Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research and Education| Volume 128, ISSUE 1, P63-72, July 2022

Download started.


Physical characterization of 3 implant systems made of distinct materials with distinct surfaces

Published:February 02, 2021DOI:


      Statement of problem

      Dental implants undergo various surface treatments. Studies that have characterized their surface and subsurface by using the same methods are scarce.


      The purpose of this study is to physically characterize the surface and subsurface of implant systems made of commercially pure (cp) titanium (Ti) grade (gr) 4 and Ti alloy gr 23 and to evaluate whether airborne-particle abrasion and acid etching is an appropriate surface treatment for Ti alloy gr 23.

      Material and methods

      Implant groups (n=3) were as follows: TG4AO, cp Ti gr 4, treated with anodic oxidation (3.5×8 mm) (NobelReplace Conical; Nobel Biocare); TG23AE, Ti gr 23 (TiAlV ELI) airborne-particle abraded-and-etched (3.9×8 mm) (V3; MIS); and TG4AE, cp Ti gr 4, airborne-particle abraded and etched (3.3×8 mm) (BL; Institut Straumann AG). Surface roughness, surface topography, and elemental and surface composition were investigated with optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The presence and size of Ti hydride (TiH) needles were determined on metallographic sections. Depth profiling was obtained by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to determine possible enrichment of an alloying element at the implant surface.


      The mean arithmetic deviation roughness (Sa), of TG4AO was 0.80 μm. The Sa of TG4AO was 1.22 μm, and the Sa of TG4AO was 1.59 μm. The difference between the groups was significant (P<.001). TG23AE and TG4AE displayed a macrotexture and microtexture with pores; TG4AO showed a 3-to 12-μm canyon-like structure. The surface and subsurface compositions were as follows: for TG4AO, αTi and phosphorus-rich anatase; for TG23AE, α-Ti matrix with β-Ti grains; and for TG4AE, α-Ti and δ-TiH2-x. TiH needles were found only on TG4AE; the Ti oxide layer of TG4AO was rough, 3-to 16-μm thick, and porous. The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS) concentration profile of TG23AE did not show enrichment of any alloying element.


