Five simple tools—the lever, wedge, wheel and axle, pulley and screw—have existed for millennia. Each of these tools and their underlying principles have been refined, improved and combined in various ways to produce other tools and engineering principles (no longer simple), which in turn have revolutionized the application of modern dental techniques. This process has been particularly important in the disciplines of surgery and prosthodontics. Archimedes, in the third century BC, understood the operation of the mechanical screw, which represents a basic tenet of endosseous stabilization, albeit limited in its time and biologically-dependent efficacy and effectiveness.
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☆a Professor and Chair, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
☆☆bProfessor, Department of Biomaterials/Handicap Research, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
© 1998 Published by Elsevier Inc.