Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Behavior of 4 types of paper with printed QR codes for evaluating denture marking in conditions of extreme heat

Published:December 17, 2020DOI:


      Statement of problem

      Quick response (QR) codes are a fast and efficient technology for linking and accessing identifying information, and their use has been proposed in forensics. The heat resistance and esthetics of denture marking methods (DMMs) have been recommended by the American Dental Association (ADA), but studies on these aspects of printed QR codes are lacking.


      The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal printed material with QR codes for implementation as a DMM adjusted to the recommendations of the ADA.

      Material and methods

      The behavior of 4 types of paper, bond paper, fiberglass filter paper, ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowire paper, and polyolefin and silica paper with printed QR codes was analyzed. They were exposed to temperatures between 100 °C and 1000 °C in a heat muffle for 1 hour. Each specimen was subjected to both a morphological and a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanned by using 3 different smartphones.


      The scans were positive for bond paper (33.3%), fiberglass fiber paper (50%), ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowire paper (100%), and polyolefin and silica paper (70.4%). The TGA revealed continuous decomposition curves (average 16.5 minutes at 624 °C).


      Printed QR codes on ultralong hydroxyapatite nanowire paper appear to be suitable as information reservoirs, even surviving incineration, and may be implemented as a DMM conforming to the ADA recommendations.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Cerritelli A.
        • Anderson R.
        Disaster victim identification guide – part [PDF].
        (Available at:)
        • Datta P.
        • Sood S.
        The various methods and benefits of denture labeling.
        J Forensic Dent Sci. 2010; 2: 53-58
        • Reesu G.V.
        • Augustine J.
        • Urs A.B.
        Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.
        J Forensic Leg Med. 2015; 29: 13-17
        • Kareker N.
        • Aras M.
        • Chitre V.
        A review on denture marking systems: a mark in forensic dentistry.
        J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2014; 14: 4-13
        • Richmond R.
        Denture marking in the UK.
        Br Dent J. 2007; 203: 652-653
        • Chugh A.
        • Narwal A.
        Oral mark in the application of an individual identification: from ashes to truth.
        J Forensic Dent Sci. 2017; 9: 51-55
        • Pyke T.
        Personal identification from artificial dentures.
        Aust Dent J. 1970; 15: 495-498
        • Thomas C.J.
        • Van Wyk C.W.
        The palatal rugae in an identification.
        J Forensic Odontostomatol. 1978; 6: 21-27
        • Nambiar P.
        • Jalil N.
        • Singh B.
        The dental identification of victims of an aircraft accident in Malaysia.
        Int Dent J. 1997; 47: 9-15
        • Uzun V.
        • Bilgin S.
        Evaluation and implementation of qr code identity tag system for healthcare in Turkey.
        Springerplus. 2016; 5: 1454
        • Kalyan A.
        • Clark R.K.F.
        • Radford D.R.
        Denture identification marking should be standard practice.
        Br Dent J. 2014; 216: 615-617
        • Mann J.
        • Doshi M.
        An investigation into denture loss in hospitals in Kent, Surrey and Sussex.
        Br Dent J. 2017; 223: 435-438
        • Harrison A.
        Gerodontology: denture loss in hospitals.
        Br Dent J. 2018; 224: 3
        • Mohan J.
        • Kumar C.
        • Simon P.
        “Denture marking” as an aid to forensic identification.
        J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2012; 12: 131-136
        • Sudheendra U.
        • Sowmya K.
        • Vidhi M.
        • Shreenivas K.
        • Prathamesh J.
        2D barcodes: a novel and simple method for denture identification.
        J Forensic Sci. 2012; 58: 170-172
        • Colvenkar S.
        Subscriber identity module: a new method for denture identification.
        Dent Res J. 2013; 10: 553-555
        • Colvenkar S.
        Lenticular card: a new method for denture identification.
        Indian J Dent Res. 2010; 21: 112-114
        • Bansal P.
        • Bhanot R.
        • Sharma A.
        Denture labeling: a new approach.
        Contemp Clin Dent. 2011; 2: 76-78
        • Nalawade S.
        • Lagdive S.
        • Gangadhar S.
        • Bhandari A.
        A simple and inexpensive bar-coding technique for denture identification.
        J Forensic Dent Sci. 2011; 3: 92-94
        • Luthra R.
        • Arora S.
        • Meshram S.
        Denture marking for forensic identification using memory card: an innovative technique.
