Research and Education|Articles in Press

Influence of print orientation on the intaglio surface accuracy (trueness and precision) of tilting stereolithography definitive resin-ceramic crowns


      Statement of problem

      Vat-polymerization tilting stereolithography (TSLA) technology can be selected for fabricating definitive crowns; however, how the printing variables, including print orientation, influence its manufacturing accuracy remains unclear.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of different print orientations (0, 45, 75, or 90 degrees) on the intaglio surface accuracy (trueness and precision) of TSLA definitive resin-ceramic crowns.

      Material and methods

      The virtual design of an anatomic contour molar crown was obtained in standard tessellation language (STL) file format and used to manufacture all the specimens by using a TSLA printer (DFAB Chairside) and a resin-ceramic material (Irix Max Photoshade single-use cartridges). Four groups were created depending on the print orientation used to manufacture the specimens: 0- (Group 0), 45- (Group 45), 70- (Group 75), and 90-degree (Group 90) print orientation (n=30). Each specimen was digitized by using a laboratory scanner (T710) according to the manufacturer’s scanning protocol. The reference STL file was used as a control to measure the volumetric discrepancies of the intaglio surface with the digitized specimens by using the root mean square (RMS) error calculation. The trueness data were analyzed by using 1-way ANOVA followed by post hoc pairwise multiple comparison Tukey tests, and precision data were analyzed using the Levene test (α=.05).


      Significant mean trueness (P<.001) and precision (P<.001) value discrepancies were found among the groups tested. Additionally, all the groups were significantly different from each other (P<.001), except for the 45- and 90-degree groups (P=.868). Group 0 showed the best mean trueness and precision values, while the Group 90 demonstrated the lowest mean trueness and precision values.


      The print orientations tested influenced the intaglio surface trueness and precision values of the TSLA definitive resin-ceramic crowns.
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