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Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Effect of local hygiene protocols on denture-related stomatitis, biofilm, microbial load, and odor: A randomized controlled trial

      Abstract

      Statement of problem

      Denture stomatitis affects complete denture wearers and is frequently treated with antifungals drugs, as well as treating the denture with sodium hypochlorite. Whether the limitations of these treatments can be overcome with local hygiene protocols that do not damage the denture materials or adversely affect the patient is unclear.

      Purpose

      The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of denture hygiene protocols on complete denture wearers with denture stomatitis.

      Material and methods

      For this randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial, 108 participants were assigned to parallel groups: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (positive control) 0.15% Triclosan, denture cleaning tablets, or denture cleaning tablets plus gingival cleaning tablets. The participants were instructed to brush the dentures and the palate and immerse the denture in the solutions. The outcomes of denture stomatitis remission, biofilm removal, decrease of microbial load (colony-forming units), and odor level of the mouth and denture were measured at baseline and after 10 days. Descriptive analyses were used for sociodemographic characterization of the participants; the Pearson chi-square test was used to compare participant frequency with different degrees of denture stomatitis. The data were not normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilks test) or homogeneous (Levene test). So, the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post hoc tests and Wilcoxon test were used to compare the effects of solutions and time on the variables (α=.05).

      Results

      The frequency of the highest to lowest denture stomatitis scores was significantly different for the 0.15% Triclosan and denture cleaning tablets groups. No significant difference was found among the groups in terms of denture stomatitis scores, biofilm, or colony-forming unit count of Candida spp. or C. albicans and S. mutans; a significant reduction was found in these parameters. The 0.25% sodium hypochlorite and 0.15% Triclosan treatments caused a significant reduction in Gram-negative microorganisms; these 2 protocols, and the denture cleaning tablets showed a significant reduction in Staphylococcus spp.; all protocols had similar effects. Only the S. mutans count of the palate decreased after 10 days. The odor level of the mouth and the denture was not significantly different (P=.778).

      Conclusions

      The evaluated protocols can be recommended for the hygiene of complete dentures, since they were effective for all the variables studied.
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