Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Systematic Review| Volume 128, ISSUE 4, P575-588, October 2022

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Adhesion of veneering porcelain to cobalt-chromium dental alloys processed with casting, milling, and additive manufacturing methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis


      Statement of problem

      Selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing (AM) technologies provide an alternative to conventional casting and milling procedures in fabricating metal-ceramic dental prostheses. However, the quality of porcelain bond strength to the SLM AM cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) metal framework of a dental restoration is unclear.


      The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to identify in vitro studies that reported the porcelain bond strength to SLM AM Co-Cr dental metal alloys and compare the porcelain bond strength values to cast, milled, and additively manufactured Co-Cr dental alloys.

      Material and methods

      An electronic systematic review was performed in different databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, World of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus. A manual search was also conducted. Studies that reported the porcelain bond strength to SLM Co-Cr metal alloys and in the English language were included. Two investigators evaluated the quality assessment of the studies by applying the JBI critical appraisal checklist for quasi-experimental studies (nonrandomized experimental studies). A third investigator was consulted to resolve lack of consensus. Two subgroups were created based on the test used, 3-point bend and shear bond strength tests. The porcelain bond strength of cast, milled, and AM Co-Cr dental alloys were compared. The I2 statistic and its associated P value were used to assess the heterogeneity between studies. The Eger test was used for determining significance of the funnel pots.


      A total of 216 studies were collected from the electronic and manual searches. After independently evaluating the titles and abstracts by the reviewers, 26 articles were identified. Three of these were excluded after full-text revision. The porcelain bond strength comparison between the cast and AM alloys for the 3-point bend subgroup revealed a significant result for overall effect (P<.001) favoring the SLM method with considerable heterogeneity (I2=83%, P<.001). Furthermore, the porcelain bond strength comparison between cast and milled alloys for the shear bond strength subgroup revealed a significant test for overall effect (P=.04) favoring milled procedures with a nonsignificant unimportant heterogeneity (I2= 0%, P<.47) and for the 3-point bend subgroup (P<.001) favoring milled specimens with a significant considerable heterogeneity (I2=79%, P<.001).


      The metal manufacturing method had no effect on the porcelain bond strength to Co-Cr dental metal alloys.
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