Clinical Research| Volume 129, ISSUE 5, P732-740, May 2023

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Mechanical complications of implant-supported restorations with internal conical connection implants: A 14-year retrospective study

Published:September 01, 2021DOI:


      Statement of problem

      Internal conical connections have become the primary choice for implant-supported restorations. However, studies that identified the risk indicators for mechanical complications and diagnosed the prognosis of the implant-supported restorations are lacking.


      The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the incidence and consequences of mechanical complications in components of internal conical connection implants and to analyze the risk indicators.

      Material and methods

      A total of 428 patients with 898 internal conical connection implants were included in the study, and mechanical complications over the 14-year observation period were evaluated. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to analyze significant effects on mechanical complications, which were presented as hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval.


      Mechanical complications occurred in 430 (47.9%) implants and 248 (57.9%) patients: screw loosening (46.4% of implants, 56.8% of patients); screw fracture (2.6% of implants, 4.4% of patients); abutment fracture (11.4% of implants, 21.3% of patients); and implant fracture (3.5% of implants, 5.4% of patients). Implant restorations replacing molars showed the highest risk for mechanical complication (hazard ratio 12.82; 95% confidence interval 2.73-60.31) and for fracture of all components. Men had a higher risk of mechanical complication than women (hazard ratio 2.00; 95% confidence interval 1.55-2.59), and the risk of fracture was higher in all components. With increased splinted implants, the risk of mechanical complication (hazard ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.93) and component fracture (hazard ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.89) decreased. Gold screws had a lower risk of screw loosening (hazard ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.94) than titanium screws, but a higher risk of fracture (hazard ratio 3.45; 95% confidence interval 1.42-8.36). The smaller the implant diameter, the higher the risk of implant fracture (hazard ratio 0.01; 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.05).


      Abutments were most frequently fractured among the components of internal conical connection type implants. Molar implant-supported restorations and male patients had higher risks of mechanical complications, and as the number of splinted implants in a prosthesis increased, the risk decreased. Gold screws showed less risk of screw loosening and higher risk of fracture than titanium screws. Narrow-diameter implants had a higher risk of fracture.
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