Advertisement
Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Comparative analysis of the surface properties and corrosion resistance of Co-Cr dental alloys fabricated by different methods

  • Xiaojie Xing
    Affiliations
    Graduate student, Graduate Prosthodontics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial & Stomatological Key Lab of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Qin Hu
    Affiliations
    Graduate student, Graduate Prosthodontics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial & Stomatological Key Lab of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yuan Liu
    Affiliations
    Graduate student, Graduate Prosthodontics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial & Stomatological Key Lab of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yinghui Wang
    Affiliations
    Researcher, Institute of Stomatology & Research Center of Dental Esthetics and Biomechanics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Hui Cheng
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Dr Hui Cheng, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, 246 Yangqiao Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, Box 350001, Fuzhou 86-18960883888, PR CHINA
    Affiliations
    Professor, Institute of Stomatology & Research Center of Dental Esthetics and Biomechanics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Statement of problems

      The complex oral environment leads to the corrosion of dental alloy materials and the release of metal ions that may have a negative impact on health. Digital manufacturing is increasingly being used in dentistry, but whether digitally manufactured prostheses have better resistance to corrosion than traditional cast prostheses is unclear.

      Purpose

      The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the surface properties and corrosion resistance of dental cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys fabricated by lost-wax casting (CAST), selective laser melting (SLM), and computer numerical control milling (CNC).

      Material and methods

      The surface characteristics of the specimens were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), metallurgical observation, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For corrosion resistance, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva at a pH 2.3 and 6.8 for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. Then, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect the main metal ion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted based on a 3-electrode system to assess the electrochemical corrosion resistance. An ANOVA test was used to evaluate statistically significant differences among the groups (α=.05).

      Results

      The SLM and CNC specimens showed more homogenous microstructures, less ion release at different times and pH, and more charge transfer resistance than CAST specimens.

