Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Research and Education| Volume 127, ISSUE 2, P275.e1-275.e7, February 2022

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Failure load of milled, 3D-printed, and conventional chairside-dispensed interim 3-unit fixed dental prostheses

Published:December 10, 2021DOI:


      Statement of problem

      New techniques and materials for the laboratory fabrication of interim fixed dental prostheses have gained in popularity, yet how their failure strengths compare with conventional chairside materials is unclear.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) milled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or 3-dimensionally (3D) printed bis-acryl interim fixed dental prostheses with a traditional chairside-dispensed autopolymerizing bis-acryl prosthesis while taking into account the effect of loading rate and storage time.

      Material and methods

      A dentiform mandibular second premolar and second molar with a first molar pontic were prepared and scanned. Three groups of 3-unit interim fixed dental prostheses were fabricated: milled PMMA, 3D-printed bis-acryl, and chairside-dispensed autopolymerizing bis-acryl. The interim prostheses were evaluated for fit with a silicone disclosing material and cemented onto 3D-printed resin dies. The specimens were stored in 100% humidity at 37 °C. After 1 or 30 days of storage, the cemented interim prostheses were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 1 or 10 mm/min (n=15/group). Failure loads were analyzed by 3-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons (α=.05).


      Mean ±standard deviation failure loads ranged from 363 ±93 N (3D-printed bis-acryl, 30 days, 1 mm/min) to 729 ±113 N (milled PMMA, 24 hours, 1 mm/min). Loading rate did not significantly affect failure load of the interim prostheses (P=.306). After 30 days of storage in 100% humidity, the failure load of milled PMMA and 3D-printed bis-acryl interim prostheses decreased significantly, but the chairside autopolymerizing bis-acryl prostheses were not affected. After 30 days of storage, the failure loads of milled PMMA and chairside autopolymerizing bis-acryl were not significantly different.


      Regardless of loading rate, interim fixed dental prostheses from milled PMMA had the highest initial strength 1 day after storage. Thirty days of exposure to humidity, however, reduced the strength of the CAD-CAM–manufactured interim prostheses, whereas the traditional chairside prostheses retained their strength.
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