Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research and Education| Volume 124, ISSUE 6, P808.e1-808.e5, December 2020

Evaluation of bond strength of porous cobalt-chromium metal and pressed ceramic fabricated by additive manufacturing

Published:September 05, 2020DOI:


      Statement of problem

      A high metal-ceramic bond strength is important for successful dental restorations. However, studies on the evaluation of the bond strength of porous metal–ceramic restorations compared with conventional ones are scarce.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the bond strength of a porous metal–ceramic structure with conventional metal-ceramic restorations.

      Material and methods

      Ten porous specimens were fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS) according to the International Organization for Standardization 9693-1:2012, 10 specimens without porosity by SLS, and 10 cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) cast specimens without porosity. The ceramic was applied with the pressing method. A 3-point bend test was performed with a universal testing machine, and the data were statistically analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance (α=.05).


      The mean ±standard deviation bond strength of the porous group fabricated by SLS was the lowest (35.6 ±9.1 MPa), that of the group without porosity in the casting method was 43.5 ±7.8 MPa, and that of the group without porosity fabricated by SLS was the highest (47.7 ±4.5 MPa); these were statistically similar (P=.058).


      Although the porous structure reported the lowest bond strength among the 3 sets of test specimens, its bond strength was higher than the International Standards Organization standard of 25 MPa.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Al-Imam H.
        • Gram M.
        • Benetti A.R.
        • Gotfredsen K.
        Accuracy of stereolithography additive casts used in a digital workflow.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2018; 119: 580-585
        • Petrovic V.
        • Gonzalez J.V.H.
        • Ferrando O.J.
        • Gordillo J.D.
        • Puchades J.R.B.
        • Griñan L.P.
        Additive layered manufacturing: sectors of industrial application shown through case studies.
        Int J Prod Res. 2011; 49: 1061-1079
        • Berman B.
        3-D printing: The new industrial revolution.
        Bus Horiz. 2012; 55: 155-162
        • Jasveer S.
        • Jianbin X.
        Comparison of different types of 3D printing technologies.
        IJSRP. 2018; 8: 1-9
        • Dawood A.
        • Marti B.M.
        • Sauret-Jackson V.
        • Darwood A.
        3D printing in dentistry.
        Br Dent J. 2015; 219: 512-529
        • Satyanarayana B.
        • Prakash K.J.
        Component replication using 3D printing technology.
        Procedia Materials Science. 2015; 10: 263-269
        • Stansbury J.W.
        • Idacavage M.J.
        3D printing with polymers: Challenges among expanding options and opportunities.
        Dent Mater. 2016; 32: 54-64
        • Reitemeier B.
        • Hänsel K.
        • Kastner C.
        • Walter M.H.
        Metal-ceramic failure in noble metal crowns: 7-year results of a prospective clinical trial in private practices.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2006; 19: 397-399
        • Behr M.
        • Zeman F.
        • Baitinger T.
        • Galler J.
        • Koller M.
        • Handel G.
        • et al.
        The clinical performance of porcelain-fused-to-metal precious alloy single crowns: chipping, recurrent caries, periodontitis, and loss of retention.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2014; 27: 153-160
        • NaBadalung D.P.
        • Powers J.M.
        • Connelly M.E.
        Comparison of bond strengths of denture base resins to nickel-chromium-beryllium removable partial denture alloy.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1997; 78: 566-573
        • Andreiko C.A.
        • Selkee T.V.
        • Inventors; Ormco Corp, assignee
        Plastic orthodontic appliance having mechanical bonding base and method of making same.
        United States patent US. 2001; 6 (190,165)
        • Shimizu H.
        • Takahashi Y.
        Review of adhesive techniques used in removable prosthodontic practice.
        J Oral Sci. 2012; 54: 205-211
        • Jung G.U.
        • Jeon J.Y.
        • Hwang K.G.
        • Park C.J.
        Preliminary evaluation of a three-dimensional, customized, and preformed titanium mesh in peri-implant alveolar bone regeneration.
        J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014; 40: 181
        • International Organization for Standardization
        ISO 9693-1. Dentistry compatibility testing. Part 1: Metal-ceramic systems. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.
        (ISO Store Order: OP-184149 (Date: 2017-06-09). Available at:)
        • Ren X.W.
        • Zeng L.
        • Wei Z.M.
        • Xin X.Z.
        • Wei B.
        Effects of multiple firings on metal-ceramic bond strength of Co-Cr alloy fabricated by selective laser melting.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2016; 115: 109-114
        • Kaleli N.
        • Saraç D.
        Comparison of porcelain bond strength of different metal frameworks prepared by using conventional and recently introduced fabrication methods.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2017; 118: 76-82
        • Bae E.J.
        • Kim J.H.
        • Kim W.C.
        • Kim H.Y.
        Bond and fracture strength of metal-ceramic restorations formed by selective laser sintering.
        J Adv Prosthodont. 2014; 6: 266-271
        • Bae E.J.
        • Kim H.Y.
        • Kim W.C.
        • Kim J.H.
        In vitro evaluation of the bond strength between various ceramics and cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by selective laser sintering.
        J Adv Prosthodont. 2015; 7: 312-316
        • Ng J.
        • Ruse D.
        • Wyatt C.
        A comparison of the marginal fit of crowns fabricated with digital and conventional methods.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2014; 112: 555-560