Statement of problem
The clinical application of short implants has been increasing. However, studies on the marginal bone loss of short implants are sparse, and clinicians often choose short implants based on their own experience rather than on scientific information.
The purpose of this finite element analysis study was to evaluate the microstrain-stress distribution in the peri-implant bone and implant components for 4 types of short implants at different placement depths of platform switching.
Material and methods
By using short implants as prototypes, 4 short implant models were 1:1 modeled. The diameter and length of the implants were 5×5, 5×6, 6×5, and 6×6 mm. The restoration was identical for all implants. Three different depths of implant platform switching were set: equicrestal, 0.5-mm subcrestal, and 1-mm subcrestal. The models were then assembled and assigned an occlusal force of 200 N (vertical or 30-degree oblique). A finite element analysis was carried out to evaluate the maximum equivalent elastic strain and von Mises stress in the bone and the stress distribution in the implant components.
The 5×5 implant group showed the largest intraosseous strain (21.921×103 με). A 1-mm increase in implant diameter resulted in a 17.1% to 37.4% reduction in maximum intraosseous strain when loaded with oblique forces. The strain in the bone tended to be much smaller than the placement depth at the equicrestal and 0.5-mm subcrestal positions than that at the 1-mm subcrestal position, especially under oblique force loading, with an increase of approximately 37.4% to 81.8%. In addition, when the cortical bone thickness was less than 4 mm, 5×6 implants caused significantly higher intraosseous stresses than 6×6 implants.
Large implant diameters, rather than long implants, led to reduced intraosseous strain, especially under oblique loading. Regarding the implant platform switching depth, the short implant showed small intraosseous strains when the platform switching depth was equicrestal or 0.5-mm subcrestal.
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Published online: February 01, 2023
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos.: 82071164, 82271016, and 81970984) and the Key Research and Development Program of Sichuan Province (grant no.: 2021YFS0052).
© 2023 by the Editorial Council for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.