Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Systematic Review| Volume 128, ISSUE 6, P1190-1200, December 2022

Effect of milling, fitting adjustments, and hydrofluoric acid etching on the strength and roughness of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics: A systematic review and meta-analysis


      Statement of problem

      Whether procedures performed before the cementation of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) glass-ceramic restorations, including milling, fitting adjustment, and hydrofluoric acid etching introduce defects on the ceramic surface that affect the mechanical and surface properties is unclear.


      A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the effect of milling, fitting adjustments, and hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) on the flexural strength and roughness (Ra) of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics.

      Material and methods

      Literature searches were performed up to June 2020 in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, with no publication year or language limits. The focused question was “Do milling, fitting adjustments, and hydrofluoric acid etching affect the flexural strength and roughness of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics?” For the meta-analysis, flexural strength and Ra data on milling, fitting adjustment, and HF etching versus control (polishing) were analyzed globally. A subgroup analysis assessed the effect of etching parameters (HF concentration and time) on the flexural strength and roughness of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics with different microstructures. Comparisons were performed with random-effect models at 5% significance.


      Fourteen studies from 2764 potentially relevant records were included in the qualitative syntheses, and 12 in the meta-analysis. Milling and fitting adjustments increased roughness and reduced the flexural strength of CAD-CAM glass-ceramics. The effect of HF etching was dependent on the glass-ceramic microstructure, HF concentration, and etching time. For feldspathic- and leucite-reinforced ceramics, HF 5% applied for between 30 and 120 seconds increased roughness without affecting flexural strength. For lithium disilicate glass-ceramics, HF concentrations greater than 4.9% used for 20 seconds or more reduced the strength without affecting the surface roughness.


      The flexural strength of CAD-CAM glass-ceramic is reduced by grinding procedures such as milling and fitting adjustment. Ceramic microstructure, HF concentration, and etching time determined the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching on the flexural strength and surface roughness of glass-ceramic materials.
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