Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Effect of ultraviolet protective agents on maxillofacial silicone elastomer, part 2: Mechanical properties after artificial aging


      Statement of problem

      The addition of ultraviolet (UV) protectives may affect the materials’ mechanical properties, which can limit the service life of facial prostheses.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of UV protectives on the mechanical properties of maxillofacial silicones after artificial aging.

      Material and methods

      Six color groups (unpigmented, white, yellow, red, blue, and mixed) of addition-type maxillofacial silicone were prepared. Four UV protectives, benzophenone-3 (UV-BP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (UV-EM), titanium dioxide (UV-TD), and ethylhexyl salicylate (UV-ES), at 0.5% and 1% concentrations by weight were incorporated into the silicone before polymerization. The specimens were subjected to accelerated aging in a weathering chamber for 300 and 600 hours and to thermocycling. The tensile strength and percentage elongation, tear strength, and hardness of maxillofacial silicones were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using 4-way ANOVA. The differences were compared by the Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05).


      Tensile strength decreased after 300 and 600 hours of UV aging in 0.5% and 1% UV-BP protective–added groups and increased in thermocycled groups (P<.05). Aging conditions generally showed no effect on the tensile strength of UV-EM, UV-TD, and UV-ES added groups (P>.05). Aging generated a decrease in percentage elongation values compared with nonaged specimens of groups (P<.05). The addition of UV protectives generally did not significantly affect the tear strength of specimens compared with control in the aged groups (P>.05). The hardness of UV protective–added groups increased when compared with that of nonaged groups after 300 and 600 hours of UV aging (P<.05). Also, thermally aged groups showed increased hardness than nonaged groups (P<.05).


      The protective UV-BP addition caused decreased tensile strength, percentage elongation, and tear strength in both concentrations. The UV-EM and UV-ES provided increases in tensile strength and percentage elongation of the silicone in the 0.5% concentration. The addition of UV-BP, UV-EM, and UV-ES did not make significant differences; however, UV-TD significantly decreased the hardness values of the silicone.
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