Research and Education|Articles in Press

Manufacturing accuracy of the intaglio surface of definitive resin-ceramic crowns fabricated at different print orientations by using a stereolithography printer


      Statement of problem

      Stereolithography (SLA) procedures can be chosen for manufacturing definitive crowns; however, how the print orientation impacts the trueness and precision of the intaglio surface of the printed definitive restorations is unclear.


      The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to calculate the manufacturing accuracy of the intaglio surface of SLA definitive resin-ceramic crowns fabricated at varying print orientations (0, 45, 75, or 90 degrees).

      Material and methods

      The standard tessellation language (STL) file of an anatomic contour molar crown was obtained and used to fabricate all the crowns by using a definitive resin-ceramic material (Permanent Crown) and an SLA printer (Form 3B+). Four groups were developed depending on the print orientation selected to manufacture the crowns: 0-, 45-, 70-, and 90-degree print orientation (n=30). Each crown specimen was digitized without the use of scanning powder by using a desktop scanner (T710). The crown design file was determined as the reference (control) group and used to calculate the fabricating trueness and precision of the intaglio surface of the specimens using the root mean square (RMS) error computation. Trueness data were examined by using 1-way ANOVA and post hoc pairwise multiple comparison Tukey tests, while precision data were analyzed using the Levene test (α=.05).


      The mean ±standard deviation RMS error discrepancies ranged from 37 ±3 μm to 113 ±11 μm. One-way ANOVA exposed significant trueness (P<.001) differences among the groups considered in this study. Furthermore, all the print orientation groups tested were different from each other (P<.001). The 0-degree group presented the best trueness value (37 μm), while the 90-degree group obtained the worst trueness value (113 μm). The Levene test exposed significant precision differences among the groups assessed (P<.001). The 0-degree group had a significantly lower standard deviation (higher precision) (3 μm) than the other groups, with no difference among the other groups tested (P>.05).


      The fabricating trueness and precision of the intaglio surface of the SLA resin-ceramic crowns was impacted by the varying print orientations assessed.
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