Statement of problem
Three-dimensional (3D) printers should be capable of fabricating products with high accuracy for potential use in a wide range of dental applications. The trueness and surface characteristics of 3D-printed casts made with different technologies remain unclear.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the trueness and surface characteristics of 4 types of dental casts printed using 6 different 3D printers.
Material and methods
Four dental casts prepared for intracoronal and extracoronal restorations were printed using 6 different 3D printers—2 printers of each printing technology (FDM: Creator, Lugo; DLP: D2, ND5100; SLA: Form 2, Form 3). The printed casts were scanned to obtain standard tessellation language (STL) data sets that were superimposed onto the reference to evaluate their trueness (n=15). Trueness was measured based on overall deviations for each cast and for sectional deviations within the cavities. For qualitative evaluation, the surface characteristics of the 3D-printed casts were analyzed by using a digital camera, stereomicroscope, and scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by multiple Mann-Whitney U tests for pairwise comparisons among groups (α=.05).
The overall median trueness values were lowest with the Form 3 (27.9 μm), followed by the ND5100 (30.0 μm), Lugo (37.1 μm), D2 (41.4 μm), Form 2 (46.9 μm), and Creator (83.3 μm) (P<.05). Sectional deviations within the cavity were generally greater than overall deviation. Macroscopic and microscopic images showed that the reproduced casts had the smoothest surface with the SLA, followed by the DLP and FDM printers. Horizontal layers were more discernible with the FDM printer.
The trueness of the 3D-printed casts was influenced by the type of tooth preparation and was printer dependent. Among the tested 3D printers, the Form 3 produced the most accurate casts, while the Creator produced the least accurate casts.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Intraoral digital impression technique compared to conventional impression technique. A randomized clinical trial.J Prosthodont. 2016; 25: 282-287
- Intraoral scanners in dentistry: a review of the current literature.BMC Oral Health. 2017; 7: 149
- 3D printing in dentistry.Br Dent J. 2015; 219: 521-529
- 3D printing in dentistry-State of the art.Oper Dent. 2020; 45: 30-40
- Accuracy of 3-dimensionally printed full-arch dental models: a systematic review.J Clin Med. 2020; 9: 3357
- 3D printing in dentistry 2019/2020. 1st ed. Quintessence Publishing, London2019: 9-18
- ISO 5725-1. Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. Part 1: General principles and definitions.ISO, Geneva1994 (Available at:)
- Accuracy of stereolithographically printed digital models compared to plaster models.J Orofac Orthop. 2017; 78: 394-402
- Three-dimensional comparative study on the accuracy and reproducibility of dental casts fabricated by 3D printers.J Prosthet Dent. 2018; 119: 861.e1-861.e7
- Comparing the accuracy (trueness and precision) of models of fixed dental prostheses fabricated by digital and conventional workflows.J Prosthodont Res. 2019; 63: 25-30
- Accuracy and reproducibility of dental replica models reconstructed by different rapid prototyping techniques.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2014; 145: 108-115
- Accuracy (trueness and precision) of dental models fabricated using additive manufacturing methods.Int J Comput Dent. 2018; 21: 107-113
- Accuracy of 3-dimensional printed dental models reconstructed from digital intraoral impressions.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2018; 154: 733-739
- Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models.Biomed Eng Online. 2013; 12: 49
- Precision and trueness of dental models manufactured with different 3-dimensional printing techniques.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2018; 53: 144-153
- Accuracy of three-dimensional dental resin models created by fused deposition modeling, stereolithography, and polyjet prototype technologies: a comparative study.Angle Orthod. 2018; 88: 363-369
- Influence of the three-dimensional printing technique and printing layer thickness on model accuracy.J Orofac Orthop. 2019; 80: 194-204
- Evaluation of the dimensional accuracy of 3D-printed anatomical mandibular models using FFF, SLA, SLS, MJ, and BJ printing technology.J Clin Med. 2020; 9: 817
- Three-dimensional evaluation on accuracy of conventional and milled gypsum models and 3D printed photopolymer models.Materials (Basel). 2019; 12: 3499
- Accuracy of 3D printed models created by two technologies of printers with different designs of model base.J Prosthodont. 2020; 29: 124-128
- Accuracy evaluation of dental models manufactured by CAD/CAM milling method and 3D printing method.J Adv Prosthodont. 2018; 10: 245-251
- The glossary of prosthodontic terms: ninth edition.J Prosthet Dent. 2017; 117: e1-e105
- Trends in computer-aided manufacturing in prosthodontics: a review of the available streams.Int J Dent. 2014; 2014: 783948
- Effect of print layer height and printer type on the accuracy of 3-dimensional printed orthodontic models.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017; 152: 557-565
- Effect of print layer height on the assessment of 3D-printed models.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2019; 156: 283-289
- Accuracy of digital light processing printing of 3-dimensional dental models.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2020; 157: 422-428
- Intaglio surface dimension and guide tube deviations of implant surgical guides influenced by printing layer thickness and angulation setting.J Prosthodont. 2020; 29: 161-165
- What does resolution mean in 3D printing?.(Available at:)https://formlabs.com/eu/blog/3d-printer-resolution-meaning/Date accessed: January 12, 2022
- Objects build orientation, positioning, and curing influence dimensional accuracy and flexural properties of stereolithographically printed resin.Dent Mater. 2018; 34: e324-e333
- Effect of printing direction on the accuracy of 3D-printed dentures using stereolithography technology.Materials (Basel). 2020; 13: 3405
- Influences of build angle on the accuracy, printing time, and material consumption of additively manufactured surgical templates.J Prosthet Dent. 2021; 126: 658-663
- Printing accuracy, mechanical properties, surface characteristics, and microbial adhesion of 3D-printed resins with various printing orientations.J Prosthet Dent. 2020; 124: 468-475
- Introducing the form 3 and form 3l, powered by low force stereolithography.(Available at:)https://formlabs.com/blog/introducing-form-3-form-3l-low-force-stereolithography/Date accessed: January 27, 2022
- On the influence of scanning factors on the laser scanner-based 3D inspection process.Int J Adv Manuf Technol. 2016; 84: 1787-1799
Published online: January 10, 2023
Publication stageIn Press Corrected Proof
Funding: Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2022R1F1A1063198) and the Technology Innovation Program (20001155) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea).
© 2022 by the Editorial Council for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.