      The roughness, topography, and composition of the surfaces were different for all implants tested. Airborne-particle abrasion and subsequent etching was an appropriate treatment for Ti gr 23 alloy implants.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Buser D.
        • Nydegger T.
        • Hirt H.P.
        • Cochran D.L.
        • Nolte L.P.
        Removal torque values of titanium implants in the maxilla of miniature pigs.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1998; 13: 611-619
        • Tait R.T.
        • Berckmans B.N.
        • Ross T.W.
        • Mayfield R.L.
        Surface treatment process for implants made of titanium alloy.
        2004 (US patent 0265,780)
        • Sul Y.T.
        • Johansson C.
        • Albrektsson T.
        Which surface properties enhance bone response to implants? Comparison of oxidized magnesium, TiUnite, and osseotite implant surfaces.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2006; 19: 319-328
        • Sul Y.T.
        • Byon E.
        • Wennerberg A.
        Surface characteristics of electrochemically oxidized implants and acid-etched implants: surface chemistry, morphology, pore configurations, oxide thickness, crystal structure, and roughness.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008; 23: 631-640
        • Wennerberg A.
        • Albrektsson T.
        Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009; 20: 172-184
        • Saulacic N.
        • Bosshardt D.D.
        • Bornstein M.M.
        • Berner S.
        • Buser D.
        Bone apposition to a titanium-zirconium alloy implant, as compared to two other titanium-containing implants.
        Eur Cell Mater. 2012; 23: 273-286
        • Szmukler-Moncler S.
        • Blus C.
        • Morales Schwarz D.
        • Orrù G.
        Characterization of a macro- and micro-textured titanium grade 5 alloy surface obtained by etching only without sandblasting.
        Materials (Basel). 2020; 13: 5074
        • Ivanoff C.J.
        • Widmark G.
        • Johansson C.
        • Wennerberg A.
        Histologic evaluation of bone response to oxidized and turned titanium micro-implants in human jawbone.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2003; 18: 341-348
        • Shibli J.A.
        • Grassi S.
        • de Figueiredo L.C.
        • Feres M.
        • Marcantonio Jr., E.
        • Iezzi G.
        • et al.
        Influence of implant surface topography on early osseointegration: a histological study in human jaws.
        J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2007; 80: 377-385
        • Cheng Z.
        • Zhang F.
        • He F.
        • Zhang L.
        • Guo C.
        • Zhao S.
        • et al.
        Osseointegration of titanium implants with a roughened surface containing hydride ion in a rabbit model.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010; 110: e5-e12
        • Donachie Jr., M.J.
        Titanium: a technical guide.
        2nd ed. ASM International, Materials Park, OH2000: 85-94
        • Brunette D.M.
        • Tengvall P.
        • Textor M.
        • Thomsen P.
        Titanium in medicine. Material science, surface science, engineering, biological responses and medical applications.
        Springer, Berlin2001: 25-52
        • Bernhard N.
        • Berner S.
        • De Wild M.
        • Wieland M.
        The binary TiZr alloy. A newly developed Ti alloy for use in dental implants.
        Forum Implantologicum. 2009; 5: 30-39
        • Sittig C.
        • Textor M.
        • Spencer N.D.
        • Wieland M.
        • Vallotton P.H.
        Surface characterization of implant materials cp Ti, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V with different pretreatments.
        J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1999; 10: 35-46
        • Wennerberg A.
        • Albrektsson T.
        Suggested guidelines for the topographic evaluation of implant surfaces.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000; 15: 331-344
        • Albrektsson T.
        • Wennerberg A.
        Oral implant surfaces: part 1 - review focusing on topographic and chemical properties of different surfaces and in vivo responses to them.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2004; 17: 536-543
        • Szmukler-Moncler S.
        • Testori T.
        • Bernard J.P.
        Etched implants: a comparative surface analysis of four implant systems.
        J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2004; 69: 46-57
        • Weibrich G.
        • Kleis W.
        • Buch R.S.R.
        • Hansen T.
        • Streckbein P.
        Bone remodeling around dental implants surfaces.
        J Dent Implantol (ZZI). 2009; 3: 238-249
        • Gehrke S.A.
        • Marin G.W.
        Biomechanical evaluation of dental implants with three different designs: removal torque and resonance frequency analysis in rabbits.
        Ann Anat. 2015; 199: 30-35
        • Schüpbach P.
        • Glauser R.
        • Rocci A.
        • Martignoni M.
        • Sennerby L.
        • Lundgren A.
        • et al.
        The human bone-oxidized titanium implant interface: a light microscopic, scanning electron microscopic, back-scatter scanning electron microscopic, and energy-dispersive x-ray study of clinically retrieved dental implants.
        Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2005; 7 Suppl 1: S36-S43
        • Davarpanah D.
        • Szmukler-Moncler S.
        • Rajzbaum P.
        • Davarpanah K.
        • Bichacho N.
        • Van Dooren E.
        ImplantoLOGIC. Treatment planning and decision making.
        Espace ID, Paris2018: 18-22
        • Messias A.
        • Nicolau P.
        • Guerra F.
        Titanium dental implants with different collar design and surface modifications: a systematic review on survival rates and marginal bone levels.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2019; 30: 20-48
        • Irinakis T.
        • Wiebe C.
        Clinical evaluation of the NobelActive implant system: a case series of 107 consecutively placed implants and a review of the implant features.
        J Oral Implantol. 2009; 35: 283-288
