Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Effect of oxidation heat treatment with airborne-particle abrasion on the shear bond strength of ceramic to base metal alloys


      Statement of problem

      Oxidation heat treatment has been studied to increase the metal-ceramic bond strength. However, information about its use with cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys is lacking.


      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidation heat treatment and oxidation heat treatment with alumina airborne-particle abrasion on the metal-ceramic bond strength of Co-Cr alloys compared with that of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys.

      Material and methods

      In total, 165 metal cylinders (∅5×8 mm) made of 5 base metal alloys were obtained by casting: 2 Ni-Cr (Fit Cast-SB and Fit Cast-V) and 3 Co-Cr alloys (Keragen, StarLoy C, and Remanium 2001). The specimens were divided into groups (n=11): no treatment, oxidation heat treatment, and oxidation heat treatment with airborne-particle abrasion. Oxidation heat treatment was performed starting at 650 °C and rising to 980 °C. The airborne-particle abrasion was performed with 100-μm alumina (0.2-MPa pressure, 5 seconds). One specimen had the surface topography and composition evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The feldspathic ceramic was applied to the base metal alloy specimens (n=10). Shear tests were performed to obtain the metal-ceramic bond strength (MPa). The failure modes were evaluated. Data were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey post hoc test, Pearson correlation, and Fisher exact tests (α=.05).


      The group without treatment showed the highest roughness. The treatments increased oxygen and chromium levels and decreased nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten levels. Oxidation heat treatment provided an increase in metal-ceramic bond strength (P<.05) for base metal alloys with over 7% molybdenum (Fit Cast-SB, Fit Cast-V, and Remanium 2001). With oxidation heat treatment with airborne-particle abrasion, there was improvement only in Fit Cast-SB. No treatment was better for StarLoy C. A weak correlation was found between metal-ceramic bond strength and failure mode (ρ=.166; P=.043). The mixed failures were prevalent in Co-Cr alloys (P<.001) and oxidation heat treatment with airborne-particle abrasion (P=.008).


