Advertisement
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Evaluation of metal concentrations in hair and nails after dental implant placement

      Abstract

      Statement of problem

      The accumulation of the elements contained in Ti6Al4V, the mostly used titanium alloy for dental implants, in epithelial extensions requires investigation. Studies evaluating the metals in dental implants in the hair and nails of patients with dental implants are lacking.

      Purpose

      The purpose of this clinical research was to measure the levels of titanium (Ti), aluminum (Al), and vanadium (V) in the hair and nails of patients treated with grade 5 Ti alloy dental implants.

      Material and methods

      Ti, Al, and V elemental levels in the hair and nail samples of 33 participants treated with grade 5 Ti alloy dental implants were measured by using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

      Results

      The results revealed a statistically significant increase in the amount of Ti in nail samples after implant surgery (P=.01), but no statistically significant increases in the amounts of Al or V in nail samples (P=.48, P=.645). In hair samples, the increase in Ti, Al, and V was not statistically significant (P=.728, P=.221, P=.376). The correlation between the amount of change in the elements in implants and the contact areas was weak for hair (Al, r=0.114; Ti, r=0.361; V, r=0.377) and for nails (Al, r=0.127; Ti, r=0.116; V, r=0.058).

      Conclusions

      After the placement of dental implants made of grade 5 Ti alloy, minimal Al and V accumulated in hair and nails.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Palmquist A.
        • Lindberg F.
        • Emanuelsson L.
        • Brånemark R.
        • Engqvist H.
        • Thomsen P.
        Morphological studies on machined implants of commercially pure titanium and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) in the rabbit.
        J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009; 91: 309-319
        • Freese H.L.
        • Volas M.G.
        • Wood J.R.
        Metallurgy and technological properties of titanium and titanium alloys.
        Titanium in Med. 2001; : 25-51
        • Weir A.
        • Westerhoff P.
        • Fabricius L.
        • Hristovski K.
        • Von Goetz N.
        Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.
        Environ Sci Technol. 2012; 46: 2242-2250
        • Singh P.
        • Nanda A.
        Enhanced sun protection of nano-sized metal oxide particles over conventional metal oxide particles: An in vitro comparative study.
        Int J Cosmet Sci. 2014; 36: 273-283
        • Liu S.
        • Hammond S.K.
        • Rojas-Cheatham A.
        Concentrations and potential health risks of metals in lip products.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2013; 121: 705-710
        • Wang J.
        • Zhou G.
        • Chen C.
        • Yu H.
        • Wang T.
        • Ma Y.
        • et al.
        Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration.
        Toxicol Lett. 2007; 168: 176-185
        • Albrektsson T.
        The response of bone to titanium implants.
        Crit Rev Biocompat. 1985; 1: 53-84
        • Woodman J.
        • Jacobs J.
        • Galante J.
        • Urban R.
        Metal ion release from titanium-based prosthetic segmental replacements of long bones in baboons: A long-term study.
        J Orthop Res. 1983; 1: 421-430
        • Brayda-Bruno M.
        • Fini M.
        • Pierini G.
        • Giavaresi G.
        • Rocca M.
        • Giardino R.
        Evaluation of systemic metal diffusion after spinal pedicular fixation with titanium alloy and stainless steel system: a 36-month experimental study in sheep.
        Int J Artif Organs. 2001; 24: 41-49
        • Bozkus I.
        • Germec-Cakan D.
        • Arun T.
        Evaluation of metal concentrations in hair and nail after orthognathic surgery.
        J Craniofac Surg. 2011; 22: 68-72
        • Case C.
        • Langkamer V.
        • James C.
        • Palmer M.
        • Kemp A.
        • Heap P.
        • et al.
        Widespread dissemination of metal debris from implants.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994; 76: 701-712
        • Matthew I.R.
        • Frame J.W.
        Release of metal in vivo from stressed and nonstressed maxillofacial fracture plates and screws.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000; 90: 33-38
        • Deppe H.
        • Greim H.
        • Brill T.
        • Wagenpfeil S.