      Conclusions

      Compared with casting, SLM-printing and CNC-milling have advantages in terms of surface properties and corrosion resistance.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Anusavice K.J.
        • Kakar K.
        • Ferree N.
        Which mechanical and physical testing methods are relevant for predicting the clinical performance of ceramic-based dental prostheses?.
        Clinic Oral Implants Res. 2007; 18: 218-231
        • Joias R.M.
        • Tango R.N.
        • De Araujo J.E.J.
        Shear bond strength of a ceramic to a Co-Cr alloys.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2008; 99: 54-59
        • De Melo R.M.
        • Travassos A.C.
        • Neisser M.P.
        Shear bond strengths of a ceramic system to alternative metal alloys.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2005; 93: 64-69
        • Castillo-Oyague R.
        • Osorio R.
        • Osorio E.
        The effect of surface treatments on the micro-roughness of laser-sintered and vacuum-cast base metal alloys for dental prosthetic frameworks.
        Micros Res Tech. 2012; 75: 1206-1212
        • Lombardo G.H.L.
        • Nishioka R.S.
        • Souza R.O.
        Influence of surface treatment on the shear bond strength of ceramics fused to cobalt-chromium.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2010; 19: 103-111
        • Lee D.H.
        • Lee B.J.
        • Kim S.H.
        Shear bond strength of porcelain to a new Milled alloy and a conventional cast alloy.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2015; 113: 329-335
        • Aslam A.
        • Khan D.A.
        • Hassan S.H.
        Ceramic fracture in metal-ceramic restorations: the etiology.
        Dent Update. 2017; 44: 448-456
        • Al Jabbari Y.S.
        Physico-mechanical properties and prosthodontic applications of Co-Cr dental alloys: a review of the literature.
        J Adv Prosthodont. 2014; 6: 138-145
        • Serra-Prat J.
        • Cano-Batalla J.
        • Cabratosa-Termes J.
        Adhesion of dental porcelain to cast, milled, and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloys: shear bond strength and sensitivity to thermo-cycling.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2014; 112: 600-605
        • Sun J.
        • Zhang F.Q.
        The application of rapid prototyping in prosthodontics.
        J Prosthodontics. 2012; 21: 641-644
        • Li J.Y.
        • Chen C.J.
        • Liao J.K.
        Bond strengths of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys made by casting, milling, and selective laser melting.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2016; 118: 69-75
        • Han X.T.
        • Tomofumi S.
        • Christine S.
        Comparative analysis of mechanical properties and metal-ceramic bond strength of Co-Cr dental alloy fabricated by different manufacturing processes.
        Materials. 2018; 11: 1-15
        • Tara M.A.
        • Eschbach S.
        • Bohlsen F.
        Clinical outcome of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with laser sintering technology.
        Int J Prosthodontics. 2011; 24: 46-48
        • Svanborga P.
        • Hjalmarssona L.
        A systematic review on the accuracy of manufacturing techniques for cobalt chromium fixed dental prostheses.
        Biomater Investig Dent. 2020; 7: 31-40
        • Kim R.H.
        Microstructures and mechanical properties of Co-Cr dental alloys fabricated by three CAD/CAM-based processing techniques.
        Materials. 2016; 9: 1-14
        • Ren X.W.
        • Zeng L.
        • Wei Z.M.
        Effects of multiple firings on metal-ceramic bond strength of Co-Cr alloy fabricated by selective laser melting.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2016; 115: 109-114
        • Koutsoukis T.
        • Zinelis S.
        • Eliades G.
        Selective laser melting technique of Co-Cr dental alloys: a review of structure and properties and comparative analysis with other available techniques.
        J Prosthodontics. 2015; 24: 303-312
        • Holm C.
        In vitro element release and biological aspects of base-metal alloys for metal-ceramic applications.
        Acta Biomater Odontol Scand. 2015; 1: 70-75
        • Imamura T.
        Infiltration of trace metal ions in the oral mucosa of a rat analyzed using SRXRF, XAFS, and ICP-MS.
        Dent Mater J. 2015; 34: 814-821
        • Jia Xy
        • Wang Q.
        • Meng H.
        Effects of different dental alloys on cytotoxic and apoptosis related genes expression in L929 Cells.
        J Hard Tissue Biol. 2010; 19: 95-100
        • Xin X.Z.
        • Chen J.
        • Xiang N.
        Surface characteristics and corrosion properties of selective laser melted Co–Cr dental alloy after porcelain firing.
        Dent Mater. 2014; 303: 264-270
        • International Organization for Standardization
        ISO 4499-1: Hard metals-metallographic determination of microstructure. Part 1: Photomicrographs and description.
        ISO, Geneva2020
        • International Organization for Standardization
        ISO 13565-1: Geometrical product specifications (GPS)-Surface texture: Profile method; surfaces having stratified functional properties. Part 1: Filtering and general measurement conditions.
