Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Artificial intelligence models for tooth-supported fixed and removable prosthodontics: A systematic review


      Statement of problem

      Artificial intelligence applications are increasing in prosthodontics. Still, the current development and performance of artificial intelligence in prosthodontic applications has not yet been systematically documented and analyzed.


      The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the performance of the artificial intelligence models in prosthodontics for tooth shade selection, automation of restoration design, mapping the tooth preparation finishing line, optimizing the manufacturing casting, predicting facial changes in patients with removable prostheses, and designing removable partial dentures.

      Material and methods

      An electronic systematic review was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus. A manual search was also conducted. Studies with artificial intelligence models were selected based on 6 criteria: tooth shade selection, automated fabrication of dental restorations, mapping the finishing line of tooth preparations, optimizing the manufacturing casting process, predicting facial changes in patients with removable prostheses, and designing removable partial dentures. Two investigators independently evaluated the quality assessment of the studies by applying the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies (nonrandomized experimental studies). A third investigator was consulted to resolve lack of consensus.


      A total of 36 articles were reviewed and classified into 6 groups based on the application of the artificial intelligence model. One article reported on the development of an artificial intelligence model for tooth shade selection, reporting better shade matching than with conventional visual selection; 14 articles reported on the feasibility of automated design of dental restorations using different artificial intelligence models; 1 artificial intelligence model was able to mark the margin line without manual interaction with an average accuracy ranging from 90.6% to 97.4%; 2 investigations developed artificial intelligence algorithms for optimizing the manufacturing casting process, reporting an improvement of the design process, minimizing the porosity on the cast metal, and reducing the overall manufacturing time; 1 study proposed an artificial intelligence model that was able to predict facial changes in patients using removable prostheses; and 17 investigations that developed clinical decision support, expert systems for designing removable partial dentures for clinicians and educational purposes, computer-aided learning with video interactive programs for student learning, and automated removable partial denture design.


      Artificial intelligence models have shown the potential for providing a reliable diagnostic tool for tooth shade selection, automated restoration design, mapping the preparation finishing line, optimizing the manufacturing casting, predicting facial changes in patients with removable prostheses, and designing removable partial dentures, but they are still in development. Additional studies are needed to further develop and assess their clinical performance.
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