit period of time
        wax ∖wăks∖ n (bef. 12c): one of several esters of fatty acids with higher alcohols, usually monohydric alcohols; dental waxes are combinations of various types of waxes compounded to provide desired physical properties; comp, BASEPLATE WAX, BOXING WAX, CASTING WAX, DENTAL IMPRESSION WAX, MODELING WAX
        wax addition technique: the process used to develop a wax pattern through organized sequential addition of wax to shape the individual components of the desired anatomic form
        wax elimination ∖wăks ĭ-lĭm΄a-nā΄shun∖: the removal of wax from a mold, usually by heat
        wax expansion ∖wăks ĭk-spăn΄shun∖: a method of expanding a wax pattern to compensate for the shrinkage of gold during the casting process
        wax model denture: syn, TRIAL DENTURE
        wax pattern ∖wăks păt΄urn∖: a wax form that is the positive likeness of an object to be fabricated
        wax trial denture: syn, TRIAL DENTURE; comp, DIAGNOSTIC DENTURE WAX-UP
        wax try-in: the placement of a wax trial denture or diagnostic waxing in the mouth for the purpose of evaluating aesthetics and phonetics; syn, TOOTH ARRANGEMENT, TRIAL DENTURE, TRIAL PLACEMENT
        wax-up n: syn, DIAGNOSTIC WAXING
        waxing ∖wăks΄ĭng∖ vb: the contouring of a wax pattern or the wax base of a trial denture into the desired form (GPT-1); comp, DIAGNOSTIC DENTURE WAX-UP, DIAGNOSTIC WAXING, TOOTH ARRANGEMENT, TRIAL DENTURE
        wear facet ∖wâr făs΄ĭt∖: any wear line or plane on a tooth surface caused by attrition; syn, OCCLUSAL FACET
        Weber-Fergusson incision: eponym for a facial incision used in exposing the maxillary bone in a maxillectomy procedure; orig, Sir E. S. Fergusson, surgeon, Scotland, United Kingdom, dates vary: 1808-1877 or 1871-1944
        Zange J. Operationen im Bereich der nase und ibver nebenholen. In: Theil R, ed. Opthalmologische, Operationslehre. Leipzig: Vebthieme; 1950
        Weibull modulus: eponym for a parameter in the distribution formula relating the tensile strength of brittle materials; orig, Waloddi Weibull, engineer/mathematician, Sweden, 1939
        1weld ∖wĕld∖ n (1831): a welded joint; the state or condition of being welded
        2weld ∖wĕld∖ vb: to unite or fuse two pieces by hammering, compression, or by rendering soft by heat with the addition of a fusible material
        wettability: syn, CONTACT ANGLE
        white esthetic score: a visual analog scale applied to esthetics of dental implant-supported crowns; parameters include tooth form, outline/volume, color (hue/value), surface texture, translucency/characterization; score values range is 0 (disapprove), 1, or 2 (approve); orig, Urs Belzer prosthodontist, Switzerland, 2009
        white light scanner: a 3D digital scanner of objects that uses coherence interferometry; peak wavelength fringes interpret surface height on the interferogram; comp, SCANNER
        whitening: syn, TOOTH WHITENING
        whitening gel carrier: a device that covers the teeth in either dental arch and is used to apply tooth whitening agent in close proximity to tooth enamel
        whitening tray: syn, WHITENING GEL CARRIER
        whiting ∖hwī΄tĭng, wī΄-∖ n: pure white chalk (calcium carbonate) that has been ground and washed; used for polishing dental materials
        wire splint ∖wīr splĭnt∖: a device used to stabilize teeth in the maxillae or mandible loosened by an accident or by a compromised periodontium; a device to reduce and stabilize maxillary or mandibular fractures by application to both arches and connection with intermaxillary wires or elastic bands
        Wolff’s Law: eponym for the principle that a bone, either normal or abnormal, will develop the structure most suited to resist those forces acting on it; orig, Julius Wolff, anatomist, Germany, 1836-1902
        work ∖work∖ n (bef. 12c): the product of a force acting on a body and the distance through which the point of application of the force moves
        work authorization: a signed written order provided by the dentist to the dental laboratory detailing the work to be performed; a component of the patient’s dental record specifying the design and materials to be used; syn, LABORATORY WORK AUTHORIZATION
        working articulation ∖wûr΄kĭng ăr-tĭk΄ya-lā΄shun∖: the occlusal contacts of teeth on the side toward which the mandible is moved
        working bite slang: syn, WORKING ARTICULATION
        working bite relation slang: syn, WORKING ARTICULATION
        working cast nonstand: syn, DEFINITIVE CAST, FINAL CAST, MASTER CAST
        working condyle: syn, WORKING-SIDE CONDYLE
        working contacts ∖wûr΄kĭng kŏn΄tăkts∖ obs: contacts of teeth made on the side of the occlusion toward which the mandible has been moved (GPT-1); syn, WORKING-SIDE CONTACTS
        working model nonstand: syn, CAST
        working occlusal surface ∖wûr΄kĭng a-klōō΄zal sûr΄făs∖ obs: the surface or surfaces of teeth on which mastication can occur (GPT-1)
        working occlusion ∖wûr΄kĭng a-klōō΄zhun∖ obs: the occlusal contacts of teeth on the side to which the mandible is moved (GPT-1)
        working-side ∖wûr΄kĭng sīd∖: the side toward which the mandible moves in a lateral excursion; syn, LATEROTRUSION
        working-side condyle ∖wûr΄kĭng sīd kŏn΄dīl∖: the condyle on the laterotrusive side
        working-side condylar path ∖wûr΄kĭng sīd kŏn΄dīl păth∖: the path the condyle travels on the working-side when the mandible moves in laterotrusion
        working-side contacts ∖wûr΄kĭng sīd kŏn΄tăkts∖: contact of teeth made on the side of the articulation toward which the mandible is moved during working movements
        wrought ∖rôt∖ adj (13c): worked into shape; formed, hammered
        wrought wire clasp: a suprabulge or infrabulge retainer for a removable partial denture or maxillofacial prosthesis that has a wrought wire retentive clasp with reciprocating arm or plate; it has comparatively more flexibility and adjustability than a cast clasp; comp, AKERS CLASP, COMBINATION CLASP

