Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Do preheated composite resin or adhesive resin layer strengthen the feldspar ceramic?


      Statement of problem

      Preheated composite resin and adhesive coating have been recommended as luting agents for ceramic veneers; however, information about the mechanical behavior of feldspathic porcelain veneers after using these methods is still limited.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the use of preheated composite resin or an adhesive resin layer on the strengthening of a feldspathic porcelain.

      Material and methods

      Feldspathic porcelain disks were fabricated (N=210), etched (10% hydrofluoric acid for 90 seconds), and bonded according to resin-based luting agents (30 per group) for the biaxial flexural strength tests: photopolymerized resin cement, flowable composite resin, preheated composite resin, with or without previous adhesive coating. Characteristic strength and Weibull modulus were calculated. The viscosity of the luting agents was measured by using isothermal analyses. Finite element analysis simulated the flexural test. Fractographic and bonded interfaces were observed.


      The use of preheated composite resin led to the lowest stress levels in the feldspathic porcelain veneers. However, it did not increase the ceramic strengthening compared with other luting agents, as higher values were observed with flowable composite resin (P<.05). The use of an adhesive resin layer had no significant effect on ceramic strengthening when associated with preheated composite resin or resin cement (P>.05). Preheated composite resin presented the highest viscosity and led to incomplete filling of the porcelain surface irregularities. Failures originated on the ceramic surface subjected to tensile stress and were typically associated with pores at the ceramic-luting agent interface.


