Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research and Education| Volume 125, ISSUE 5, P778-787, May 2021

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Effect of luting materials, presence of tooth preparation, and functional loading on stress distribution on ceramic laminate veneers: A finite element analysis


      Statement of problem

      How the polymerization shrinkage, loading, and mechanical properties of luting materials affect the shrinkage and functional stresses in ceramic laminate veneers (CLVs) with and without tooth preparation is unclear.


      The purpose of this finite element analysis (FEA) study was to evaluate the effect of the polymerization shrinkage, functional loading, and mechanical properties of different luting materials on the stresses in ultrathin 0.3-mm CLVs with and without tooth preparation.

      Material and methods

      Three resin cements, RelyX Veneer (RV), Allcem Veneer APS (AV), Variolink Esthetic LC (VE), and 1 flowable composite resin, Tetric N-Flow (TF), were tested for post-gel shrinkage (Shr), Knoop hardness (KHN), elastic modulus (E), compressive strength (CS), and diametral tensile strength (DTS). IPS e.max CAD disks of 0.3-mm thickness were made for simulating the effects of light attenuation. Eight 2-dimensional finite element models (Marc-Mentat) of a maxillary central incisor were generated to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage stress of different materials for luting 0.3-mm CLVs with or without tooth preparation and the stress during functional loading by using a modified von Mises criterion (mvm). Collected data from Shr, KHN, and E were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α=.05).


      Light attenuation by the 0.3-mm ceramic disk did not significantly affect the E values, but Shr was significantly lower in VE (26%) and TF (35%). TF had lower volumetric Shr (%) when interposing a ceramic disk (0.31%). Both tested tooth preparation options showed similar stress distributions from polymerization shrinkage or functional loading, with higher stress concentration on the incisal edge and also on the cervical surface. The model featuring tooth preparation and RV resin cement had the highest and VE the lowest stress levels.


      The flowable composite resin had similar mechanical properties as the resin cements. The stress distribution from shrinkage and functional loading was similar for both techniques with or without tooth preparation.
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