        J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2012; 12: 231-235
        • Naito Y.
        • Meinar A.
        • Iwawaki Y.
        • Kashiwabara T.
        • Goto T.
        • Ito T.
        • et al.
        Recording of individual identification information on dental prostheses using fluorescent material and ultraviolet light.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2013; 26: 172-174
        • Sikka N.
        • Saxena S.
        • Priya K.
        • Suthar V.
        Momentousness of denture labeling using Aadhaar number in Indian population.
        J Family Med Prim Care. 2019; 8: 2760-2762
        • Pathak C.
        • Pawah S.
        • Sikri A.
        • Rao I.
        Unique denture identification system for all Indian nationals.
        Contemp Clin Dent. 2018; 9: 185-188
        • Richmond R.
        • Pretty I.A.
        Denture marking-patient preference of various methods.
        J Forensic Sci. 2007; 52: 1338-1342
        • Bengtsson A.
        • Olsson T.
        • René N.
        • Carlsson G.
        • Dahlbom U.
        • Borrman H.
        Frequency of edentulism and identification marking of removable dentures in long-term care units.
        J Oral Rehabil. 1996; 23: 520-523
        • Heath J.R.
        Denture identification a simple approach.
        J Oral Rehabil. 1987; 14: 147-163
        • Phulari R.G.S.
        • Rathore R.S.
        • Jariwala P.N.
        • Kapuriya A.D.
        • Shah A.K.
        Denture labels: various types and their abilities to resist different assaults.
        J Forensic Dent Sci. 2017; 9: 175
        • Thomas C.J.
        • Mori T.
        • Miyakawa O.
        • Chung H.G.
        In search of a suitable denture marker.
        J Forensic Odontostomatol. 1995; 13: 9-13
        • Stavrianos C.
        • Petalotis N.
        • Metska M.
        • Stavrianou I.
        • Papadopoulos C.
        The value of identification marking on dentures.
        Balkan J Stomatol. 2007; 11: 212-216
        • Richmond R.
        • Pretty I.A.
        A range of postmortem assault experiments conducted on a variety of denture labels used for the purpose of identification of edentulous individuals.
        J Forensic Sci. 2009; 54: 411-414
        • Agüloğlu S.
        • Zortuk M.
        • Beydemir K.
        Denture barcoding: a new horizon.
        Br Dent J. 2009; 206: 589-590
        • McAllister T.
        • Corley W.G.
        World Trade Center building performance study: data collection, preliminary observations, and recommendations.
        2nd ed. United States Government Printing Office, U.S., Washington, DC2002: 22
        • Bonavilla J.D.
        • Bush M.A.
        • Bush P.J.
        • Pantera E.A.
        Identification of incinerated root canal filling materials after exposure to high heat incineration.
        J Forensic Sci. 2008; 53: 412-418
        • Yuan T.
        • Wang Y.
        • Xu K.
        • Martin R.R.
        • Hu S.-M.
        Two-layer QR codes.
        IEEE Trans Image Process. 2019; 28: 4413-4428
        • Dineshshankar J.
        • Venkateshwaran R.
        • Vidhya J.
        • Anuradha R.
        • Mary G.
        • Pradeep R.
        • et al.
        Denture bar-coding: an innovative technique in forensic dentistry.
        J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2015; 7: 350-353
        • Rojas-Torres J.
        • Navarro-Cáceres P.
        • Fonseca G.M.
        Attitudes, perceptions, and preferences of individuals from Temuco (Chile) about denture marking.
        J Forensic Sci. 2019; 64: 1187-1195
        • Chen F.-F.
        • Zhu Y.-J.
        • Xiong Z.-C.
        • Sun T.-W.
        • Shen Y.-Q.
        Highly flexible superhydrophobic and fire-resistant layered inorganic paper.
        ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016; 8: 34715-34724
        • Lu B.-Q.
        • Zhu Y.-J.
        • Chen F.
        Highly flexible and nonflammable inorganic hydroxyapatite paper.
        Chem Eur J. 2014; 20: 1242-1246
        • Rubio L.
        • Sioli J.M.
        • Santos I.
        • Fonseca G.M.
        • Martin-De-Las-Heras S.
        Morphological changes in teeth exposed to high temperatures with forensic purposes.
        Int J Morphol. 2016; 34: 719-728
        • Zhao H.
        • Qin X.
        • Zhao L.
        • Dong S.
        • Gu L.
        • Sun W.
        • et al.
        Invisible inks for secrecy and anticounterfeiting: from single to double-encryption by hydrochromic molecules.
        ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2020; 12: 8952-8960
        • Al-Dharrab A.
        • Shinawi L.
        Thermogravimetric characterization of the microstructure composition of polyamide injection molded denture base material vs conventional compression molded heat-cured denture base material.
        J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016; 17: 99-104