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Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Effect of surface treatments on bond durability of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramics: An in vitro study

  • Yiqiao Wang
    Affiliations
    Assistant Research Fellow, Department of Prosthodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen Univeristy, Guangzhou, PR China
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  • Ruizong Hui
    Affiliations
    Attending Physician, The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China
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  • Li Gao
    Affiliations
    Associate Chief Physician, Department of Periodontology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China
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  • Yuanyuan Ma
    Affiliations
    Associate Chief Physician, Department of Prosthodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China
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  • Xiangnan Wu
    Affiliations
    Assistant Research Fellow, Department of Prosthodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China
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  • Yukun Meng
    Affiliations
    Chief Physician, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China
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  • Zhichao Hao
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Dr Zhichao Hao, Department of Prosthodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, No.56 of Lingyuan West Rd, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055, PR CHINA
    Affiliations
    Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China
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      Abstract

      Statement of problem

      The influence of surface treatments on the bond durability of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramics (ZLS) is unclear.

      Purpose

      The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond durability of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic after long-term thermocycling.

      Material and methods

      Five computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) dental ceramic blocks, including 2 zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic materials (Vita Suprinity/VS and Cetra Duo/CD), 2 commonly used glass-ceramic materials (e.max CAD/EM and Empress CAD/EP), and 1 yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP, Zenostar/ZS) were tested. Rectangular ceramic blocks were divided into 6 groups and subjected to different surface treatments: group Control (no treatment), group Uni (universal adhesive), group HF (hydrofluoric acid), group CoJet, group HF+Uni (HF and universal adhesive), and group CoJet+Uni (CoJet and universal adhesive). Subsequently, the specimens were cemented to composite resin blocks, sectioned into rectangular microbars of approximately 2×2×12 mm in size, and assigned to 2 groups with and without 100 000 thermal cycles (n=15 per group). The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were observed with a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc pairwise comparisons was performed to evaluate the effects of surface treatments, ceramics, and thermocycling on μTBS (α=.05).

      Results

      The μTBS (MPa) was affected by the surface treatment (P<.001), ceramic type (P<.001), and thermocycling (P<.001). The bond strength after HF etching and universal adhesive treatment was highest in glass-ceramic groups (VS, CD, EP, and EM), while CoJet combined with universal adhesive indicated the highest bond strength in the ZS group before (34.3 ±4.2 MPa) and after thermocycling (16.0 ±2.9 MPa). No significant differences for μTBS were found among ZLS (VS and CD), lithium disilicate ceramic group (EM), and leucite-based ceramic group (EP, P>.05), but they demonstrated better bond strength than zirconia (ZS group, P<.01) after thermocycling. Adhesive failure increased in all groups, and the cohesive failure of glass-ceramic decreased after thermocycling.

      Conclusions

      ZLS showed similar μTBS with traditional glass-ceramics, including lithium disilicate ceramic and leucite-based ceramic, and more durable bonding than zirconia to resist thermocycling. Moreover, the combination of HF and universal adhesive treatments was the most effective method for ZLS among all the different surface treatments in this study.
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