Advertisement
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Evaluation of the 3D error of 2 face-scanning systems: An in vitro analysis

      Abstract

      Statement of problem

      Facial scanning systems have been developed as auxiliary tools for diagnosis and planning in dentistry. However, little is known about the trueness of these free software programs and apps for facial scanning.

      Purpose

      The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the trueness of 3D facial scanning by using Bellus3D and +ID ReCap Photo.

      Material and methods

      A mannequin head was used as the master model. The control group was created by scanning the mannequin head with a noncontact structured blue light 3D scanner (ATOS Core). Two facial scanning methods were used for the experimental groups: a facial scanning app (FaceApp) and the Plus identity photogrammetry methodology (ReCap Photo). In both methods, image capturing was performed under the same natural lighting conditions with a smartphone (iPhone X) calibrated with an app. Trueness was assessed from the 3D measurement error, which was calculated with a 3D mesh analysis software program (GOM Inspect). Two comparison groups were created: ATOS versus Bellus3D (B3D) and ATOS versus +ID with ReCap Photo (+IDRP). The results were statistically evaluated by using the Shapiro-Wilk and paired t tests (α=.05).

      Results

      B3D had a greater error than +IDRP in measuring the regions of the upper and lower lips, nose, and mentum (P<.01). This error was statistically higher for +IDRP (P<.01) in the right face area, but the left face area showed no statistically significant difference between the evaluated scanning methods (P=.93). The 3D global trueness of B3D was 0.34 ±0.14 mm, and that of +IDRP was 0.28 ±0.06 mm.

