Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Comparative analysis of Candida spp. isolated from complete denture wearers with and without an HIV diagnosis

Published:September 30, 2022DOI:


      Statement of problem

      Denture-related stomatitis (DRS), an inflammation frequently present in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals, can be attributable to colonization by Candida spp., which is considered a main factor. The virulence factors of these species are often modulated by the systemic condition of their hosts.


      The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the incidence, virulence, and morphology of Candida spp. isolated from biofilms of complete denture wearers with DRS, with and without an HIV diagnosis. In addition, the interaction of the systemic condition with the ability of Candida spp. to colonize was evaluated.

      Material and methods

      Fifty-five complete denture wearers diagnosed with DRS were divided into 2 groups: experimental (HIV+) and control (human immunodeficiency virus-noninfected participants [HIV-]). Biofilm was collected by a standardized method of ultrasonification of prostheses. The incidence was evaluated by a chromogenic method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virulence factors were assessed by using the capacity for biofilm formation by counting colony-forming units (CFUs/mL), biofilm metabolism by tetrazolium salt metabolization, and proteinase and phospholipase production by using a fluorimetric kit. Morphology was verified by using the hyphae-inducing test, and participants’ health data were collected with a form. Data were analyzed by using the Student t, Mann-Whitney U, Spearman, and Fisher tests (α=.05).


      The results of incidence were related to 55 participants (22 experimental and 33 control); in total, 63 Candida spp. samples were isolated, showing 28 Candida albicans and 36 nonalbicans strains. No significant difference was found between groups in baseline CFU/mL counts, biofilm formation capacity, cell metabolism, and phospholipase production. Proteinase production was higher for C. albicans in the control (P=.031) and for nonalbicans in the experimental (P=.016) groups. Relative to health data, the experimental group showed a moderate negative correlation between the CFU count/mL at baseline for nonalbicans and DRS classification (P=.020).


      C. albicans was the most prevalent species. No difference was found in the Candida spp. of complete denture wearers with DRS, with and without an HIV diagnosis, with regard to virulence factors (except for proteinase production) and morphology.
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