Research and Education| Volume 129, ISSUE 5, P787.e1-787.e9, May 2023

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Bonding effect of a Zr/Si coating prepared on zirconia using a sol-gel method


      Statement of problem

      Zirconia has been widely used as a dental prosthetic material. However, bonding to zirconia is challenging, and whether a Zr/Si coating would improve bonding is unclear.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to prepare a Zr/Si coating on zirconia ceramics using a sol-gel method and to determine whether the bonding to resin is improved.

      Material and methods

      Presintered zirconia specimens were prepared and divided into 5 groups: 4 experimental groups with ratios of the binary sol-gel precursor (zirconium oxychloride/tetraethoxysilane) set as 2:1 (Z2), 1:1 (Z1), 0.5:1 (Z0.5), and 0.25:1 (Z0.25) and Group C as the control group. In addition to surface roughness measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to characterize the surface. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to whether a silane coupling agent was applied. Half of the bond specimens were stored in deionized water for 24 hours; the remaining half were aged using 5000 thermocycles. The shear bond strength (SBS) of resin bonded to specimens was tested for the initial and durable bond strength, and the bonding interface was also observed by SEM after debonding. Data were subjected to 1-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05).


      The Zr/Si coating formed on zirconia ceramics. Z0.5 had the greatest mean ±standard deviation roughness (2.13 ±0.15 μm) and had the highest silicon content (21.7 ±0.21%). t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, c-SiO2, and ZrSiO4 were detected by XRD in Z1. The SBS values were decreased by aging but were significantly increased by Zr/Si coating, especially for Z0.5, with the application of silane (initial: 22.92 ±2.79 MPa; aged: 9.91 ±0.92 MPa).


      The Zr/Si coating significantly improved the initial and aged bond strength, and the optimal Zr/Si ratio of the sol-gel appeared to be 0.5:1.
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