      The use of preheated composite resin or an adhesive resin layer did not have a positive effect on strengthening feldspathic porcelain.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Fleming G.J.
        • Maguire F.R.
        • Bhamra G.
        • Burke F.M.
        • Marquis P.M.
        The strengthening mechanism of resin cements on porcelain surfaces.
        J Dent Res. 2006; 85: 272-276
        • Soares L.D.
        • Basso G.R.
        • Spazzin A.O.
        • Griggs J.
        • Moraes R.R.
        Mechanical reliability of air-abraded and acid-etched bonded feldspar ceramic.
        Dent Mater. 2016; 32: 433-441
        • Spazzin A.O.
        • Guarda G.B.
        • Oliveira-Ogliari A.
        • Leal F.B.
        • Correr-Sobrinho L.
        • Moraes R.R.
        Strengthening of porcelain provided by resin cements and flowable composites.
        Oper Dent. 2016; 41: 179-188
        • Federizzi L.
        • Gomes E.A.
        • Báratro S.S.P.
        • Baratto-Filho F.
        • Bacchi A.
        • Spazzin A.O.
        Use of feldspathic porcelain veneers to improve smile harmony: a 3-year follow-up report.
        Braz Dent J. 2016; 27: 767-774
        • Addison O.
        • Marquis P.M.
        • Fleming G.J.
        Resin elasticity and the strengthening of all-ceramic restorations.
        J Dent Res. 2007; 86: 519-523
        • Spazzin A.O.
        • Bacchi A.
        • Alessandretti R.
        • Santos M.B.
        • Basso G.
        • Griggs J.
        • et al.
        Ceramic strengthening by tuning the elastic moduli of resin-based luting agents.
        Dent Mater. 2017; 33: 358-366
        • Masouras K.
        • Silikas N.
        • Watts D.C.
        Correlation of filler content and elastic properties of resin-composites.
        Dent Mater. 2008; 24: 932-939
        • Kim K.H.
        • Ong J.L.
        • Okuno O.
        The effect of filler loading and morphology on the mechanical properties of contemporary composites.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2002; 87: 642-649
        • Gresnigt M.M.
        • Ozcan M.
        • Carvalho M.
        • Lazari P.
        • Cune M.S.
        • Razavi P.
        • et al.
        Effect of luting agent on the load to failure and accelerated-fatigue resistance of lithium disilicate laminate veneers.
        Dent Mater. 2017; 33: 1392-1401
        • Rickman L.J.
        • Padipatvuthikul P.
        • Chee B.
        Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.
        Br Dent J. 2011; 211: 63-67
        • Beun S.
        • Bailly C.
        • Dabin A.
        • Vreven J.
        • Devaux J.
        • Leloup G.
        Rheological properties of experimental Bis-GMA/TEGDMA flowable resin composites with various macrofiller/microfiller ratio.
        Dent Mater. 2009; 25: 198-205
        • Yang J.N.
        • Raj J.D.
        • Sherlin H.
        Effects of preheated composite on micro leakage - an in-vitro study.
        J. Clin Diagn Res. 2016; 10: 36-38
        • Ahn K.H.
        • Lim S.
        • Kum K.Y.
        • Chang S.W.
        Effect of preheating on the viscoelastic properties of dental composite under different deformation conditions.
        Dent Mater J. 2015; 34: 702-706
        • Ayub K.V.
        • Santos Júnior G.C.
        • Rizkalla A.S.
        • Bohay R.
        • Pegoraro L.F.
        • Rubo J.H.
        • et al.
        Effect of preheating on microhardness and viscosity of 4 resin composites.
        J Can Dent Assoc. 2014; 80: e12
        • Naves L.Z.
        • Soares C.J.
        • Moraes R.R.
        • Gonçalves L.S.
        • Sinhoreti M.A.C.
        • Correr-Sobrinho L.
        Surface/Interface morfology and bond strength to glass ceramic etched for different periods.
        Oper Dent. 2010; 35: 420-427
        • Sundfeld Neto D.
        • Naves L.Z.
        • Costa A.R.
        • Correr A.B.
        • Consani S.
        • Borges G.A.
        • et al.
        The effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the bond strength and morphology of the surface and interface of glass ceramics to a resin cement.
        Oper Dent. 2015; 40: 470-479
        • Kelly J.R.
        • Rungruanganunt P.
        • Hunter B.
        • Vailati F.
        Development of a clinically validated bulk failure test for ceramic crowns.
        Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2010; 104: 228-238
        • Belli R.
        • Wendler M.
        • De Lignyc D.
        • Cicconi M.R.
        • Petschelt A.
        • Peterlik H.
        • et al.
        Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 1: measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization.
        Dent Mater. 2017; 33: 84-88
        • Bacchi A.
        • Consani R.L.
        • Martim G.C.
        • Pfeifer C.S.
        Thio-urethane oligomers improve the properties of light-cured resin cements.
        Dent. Mater. 2015; 31: 565-574
        • De Jager N.
        • Pallav P.
        • Feilzer A.J.
        The apparent increase of the Young’s modulus in thin cement layers.
        Dent Mater. 2004; 20: 457-462
        • Yap A.U.
        • Eweis A.H.
        • Yahya N.A.
        Dynamic viscoelastic characterization of bulk-fill resin-based composites and their conventional counterparts.
        Oper Dent. 2020; 45: 173-182
        • Souza-Lima R.X.
        • Silva L.
        • Chaves L.
        • Geraldeli S.
        • Alonso R.
        • Borges B.
        Extensive assessment of the physical, mechanical and adhesion behavior of a low-viscosity bulk fill composite and a traditional resin composite in tooth cavities.
        Oper Dent. 2017; 42: 159-166
        • Ausiello P.
        • Apicella A.
        • Davidson C.L.
        Effect of adhesive layer properties on stress distribution in composite restorations – a 3 D finite element analysis.
        Dent Mater. 2002; 18: 295-303
        • Addison O.
        • Sodhi A.
        • Fleming G.J.
        Seating load parameters impact on dental ceramic reinforcement conferred by cementation with resin-cements.
        Dent Mater. 2010; 26: 915-921
        • Bacchi A.
        • Spazzin A.O.
        • de Oliveira G.R.
        • Pfeifer C.
        • Cesar P.F.
        Resin cements formulated with thio-urethanes can strengthen porcelain and increase bond strength to ceramics.
        J Dent. 2018; 73: 50-56
        • Fleming G.J.
        • Hooi P.
        • Addison O.
        The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.
        Dent Mater. 2012; 28: 769-776
        • Sundfeld D.
        • Palialol A.R.M.
        • Fugolin A.P.P.
        • Ambrosano G.M.B.
        • Correr-Sobrinho L.
        • Martins L.R.M.
        • et al.
        The effect of hydrofluoric acid and resin cement formulation on the bond strength to lithium disilicate ceramic.
        Braz Oral Res. 2018; 32: e43
        • Sebben J.
        • Canevese V.A.
        • Alessandretti R.
        • Pereira G.K.R.
        • Sarkis-Onofre R.
        • Bacchi A.
        • et al.
        Effect of surface coating on bond strength between etched feldspar ceramic and resin-based luting agents.
        Biomed Res Int. 2018; 24: 1-6
        • Barbon F.J.
        • Moraes R.R.
        • Isolan C.P.
        • Spazzin A.O.
        • Noéli Boscato
        Influence of inorganic filler content of resin luting agents and use of adhesive on the performance of bonded ceramic.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2019; 122: 566.e1-566.e11
        • Nogueira I.O.
        • Oliveira P.F.G.
        • Magno M.B.
        • Ferreira D.M.T.P.
        • Maia L.C.
        • Rabello T.B.
        Does the application of an adhesive layer improve the bond strength of etched and silanized glass ceramics to resin-based materials? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Prosthet Dent. 2021; 125: 56-64
        • Cao X.
        • Fleming G.J.
        • Addison O.
        The impact of resin-coating on sub-critical crack extension in a porcelain laminate veneer material.
        Dent Mater. 2017; 33: 498-504