Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research and Education|Articles in Press

Dimensional changes of complete dentures fabricated by milled and printed techniques: An in vitro study


      Statement of problem

      Information on the dimensional changes in maxillary and mandibular dentures made by using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) techniques under uniform testing conditions is lacking.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dimensional changes and reproducibility of maxillary and mandibular dentures by using CAD-CAM-milled and 3D-printed techniques.

      Material and methods

      Maxillary and mandibular edentulous models with wax occlusal rims were scanned, and dentures were designed by using a CAD software program and fabricated by using 2 techniques and materials: CAD-CAM-milled (CCM) and 3D-printed (3DP). The 3DP fabrications included 4 subgroups: dentures printed with a 90-degree build angle with UV light polymerization on the reference model (3DP 90M), dentures printed with a 90-degree build angle and light polymerization without the reference model (3DP 90), dentures printed with a 45-degree build angle with light polymerization on the reference model (3DP 45M), and dentures printed with a 45-degree build angle and light polymerization without the reference model (3DP 45). The preprocessing and postprocessing scan files of each denture produced by CCM and 3DP were superimposed by using a surface matching software program. Ten points each on maxillary and mandibular dentures were measured for deviations after processing. Additionally, for each denture, the widths were measured between the canines and molars, the anteroposterior plane from cusp tips between the canines and molars, and the vertical plane from the cusp tip of the canines to the marginal gingiva. They were then compared with those in the denture design CAD cast. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test was used for statistical analyses (α=.05).


      According to digital superimposition, CCM had the smallest values of deviation with no statistical difference (P>.05), indicating more uniform results from measurement points in both maxillary and mandibular dentures, followed by 3DP 90M, 3DP 90, 3DP 45M, and 3DP 45. Regarding the width measurements, CCM had the smallest values of deviation (P<.05). In 3DP, smaller deviation values were observed at the vertical plane from the tip of the canine to the marginal gingiva, and larger values were observed in the intermolar width (P<.05).


      CCM exhibited smaller dimensional changes and better reproducibility among the tested techniques. In 3DP, the build angle and methods of light postprocessing influenced the dimensional stability. The 90-degree build angle with additional light polymerization on the cast improved the dimensional deviations.
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