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Detailed speech evaluation including formant 3 analysis and voice visualization in maxillofacial rehabilitation: A clinical report


      Objective speech evaluation such as analysis of formants 1 and 2 and nasality measurement have been used in maxillofacial rehabilitation for outcome assessment. However, in some patients, those evaluations are insufficient to assess a specific or unique problem. This report describes the use of a new speech evaluation including formant 3 analysis and voice visualization in a patient with a maxillofacial defect. The patient was a 67-year-old man who had a maxillary defect that opened to the maxillary sinus and who had an unnatural voice even when wearing an obturator. Nasality was low and the frequency of formants 1 and 2 were normal even without the obturator. However, a low frequency of formant 3 and a shifted center of voice were observed. These results indicated that the unnatural voice was related to increased resonant volume in the pharynx rather than hypernasality. This patient demonstrates that advanced speech analysis can be useful for detecting the cause of speech disorder and planning maxillofacial rehabilitation.
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