Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

An assessment of the passivity of the fit of multiunit screw-retained implant frameworks manufactured by using additive and subtractive technologies


      Statement of problem

      The lack of passive fit in implant-supported restorations can lead to mechanical and biological complications and compromise the longevity of the prosthesis. The manufacturing technique and evaluation site are factors that may affect the passive fit of multiunit screw-retained implant frameworks. However, scientific information regarding this issue is lacking.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of manufacturing technique and evaluation site on the passive fit of multiunit screw-retained implant frameworks.

      Material and methods

      Two multiunit implant analogs were placed into the right second premolar and second molar sites of a mandibular typodont model. A total of 50 3-unit Co-Cr frameworks were fabricated with 3 indirect (conventional technique, polymethyl methacrylate milling, stereolithography) and 2 direct techniques (selective laser melting and soft alloy milling). The patterns obtained by indirect techniques were subsequently cast. The Sheffield test was used for the assessment. Digital images of the sites were obtained by using a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification, and the measurement points (n=10 for each site) were examined to record the vertical marginal discrepancy values (μm) with the aid of a measuring software program. The collected data were subjected to the 2-way ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05).


      The influence of the manufacturing technique (variable 1) on the vertical marginal discrepancy values was statistically significant (P<.001). However, the evaluation site (variable 2) (P=.097) and the interaction of the variables (P=.960) were not statistically significant. The lowest misfit values were observed for selective laser melting (74.2 ±20.5 μm) followed by stereolithography (92.8 ±23.9 μm), soft alloy milling (108.4 ±12.0 μm), polymethyl methacrylate milling (116.7 ±17.0 μm), and conventional technique (137.5 ±18.9 μm). The vertical marginal discrepancy values of the selective laser melting group were significantly lower than those of all other groups (P<.05).


      The manufacturing technique significantly affected the passive fit. selective laser melting–fabricated frameworks demonstrated superior fitting accuracy. Among the indirect techniques, stereolithography-fabricated frameworks revealed the lowest misfit values. The vertical marginal discrepancy values of all manufacturing groups were within the range of clinical acceptability (<150 μm).
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