Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research and Education| Volume 125, ISSUE 6, P890-899, June 2021

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Biomechanical behavior of endocrown restorations with different CAD-CAM materials: A 3D finite element and in vitro analysis


      Statement of problem

      The performance of endocrowns fabricated with different types of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials is unclear.


      The purpose of this finite element analysis (FEA) and in vitro study was to compare and evaluate the stress distribution, failure probability, and fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with endocrowns from CAD-CAM milling blocks including ceramic, polymer-infiltrated ceramic (PICN), and composite resin.

      Material and methods

      An endodontically treated first mandibular molar restored with an endocrown was modeled by using a CAD software program and imported into an FEA software program. The model was duplicated and received restorations made from CAD-CAM blocks: Vita Suprinity (VS), IPS e.max CAD (EMX), Vita Enamic (VE), Lava Ultimate (LU), and Grandio blocs (GR). Stress distributions under axial and oblique loading were analyzed. The Weibull function was combined with the FEA results to predict long-term failure probability. The mechanical failure behavior of endocrowns manufactured with these materials was tested by using a universal testing machine. Load-to-failure was recorded, and fractured specimens were subjected to fractography. The data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey test (α=.05).


      The models of GR and LU exhibited a more even stress distribution. The Weibull analysis revealed that 5 models performed in a similar manner under normal occlusal forces, while LU and VE models achieved the highest probabilities during clenching. The fracture loads of GR (3808 ±607 N) were significantly higher than those of other materials (P<.05). More favorable failure modes were observed in the GR and VE groups. Fractography showed a greater probability of compression curls and arrest lines in the endocrowns of VE, LU, and GR groups.


      When restoring endodontically treated teeth, endocrown fabricated with composite resin exhibited a more uniform stress distribution and higher fracture resistance. More evidence from long-term clinical studies is needed to verify this effect.
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