      The oxidation heat treatment was only beneficial for base metal alloy with a molybdenum content of over 7%. Although the oxidation heat treatment with alumina airborne-particle abrasion was a better treatment for Fit Cast-SB, its use is not justified because it showed no difference for oxidation heat treatment and requires another step in the surface treatment.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Belkhode V.M.
        • Nimonkar S.V.
        • Godbole S.R.
        • Nimonkar P.
        • Sathe S.
        • Borle A.
        Evaluation of the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of non-precious alloy‒ceramic interface: an SEM study.
        J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2019; 13: 200-207
        • Li J.
        • Chen C.
        • Liao J.
        • Liu L.
        • Ye X.
        • Lin S.
        • et al.
        Bond strengths of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys made by casting, milling, and selective laser melting.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2017; 118: 69-75
        • Kelly J.R.
        • Rose T.C.
        Nonprecious alloys for use in fixed prosthodontics: a literature review.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1983; 49: 363-370
        • Eliasson A.
        • Arnelund C.F.
        • Johansson A.
        A clinical evaluation of cobalt-chromium metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures and crowns: a three-to seven year retrospective study.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2007; 98: 6-16
        • Lombardo G.H.
        • Nishioka R.S.
        • Souza R.O.
        • Michida S.M.
        • Kojima A.N.
        • Mesquita A.M.
        • et al.
        Influence of surface treatment on the shear bond strength of ceramics fused to cobalt-chromium.
        J Prosthodont. 2010; 19: 103-111
        • Zhou Y.
        • Wei W.
        • Yan J.
        • Liu W.
        • Li N.
        • Li H.
        • et al.
        Microstructures and metal-ceramic bond properties of Co-Cr biomedical alloys fabricated by selective laser melting and casting.
        Mater Sci Eng A. 2019; 759: 594-602
        • De Melo R.M.
        • Travassos A.C.
        • Neisser M.P.
        Shear bond strengths of a ceramic system to alternative metal alloys.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2005; 93: 64-69
        • Akova T.
        • Ucar Y.
        • Tukay A.
        • Balkaya M.C.
        • Brantley W.A.
        Comparison of the bond strength of laser-sintered and cast base metal dental alloys to porcelain.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 1400-1404
        • Joias R.M.
        • Tango R.N.
        • Junho de Araujo J.E.
        • Junho de Araujo M.A.
        • Ferreira Anzaloni Saavedra G.S.
        • Paes-Junior T.J.
        • et al.
        Shear bond strength of a ceramic to Co-Cr alloys.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2008; 99: 54-59
        • Knap F.J.
        • Ryge G.
        Study of bond strength of dental porcelain fused to metal.
        J Dent Res. 1966; 45: 1047-1051
        • Bruggers K.
        • Corcoran C.
        • Jeansonne E.E.
        • Sarkar N.K.
        Role of manganese in alloy-porcelain bonding.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1986; 55: 453-456
        • Bagby M.
        • Marshall S.J.
        • Marshall Jr., G.W.
        Metal ceramic compatibility: a review of the literature.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1990; 63: 21-25
        • Hammad I.A.
        • Stein R.S.
        A qualitative study for the bond and color of ceramometals. Part I.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1990; 63: 643-653
        • Hammad I.A.
        • Talic Y.F.
        Designs of bond strength tests for metal–ceramic complexes: review of the literature.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1996; 75: 602-608
        • Huang H.H.
        • Lin M.C.
        • Lee T.H.
        • Yang H.W.
        • Chen F.L.
        • Wu S.C.
        • et al.
        Effect of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding characterization between porcelain and metal.
        J Oral Rehabil. 2005; 32: 206-212
        • Roach M.
        Base metals alloys used for dental restorations and implants.
        Dent Clin North Am. 2007; 51: 603-627
        • Van Noort R.
        Introduction to Dental Materials.
        11th ed. Mosby, St. Louis2013: 197-203
        • Mackert Jr., J.R.
        • Parry E.E.
        • Hashinger D.T.
        • Fairhurst C.W.
        Measurement of oxide adherence to PFM alloys.
        J Dent Res. 1984; 63: 1335-1340
        • Henriques B.
        • Silva F.
        • Soares D.
        Analysis of CoCrMo surface oxide removal by alumina blasting before porcelain firing in dental restorations.
        Mater-Sci. 2012; 730: 9-14
        • Li J.
        • Ye X.
        • Li B.
        • Liao J.
        • Zhuang P.
        • Ye J.
        Effect of oxidation heat treatment on the bond strength between a ceramic and cast and milled cobalt-chromium alloys.
        Eur J Oral Sci. 2015; 123: 297-304
        • Wagner W.C.
        • Asgar K.
        • Bigelow W.C.
        • Flinn R.A.
        Effect of interfacial variables on metal-porcelain bonding.
        J Biomed Mater Res. 1993; 27: 531-537
        • Powers J.M.
        • Wataha J.C.
        Dental materials: Foundations and Applications.
        11th ed. Elsevier, St. Louis2017: 139-153
        • Ozcan M.
        Fracture reasons in ceramic-fused-to-metal restorations.
        J Oral Rehabil. 2003; 30: 265-269
        • Sced I.R.
        • McLean J.W.
        The strength of metal-ceramic bonds with base metals containing chromium. A preliminary report.
        Br Dent J. 1972; 132: 232-234
        • Daftary F.
        • Donovan T.
        Effect of four pretreatment techniques on porcelain-to-metal bond strength.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1986; 56: 535-539
        • Wu Y.
        • Moser J.B.
        • Jameson L.M.
        • Malone W.F.
        The effect of oxidation heat treatment on porcelain bond strength in selected base metal alloys.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1991; 66: 439-444
        • Graham J.D.
        • Johnson A.
        • Wildgoose D.G.
        • Shareef M.Y.
        • Cannavina G.
        The effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of a nonprecious alloy-ceramic interface.
        Int J Prosthodont. 1999; 12: 330-334
        • Rezaei Rokni S.H.
        • Baradaran H.
        The effect of oxide layer thickness on bond strength of porcelain to Ni-Cr alloy.
        J Mashhad Dent Sch. 2007; 31: 17-21
        • Rathi S.
        • Parkash H.
        • Chittaranjan B.
        • Bhargava A.
        Oxidation heat treatment affecting metal-ceramic bonding.
        Indian J Dent Res. 2011; 22: 877-878
        • Henriques B.
        • Soares D.
        • Silva F.S.
        Influence of preoxidation cycle on the bond strength of CoCrMoSi–porcelain dental composites.
        Mater Sci Eng C. 2012; 32: 2374-2380
        • Lahori M.
        • Nagrath R.
        • Sisodia S.
        • Dagar P.
        The effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of a nonprecious alloy-ceramic interface: an in vitro study.
        J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2014; 14: 151-155
        • Leal M.B.
        • Pagnano V.O.
        • Bezzon O.L.
        Effect of investment type and mold temperature on casting accuracy and titanium-ceramic bond.
        Braz Dent J. 2013; 24: 40-46
        • Pagnano V.O.
        • Esquivel M.C.
        • Leal M.B.
        • Felipucci D.N.B.
        • Bezzon O.L.
        Effect of casting atmosphere on the shear bond strength of a ceramic to Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Be alloys.
        Braz Dent J. 2009; 20: 138-142
        • Bryant R.A.
        • Nicholls J.I.
        Measurement of distortions in fixed partial dentures resulting from degassing.
        J Prosthet Dent. 1979; 42: 515-520
        • International Organization for Standardization
        ISO 9693-1:2012. Dentistry - Compatibility testing - Part 1: Metal-ceramic systems. Geneva: ISO.
        (Available at:)