        Titanium deposition after peri-implant care with the carbon dioxide laser.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2002; 17: 707-714
        • Olopade J.
        • Fatola I.
        • Olopade F.
        Vertical administration of vanadium through lactation induces behavioural and neuromorphological changes: protective role of vitamin E.
        Niger J Physiol Sci. 2011; 26: 55-60
        • Ganrot P.O.
        Metabolism and possible health effects of aluminum.
        Environ Health Perspect. 1986; 65: 363-441
        • Nowak B.
        • Chmielnicka J.
        Relationship of lead and cadmium to essential elements in hair, teeth, and nails of environmentally exposed people.
        Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2000; 46: 265-274
        • Senofonte O.
        • Violante N.
        • Caroli S.
        Assessment of reference values for elements in human hair of urban schoolboys.
        J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2000; 14: 6-13
        • Klevay L.
        • Christopherson D.
        • Shuler T.
        Hair as a biopsy material: trace element data on one man over two decades.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004; 58: 1359
        • Temiz M.
        • Dayi E.
        • Saruhan N.
        Evaluation of blood titanium levels and total bone contact area of dental implants.
        BioMed Res Int. 2018; 2018: 1-7
        • Priya M.D.L.
        • Geetha A.
        Level of trace elements (copper, zinc, magnesium and selenium) and toxic elements (lead and mercury) in the hair and nail of children with autism.
        Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011; 142: 148-158
        • Saint Olive Baque C.
        • Zhou J.
        • Gu W.
        • Collaudin C.
        • Kravtchenko S.
        • Kempf J.
        • et al.
        Relationships between hair growth rate and morphological parameters of human straight hair: a same law above ethnical origins?.
        Int J Cosmet Sci. 2012; 34: 111-116
        • Yaemsiri S.
        • Hou N.
        • Slining M.
        • He K.
        Growth rate of human fingernails and toenails in healthy American young adults.
        J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010; 24: 420-423
        • Chatt A.
        • Secord C.
        • Tiefenbach B.
        • Jervis R.
        Scalp hair as a monitor of community exposure to environmental pollutants. Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness.
        Praeger Publishers, New York1980
        • Passwater R.A.
        • Cranton E.M.
        Trace elements, hair analysis, and nutrition.
        Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT1983: 420
        • Godwin K.O.
        An experimental study of nail growth.
        J Nutr. 1959; 69: 121-127
        • Evans E.H.
        • Giglio J.J.
        Interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A review.
        J Anal Atom Spectrom. 1993; 8: 1-18
        • Caroli S.
        • Senofonte O.
        • Violante N.
        • Fornarelli L.
        • Powar A.
        Assessment of reference values for elements in hair of urban normal subjects.
        Microchem J. 1992; 46: 174-183
        • Rahman L.
        • Corns W.
        • Bryce D.
        • Stockwell P.
        Determination of mercury, selenium, bismuth, arsenic and antimony in human hair by microwave digestion atomic fluorescence spectrometry.
        Talanta. 2000; 52: 833-843
        • Niinomi M.
        Metallic biomaterials.
        J Artif Organs. 2008; 11: 105-110
        • Chojnacka K.
        • Michalak I.
        • Zielińska A.
        • Górecka H.
        • Górecki H.
        Inter-relationship between elements in human hair: the effect of gender.
        Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010; 73: 2022-2028
        • Rodushkin I.
        • Axelsson M.D.
        Application of double focusing sector field ICP-MS for multielemental characterization of human hair and nails. Part II. A study of the inhabitants of northern Sweden.
        Sci Total Environ. 2000; 262: 21-36
        • Mercan S.
        • Bolukbasi N.
        • Bolukbasi M.K.
        • Yayla M.
        • Cengiz S.
        Titanium element level in peri-implant mucosa.
        Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. 2013; 27: 4002-4005
        • Li Z.
        • Huo W.
        • Li Z.
        • Wang B.
        • Zhang J.
        • Ren A.
        Association between titanium and silver concentrations in maternal hair and risk of neural tube defects in offspring: a case-control study in north China.
        Reprod Toxicol. 2016; 66: 115-121