        ISO, Geneva1998
        • Fusayama T.
        • Katayori T.
        • Nomoto S.
        Corrosion of gold and amalgam placed in contact with each other.
        J Dent Res. 1963; 42: 1183-1197
        • Kedici S.P.
        • Aksüt A.A.
        • Kílíçarslan M.A.
        Corrosion behavior of dental metals and alloys in different media.
        J Oral Rehabil. 2010; 25: 800-808
        • International Organization for Standardization
        ISO 10271: Dentistry-Corrosion test methods for metallic material.
        ISO, Geneva2011
        • Fang X.X.
        • Wang S.Q.
        • Li D.H.
        Effect of synovial fluid temperature on the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo alloys.
        Mater Corros. 2020; 71: 1346-1360
        • Xin X.Z.
        • Xiang N.
        • Chen J.
        Corrosion characteristics of a selective laser melted Co–Cr dental alloy under physiological conditions.
        J Mater Sci. 2012; 47: 4813-4820
        • Zander D.
        • Zumdick N.A.
        Influence of Ca and Zn on the microstructure and corrosion of biodegradable Mg-Ca-Zn alloys.
        Corros Sci. 2015; 93: 222-233
        • Cimpean A.
        • Vasilescu E.
        • Drob P.
        Enhancement of the electrochemical behaviour and biological performance of Ti–25Ta–5Zr alloy by thermo-mechanical processing.
        Mater Sci Eng C-Mater. 2014; 38: 127-142
        • Eliaz N.
        Corrosion of Metallic Biomaterials: a Review.
        Materials (Basel). 2019; 12: 407
        • Zhou Y.N.
        • Li N.
        • Yan J.Z.
        Comparative analysis of the microstructures and mechanical properties of Co-Cr dental alloys fabricated by different methods.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2018; 1204: 1-7
        • Li K.C.
        • Prior D.J.
        • Waddell J.N.
        Comparison of the microstructure and phase stability of as-cast, CAD/CAM and powder metallurgy manufactured Co–Cr dental alloys.
        Dent Mater. 2015; 31: e306-e315
        • Tsustumi Y.
        • Doi H.
        • Nomura N.
        Surface composition and corrosion resistance of Co-Cr alloys containing high chromium.
        Materials Transactions. 2016; 57: 2033-2040
        • Zhang Q.K.
        • Lin N.
        • He Y.H.
        Effects of Mo additions on the corrosion behavior of WC–TiC–Ni hardmetals in acidic solutions.
        Int J Refract Met H. 2013; 38: 15-25
        • Mayuzumi M.
        • Ohta J.
        • Kako K.
        Effect of various impurities on the trans-passive corrosion of high-purity Fe-18%Cr-14%Ni Alloys.
        Corrosion. 2001; 57: 889-897
        • Malayoglu U.
        • Neville A.
        Mo and W as alloying elements in Co-based alloys-their effects on erosion–corrosion resistance.
        Wear. 2005; 259: 219-229
        • Forster A.
        Human epithelial tissue culture study on restorative materials.
        J Dent. 2014; 42: 7-14
        • Qiu J.
        • Yu W.Q.
        • Zhang F.Q.
        Corrosion behavior and surface analysis of a Co-Cr and two Ni–Cr dental alloys before and after simulated porcelain firing.
        Eur J Oral Sci. 2011; 119: 93-101
        • Hauglia K.H.
        • Syverudb M.
        • Samuelsenb J.T.
        Ion release from three different dental alloys-effect of dynamic loading and toxicity of released elements.
        Biomater Investig Dent. 2020; 7: 71-79
        • Xu J.
        • JY Y.
        • Nyga A.
        Cobalt (II) ions and nanoparticles induce macrophage retention by ROS-mediated down-regulation of RhoA expression.
        Acta Biomater. 2018; 72: 434-446
        • Shettlemore M.G.
        • Bundy K.J.
        Examination of in vivo influences on bioluminescent microbial assessment of corrosion product toxicity.
        Biomaterials. 2001; 22: 2215-2228
        • Puskar T.
        • Jevremovic D.
        • Williams R.J.
        A comparative analysis of the corrosive effect of artificial saliva of variable pH on DMLS and cast Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy.
        Materials (Basel). 2014; 7: 6486-6501
        • Lucchetti M.C.
        • Fratto G.
        • Valeriani F.
        Cobalt-chromium alloys in dentistry: An evaluation of metal ion release.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2015; 114: 602-608
        • Xin X.Z.
        • Chen J.
        • Xiang N.
        Surface properties and corrosion behavior of Co–Cr alloy fabricated with selective laser melting technique.
        Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013; 67: 983-990
        • Cai C.
        • Song R.
        • Wang L.
        Surface corrosion behavior and reaction product film deposition mechanism of Mg-Zn-Zr-Nd alloys during degradation process in Hank's solution.
        Surf Coatings Technol. 2018; 342: 57-68
        • Tuna S.H.
        • Özçiçek Pekmez N.
        • Kürkçüoğlu L.
        Corrosion resistance assessment of Co-Cr alloy frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM milling, laser sintering, and casting methods.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2015; 114: 725-734
        • Costa M.
        • Klein C.B.
        Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans.
        Crit Rev Toxicol. 2006; 36: 155-163