Research and Education|Articles in Press

Is microbial adhesion affected by the build orientation of a 3-dimensionally printed denture base resin?


      Statement of problem

      How the build orientation of a 3-dimensionally (3D) printed denture affects microbial adhesion is unclear.


      The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the adherence of Streptococcus spp. and Candida spp. on 3D-printed denture bases prepared at different build orientations with conventional heat-polymerized resin.

      Material and methods

      Resin specimens (n=5) with standardized 28.3 mm2 surface area were 3D printed at 0 and 60 degrees, and heat-polymerized (3DP-0, 3DP-60, and HP, respectively). The specimens were placed in a Nordini artificial mouth (NAM) model and exposed to 2 mL of clarified whole saliva to create a pellicle-coated substratum. Suspensions of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, and a mixed species, each at 108 cfu/mL were pumped separately into the model for 24 hours to promote microbial adhesion. The resin specimens were then removed, placed in fresh media, and sonicated to dislodge attached microbes. Each suspension (100 μL) was aliquoted and spread on agar plates for colony counting. The resin specimens were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The interaction between types of specimen and groups of microbes was examined with 2-way ANOVA and then further analysis with Tukey honest significant test and Kruskal-Wallis post hoc tests (α=.05).


      A significant interaction was observed between the 3DP-0, 3DP-60, and HP specimen types and the groups of microbes adhering to the corresponding denture resin specimens (P<.05). The difference was statistically significant among 3DP-0, 3DP-60, and HP specimens (P<.05). The adherence of candida was 3.98-times lower on the 3DP-0 than that of HP (P<.05). However, adherence of the mixed-species microbes and streptococci on the 3DP-60 were 1.75 times and 2-fold higher, respectively (P<.05). The scanning electron micrographs showed that 3DP-0 exhibited the lowest microbial adherence compared with HP and 3DP-60.


      Adherence affinity of denture base resin is affected by the build orientation rather than by the group of different microbes. Three-dimensionally printed denture base resin fabricated at a 0-degree build orientation exhibited low affinity for microbial adhesion. Three-dimensionally printed dentures may reduce microbial adhesion when printed at a 0-degree build orientation.
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