Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Fit analysis of stereolithography-manufactured three-unit resin prosthesis with different 3D-printing build orientations and layer thicknesses

  • Gaejun Jang
    Post-Doctor, Department of Prosthodontics & Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Seong-Kyun Kim
    Corresponding author: Dr Seong-Kyun Kim, Department of Prosthodontics & Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
    Professor, Department of Prosthodontics & Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Seong-Joo Heo
    Professor, Department of Prosthodontics & Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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  • Jai-Young Koak
    Professor, Department of Prosthodontics & Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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      Statement of problem

      Printing conditions can affect the fit of a 3-dimensionally (3D) printed prosthesis. Therefore, it is important to determine the optimal printing conditions for stereolithography (SLA)-manufactured prostheses.


      The purpose of this study was to analyze the fit according to the build orientations and layer thicknesses in SLA-manufactured 3-unit resin prostheses.

      Material and methods

      SLA 3D-printed prostheses were produced in 5 build orientations (0, 30, 45, 60, and 90 degrees) and 2 layer thicknesses (50 and 100 μm). Milled prostheses were fabricated from the same design. The mounted prostheses on the master model were scanned with microcomputed tomography (μCT). Data were processed with the NRecon software program. For quantitative analysis, marginal and internal fits were measured by using the imageJ software program in terms of the following metrics: absolute marginal discrepancy, marginal gap, cervical area, midaxial wall area, line-angle area, and occlusal area. Internal gap volume was also measured with the CTAn software program. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used ( α =.05). For qualitative analysis, μCT cross-sections were compared among groups, and intaglio surfaces were imaged with a scanning electron microscope.


      A layer thickness of 50 μm with build orientations of 45 and 60 degrees exhibited smaller mean gap values (P<.05) than the other conditions for all measurements except line-angle area and occlusal area. The scanning electron microscope images showed voids on the intaglio surfaces for the 0- and 90-degree groups.


      For SLA 3D-printed resin prostheses, a difference in fit occurred based on the printing conditions, although both 3D-printed and milled prostheses showed a clinically acceptable fit. When an SLA 3D-printed prosthesis is manufactured under appropriate conditions, a clinically acceptable fit can be obtained.
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