      Conclusions

      Both methods evaluated in this study provided a 3D model of the face with clinically acceptable trueness and should be reliable tools for planning esthetic restorations.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Piedra-Cascón W.
        • Meyer M.J.
        • Methani M.M.
        • Revilla-León M.
        Accuracy (trueness and precision) of a dual-structured light facial scanner and interexaminer reliability.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2020; 124: 567-574
        • Joda T.
        • Gallucci G.O.
        The virtual patient in dental medicine.
        Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015; 26: 725-726
        • Sailer I.
        • Liu S.
        • Mörzinger R.
        • Lancelle M.
        • Beeler T.
        • Gross M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of user satisfaction and image quality of fixed and mobile camera systems for 3-dimensional image capture of edentulous patients: a pilot clinical study.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2018; 120: 520-524
        • Liu S.
        • Srinivasan M.
        • Morzinger R.
        • Lancelle M.
        • Beeler T.
        • Gross M.
        • et al.
        Reliability of a three-dimensional facial camera for dental and medical applications: a pilot study.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2019; 122: 282-287
        • Koban K.C.
        • Leitsch S.
        • Holzbach T.
        • Volkmer E.
        • Metz P.M.
        • Giunta R.E.
        3D-imaging and analysis for plastic surgery by smartphone and tablet: an alternative to professional systems?.
        Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2014; 46: 97-104
        • Artopoulos A.
        • Buytaert J.A.N.
        • Dirckx J.J.J.
        • Coward T.J.
        Comparison of the accuracy of digital stereophotogrammetry and projection Moiré profilometry for three-dimensional imaging of the face.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014; 43: 654-662
        • Amornvit P.
        • Sanohkan S.
        The accuracy of digital face scans obtained from 3D scanners: an In Vitro study.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16: 5061
        • Zhao Y.
        • Xiong Y.
        • Wang Y.
        Three-dimensional accuracy of facial scan for facial deformities in clinics: a new evaluation method for facial scanner accuracy.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12e0169402
        • Knoops P.G.M.
        • Beaumont C.A.A.
        • Borghi A.
        • Rodriguez-Florez N.
        • Breakey R.W.F.
        • Rodgers W.
        • et al.
        Comparison of three-dimensional scanner systems for craniomaxillofacial imaging.
        J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017; 70: 441-449
        • Ye H.
        • Lu L.
        • Liu Y.
        • Liu Y.
        • Zhou Y.
        Evaluation of the accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility of two different 3D face-scanning systems.
        Int J Prosthodont. 2016; 29: 213-218
        • Kook M.S.
        • Jung S.
        • Park H.J.
        • Oh H.K.
        • Ryu S.Y.
        • Cho J.H.
        • et al.
        A comparison study of different facial soft tissue analysis methods.
        J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2014; 42: 648-656
        • Germec-Carkan D.
        • Canter H.I.
        • Nur B.
        • Arun T.
        Comparison of facial soft tissue measurements on three-dimensional images and models obtained with different methods.
        J Craniofac Surg. 2010; 21: 1393-1399
        • Gamarra R.S.
        • Seelaus R.
        • Da Silva J.V.L.
        • Da Silva A.M.
        • Dib L.L.
        Monoscopic photogrammetry to obtain 3D models by a mobile device: a method for making facial prostheses.
        J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016; 45: 33
        • Salazar-Gamarra R.
        • Moraes C.
        • Seelaus R.
        • Lopes da Silva J.V.
        • Jauregui J.
        • Dib L.L.
        Introdução à metodologia “Mais Identidade”: Próteses faciais 3D com a utilização de tecnologias accessíveis para pacientes sobreviventes de câncer no rosto.
        2nd ed. Athena, Ponta Grossa2019: 251-272
        • Heike C.L.
        • Upson K.
        • Stuhaug E.
        • Weinberg S.M.
        3D Digital stereophotogrammetry: a practical guide to facial image acquisition.
        Head Face Med. 2010; 28: 6-18
        • Metzler P.
        • Sun Y.
        • Zemann W.
        • Bartella A.
        • Lehner M.
        • Obwegeser J.A.
        • et al.
        Validity of the 3D VECTRA photogrammetric surface imaging system for cranio-maxillofacial anthropometric measurements.
        Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014; 18: 297-304
        • Kim S.H.
        • Jung W.Y.
        • Seo Y.J.
        • Kim K.A.
        • Park K.H.
        • Park Y.G.
        Accuracy and precision of integumental linear dimensions in a three-dimensional facial imaging system.
        Korean J Orthod. 2015; 45: 105-112
        • Hassan B.
        • Gonzalez B.G.
        • Tahmaseb A.
        • Greven M.
        • Wismeijer D.
        A digital approach integrating facial scanning in a CAD-CAM workflow for complete-mouth implant-supported rehabilitation of patients with edentulism: a pilot clinical study.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2017; 117: 486-492
        • Aung S.C.
        • Ngim R.C.K.
        • Lee S.T.
        Evaluation of the laser scanner as a surface measuring tool and its accuracy compared with direct facial anthropometric measurements.
        Br J Plast Surg. 1995; 48: 551-558
        • Aldridge K.
        • Boyadjiev S.A.
        • Capone G.T.
        • DeLeon V.B.
        • Richtsmeier J.T.
        Precision and error of three-dimensional phenotypic measures acquired from 3dMD photogrammetric images.
        Am J Med Genet A. 2005; 15: 247-253
        • Wong J.Y.
        • Oh A.K.
        • Ohta E.
        • Hunt A.T.
        • Rogers G.F.
        • Mulliken J.B.
        • et al.
        Validity and reliability of craniofacial anthropometric measurement of 3D digital photogrammetric images.
        Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008; 45: 232-239
        • Dornelles R.F.V.
        • Alonso N.
        New virtual tool for accurate evaluation of facial volume.
        Acta Cir Bras. 2017; 32: 1075-1086
        • Rudy H.L.
        • Wake N.
        • Yee J.
        • Garfein E.S.
        • Tepper O.M.
        Three-dimensional facial scanning at the fingertips of patients and surgeons: accuracy and precision testing of iPhone X three-dimensional scanner.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020; 146: 1407-1417
        • Maués C.P.R.
        • Casagrande R.C.C.
        • Almeida M.A.O.
        • Almeida F.A.R.
        Three-dimensional surface models of the facial soft tissues acquired with a low-cost scanner.
        Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018; 47: 1219-1225
        • Renne W.
        • Ludlow M.
        • Fryml J.
        • Schurch Z.
        • Mennito A.
        • Kessler R.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the accuracy of 7 digital scanners: an in vitro analysis based on 3-dimensional comparisons.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2017; 118: 36-42
        • Bohner L.
        • Canto G.
        • Silva B.
        • Laganá D.
        • Sesma S.
        • Tortamano P.
        Computer-aided analysis of digital dental impressions obtained from intraoral and extraoral scanners.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2017; 118: 617-623
      1. (Pub. No. 200)International vocabulary of metrology – basic and general concepts and associated terms. 3rd ed. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Paris2012 (Available at:)