        X

        1x-ray ∖ĕks΄rā∖ vt (1896): the process of exposing objects to roentgen rays and projecting their shadow on sensitized surfaces
        2x-ray ∖ĕks΄rā∖ n (1900): syn, ROENTGEN RAY
        x-ray picture: syn, ROENTGENOGRAM
        xenogenic graft ∖zĕn΄a-jĕn΄ĭk∖: a graft from one species to another species; syn, heterologous graft
        xerostomia ∖zîr΄a-stō΄mē-a∖ n: dryness of the mouth from lack of normal secretions

        Y

        yield strength ∖yēld strĕngkth∖: the strength at which a small amount of permanent (plastic) strain occurs, usually 0.1% or 0.2%, and most frequently measured in MPa or psi
        yttria-stabilized zirconia: acronym is Y-TZP; a dopant-stabilized zirconia ceramic; syn, ZIRCONIA
        Young’s modulus: eponym for the constant of proportionality expressed in the stress–strain plot as the slope in the elastic region where elastic recovery occurs upon release of the stress inducing the strain; usually given the symbol E. A higher modulus (GPa, psi) denotes a greater stiffness or material rigidity; orig, Thomas Young, physician/physicist, United Kingdom, 1773-1829; syn, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
        Y-TZP ceramics: acronym for yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics

        Z

        zenith: syn, GINGIVAL ZENITH, GINGIVAL TRIGONE
        zero-degree teeth ∖zĭr΄ō-dĭ-grē΄, zē΄rō΄- tēth∖: posterior denture teeth having 0-degree cuspal angles in relation to the plane established by the horizontal occlusal surface of the tooth; syn, zero-degree nonanatomic teeth, NONANATOMIC TEETH
        zinc oxide eugenol cement: a cement or luting agent resulting from mixing zinc oxide with eugenol (oil of cloves), typically dispensed in the form of a powder and liquid or sometimes two pastes. ANSI/ADA Type I or Type II zinc oxide and eugenol cements are respectively designated for provisional or permanent cementation of restorations fabricated outside of the mouth; syn, EBA CEMENT
        zinc phosphate cement: a cement or luting agent resulting from mixing zinc oxide (powder component) with phosphoric acid, water, aluminum phosphate, and zinc phosphate (liquid component); magnesium oxide is often used as the principal modifier
        zinc polycarboxylate cement: a cement or luting agent resulting from mixing zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, and sometimes stannous oxide (powder component) with an aqueous solution of polyacrylic acid and copolymers
        zirconia: abbr, ZrO2; an oxide of zirconium; a phase of monoclinic (room temperature), tetragonal (above 1170° C), and cubic (above 2370° C); this transformation between phases is often stabilized with addition of a small amount of yttria; cold-pressed (CP) zirconia requires sintering after milling and is not as dimensionally stable as hot isostatically pressed (HIP) zirconia, which doesn’t need sintering and is more dimensionally stable; comp, DOPANT, PHASE TRANSFORMATION TOUGHENING
        zirconia ceramic post: a ceramic post used in the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, especially when a metal post may compromise esthetics; typically used with composite resin or pressed-on-ceramics to form the core
        zirconia restoration: a prosthesis fabricated from a zirconia framework; the types of restorations include monolithic zirconia or porcelain-veneered zirconia (a zirconia framework enhanced with veneering porcelain or pressed-on-ceramics); comp, PORCELAIN-FUSED-TO-ZIRCONIA, PRESSED-ON-ZIRCONIA CERAMICS
        zirconium: abbr, Zr; a metal element with atomic number 40
        zygoma ∖zĭ-gō΄ma∖ n (ca. 1684): the area formed by the union of the zygomatic bone with the zygomatic processes of the temporal and maxillary bones
        zygomatic implant: a long (4.4 x 30 to 45 mm), angled, endosseous implant placed into the zygoma as an augmentation procedure for the severely atrophic maxillae

        Standard References

        Color

        Agoston GA. Color theory and its applications in art and design. 2nd ed. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 1987.
        Kelly KL, Judd DB. Color: universal language and dictionary of names. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, December 1976. Spec. publication no. 440.
        Nassan K. The physics and chemistry of color: the fifteen causes of color. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983.
        MacAdam DL. Color measurement: theme and variations. 2nd ed. Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag, 1985.
        Billmeyer FW Jr, Saltzman M. Principles of color technology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981.
        Wyazecki G, Stiles WA. Color science: concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
        Hunt RWG. Measuring colour. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1987.
        Hunter RS, Harold RW. The measurement of appearance. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1987.

        Complete denture prosthodontics

        Goddard PB. The anatomy, physiology and pathology of the human teeth: with the most approved methods of treatment; including operations, and the me