        • Sanz-Martin I.
        • Vignoletti F.
        • Nuñez J.
        • Permuy M.
        • Muñoz F.
        • Sanz-Esporrín J.
        • et al.
        Hard and soft tissue integration of immediate and delayed implants with a modified coronal macro-design: histological, micro-CT and volumetric soft tissue changes from a pre-clinical in vivo study.
        J Clin Periodontol. 2017; 44: 842-853
        • Johansson C.B.
        • Han C.H.
        • Wennerberg A.
        • Albrektsson T.
        A quantitative comparison of machined commercially pure titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium implants in rabbit bone.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1998; 13: 315-321
        • Han C.H.
        • Johansson C.B.
        • Wennerberg A.
        • Albrektsson T.
        Quantitative and qualitative investigations of surface enlarged titanium and titanium alloy implants.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 1998; 9: 1-10
        • Stenport V.F.
        • Johansson C.B.
        Evaluation of bone tissue integration to pure and alloyed titanium implants.
        Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2008; 10: 191-199
        • Carr A.B.
        • Gerard D.A.
        • Larsen P.E.
        Quantitative histomorphometric description of implant anchorage for three types of dental implants following 3 months of healing in baboons.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1997; 12: 777-784
        • Carr A.B.
        • Gerard D.A.
        • Larsen P.E.
        Histomorphometric analysis of implant anchorage for 3 types of dental implants following 6 months of healing in baboon jaws.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2000; 15: 785-791
        • Carr A.B.
        • Larsen P.E.
        • Gerard D.A.
        Histomorphometric comparison of implant anchorage for two types of dental implants after 3 and 6 months' healing in baboon jaws.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2001; 85: 276-280
        • De Maeztu M.A.
        • Braceras I.
        • Álava J.I.
        • Recio C.
        • Piñera M.
        • Gay-Escoda C.
        Human study of ion implantation as a surface treatment for dental implants.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013; 42: 891-896
        • Shah F.A.
        • Trobos M.
        • Thomsen P.
        • Palmquist A.
        Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) versus titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) materials as bone anchored implants - is one truly better than the other?.
        Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016; 62: 960-966
        • Cordeiro J.M.
        • Barão V.A.R.
        Is there scientific evidence favoring the substitution of commercially pure titanium with titanium alloys for the manufacture of dental implants?.
        Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2017; 71: 1201-1215
        • Pimenta J.
        • Aramburú Jr., J.S.
        • Dedavid B.A.
        • Gehrke S.A.
        In vivo comparative analysis of the osseointegration potential among three leading implant brands in the European market.
        INPerio. 2018; 3: 274-282
        • Perrin D.
        • Szmukler-Moncler S.
        • Echikou C.
        • Pointaire P.
        • Bernard J.P.
        Bone response to alteration of surface topography and surface composition of sandblasted and acid etched (SLA) implants.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2002; 13: 465-469
        • Szmukler-Moncler S.
        • Bischof M.
        • Nedir R.
        • Ermrich M.
        Titanium hydride and hydrogen concentration in acid-etched commercially pure titanium and titanium alloy implants: a comparative analysis of five implant systems.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010; 21: 944-950
        • Livanov V.A.
        • Bukhanova A.A.
        • Kolachev B.A.
        Hydrogen in titanium.
        D Davey & Co, New York1962: 35-60
        • Dantzer P.
        High temperature thermodynamics of H2 and D2 in titanium and in dilute titanium oxygen solid solutions.
        J Phys Chem Solids. 1983; 44: 913-923
        • Horwitz J.
        • Machtei E.E.
        Immediate and delayed restoration of dental implants in patients with a history of periodontitis: a prospective evaluation up to 5 years.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012; 27: 1137-1143
        • Mozzati M.
        • Gallesio G.
        • Del Fabbro M.
        Long-term (9-12 years) outcomes of titanium implants with an oxidized surface: a retrospective investigation on 209 implants.
        J Oral Implantol. 2015; 41: 437-443
        • Kim S.
        • Jung U.W.
        • Cho K.S.
        • Lee J.S.
        Retrospective radiographic observational study of 1692 Straumann tissue-level dental implants over 10 years: I. Implant survival and loss pattern.
        Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2018; 20: 860-866
        • International Organization for Standardization
        ISO 9693-1. Dentistry compatibility testing. Part 1: metal-ceramic systems.
        International Organization for Standardization, Geneva2012 (ISO Store Order: OP-184149 (Date: 2017-06-09). Available at:)
        • Gammon L.M.
        • Briggs R.D.
        • Packard J.M.
        • Batson K.W.
        • Boyer R.
        • Domby C.W.
        Metallography and microstructures of titanium and its alloys. ASM handbook.
        ASM International, Materials Park, OH2004: 899-917
        • Davarpanah M.
        • Szmukler-Moncler S.
        • Rajzbaum P.
        Manuel d'implantologie clinique. Consolidation des savoirs et ouvertures sur l'avenir.
        4th ed. Editions CdP, Paris2018: 72-84
        • Albouy J.P.
        • Abrahamsson I.
        • Persson L.G.
        • Berglundh T.
        Implant surface characteristics influence the outcome of treatment of peri-implantitis: an experimental study in dogs.
        J Clin Periodontol. 2011; 38: 58-64
        • Shih D.S.
        • Birnbaum H.K.
        Evidence of fcc titanium hydride formation in titanium alloy: an X-ray diffraction study.
        Scripta Metallurgica. 1986; 20: 1261-1264