Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
• Instructions in Other languages
• Article Types
• Contact Information
• Submission Guidelines
• Ethics in publishing
• Informed consent and patient details
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Author contributions
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• Use of word processing software
• Math formulae
• Essential title page information
• Title page format
• Artwork
• Figure Submission
• Electronic Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Submission Checklist
• Proofs
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
• Permissions
• Interest in Commercial Companies and/or Products
• Writing Guidelines
• Additional Terminology Guidelines
• Sample Manuscript

Instructions in Other languages


The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry is the leading professional journal devoted exclusively to prosthetic and restorative dentistry. The Journal is the official publication of 24 leading U.S. and international prosthodontic organizations, serving prosthodontists and dentists in advanced practice. It features timely, original peer-reviewed articles on the newest techniques, dental materials, and research findings, with color photographs that illustrate step-by-step procedures. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry is included in Index Medicus and CINAHL.

Article Types

Articles are classified as one of the following: research/clinical science article, clinical report, technique article, systematic review, or tip from our readers. Required sections for each type of article are listed in the order in which they should be presented.

JPD Digital

JPD Digital is an exclusive video platform from The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry featuring topics on prosthodontics and implants of interest to clinicians and dental technologists. If you have a new or special clinical or dental technique, an innovative surgical procedure, a unique patient case, or simply a presentation that summarizes an attractive topic; if you are eager to combine digital methods with modern information sources such as video, slideshows as video files and audio, please do not hesitate to contact us.
By submitting a video and summary to JPD Digital, you can allow your audience to look over your shoulder to get a close look at your work. In 2022, the launch year, JPD Digital published 8 videos, which have been viewed 5,000 times!

All JPD Digital submissions are fully indexed and citable.

View JPD Digital articles here: Please contact the JPD Editorial Office at [email protected] to learn more if you are interested in submitting an article for JPD Digital. All submissions to JPD Digital will be peer reviewed and subject to Editor approval.

Requirements for publication in JPD Digital include:
  • Video of approximately 20-30 minutes in length submitted via email to to Dr. Jonathan Ferencz at [email protected] to be peer-reviewed and approved by the JPD Digital team
  • A short, written summary (1-2 pages) to publish in the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, submitted via Editorial Manager. This summary is essential to enable the video to be searchable in PubMed and to direct readers to the video. The summary should include:
    • Brief abstract
    • Summary of video presentation
    • 1-2 illustrations
    • References
  • Brief author bio
  • One still image from the final video to use as the default image to display when it is not actively being played

JPD Digital Recording Instructions

The video content must be submitted as two separate tracks:
  • The first consists of the visual component which includes video, still photos, illustrations, and text, but without narration.
  • The second component consists of the narration with the speaker(s) standing in front of a green screen. This will enable our technical experts to precisely cut out the speaker and place him or her anywhere on the background which is the video presentation. Video recording instructions are located at the following link:

Research and Education/Clinical Research

The research report should be no longer than 10-12 double-spaced, typed pages and be accompanied by no more than 12 high-quality illustrations. Avoid the use of outline form (numbered and/or bulleted sentences or paragraphs). The text should be written in complete sentences and paragraph form.

Abstract (approximately 400 words): Create a structured abstract with the following subsections: Statement of Problem, Purpose, Material and Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The abstract should contain enough detail to describe the experimental design and variables. Sample size, controls, method of measurement, standardization, examiner reliability, and statistical method used with associated level of significance should be described in the Material and Methods section. Actual values should be provided in the Results section.

Clinical Implications: In 2-4 sentences, describe the impact of the study results on clinical practice.

Introduction: Explain the problem completely and accurately. Summarize relevant literature, and identify any bias in previous studies. Clearly state the objective of the study and the research hypothesis at the end of the Introduction. Please note that, for a thorough review of the literature, most (if not all references) should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Material and Methods section.

Material and Methods: In the initial paragraph, provide an overview of the experiment. Provide complete manufacturing information for all products and instruments used, either in parentheses or in a table. Describe what was measured, how it was measured, and the units of measure. List criteria for quantitative judgment. Describe the experimental design and variables, including defined criteria to control variables, standardization of testing, allocation of specimens/subjects to groups (specify method of randomization), total sample size, controls, calibration of examiners, and reliability of instruments and examiners. State how sample sizes were determined (such as with power analysis). Avoid the use of group numbers to indicate groups. Instead, use codes or abbreviations that will more clearly indicate the characteristics of the groups and will therefore be more meaningful for the reader. Statistical tests and associated significance levels should be described at the end of this section.

Results: Report the results accurately and briefly, in the same order as the testing was described in the Material and Methods section. For extensive listings, present data in tabular or graphic form to help the reader. For a 1-way ANOVA report of, F and P values in the appropriate location in the text. For all other ANOVAs, per guidelines, provide the ANOVA table(s). Describe the most significant findings and trends. Text, tables, and figures should not repeat each other. Results noted as significant must be validated by actual data and P values.

Discussion: Discuss the results of the study in relation to the hypothesis and to relevant literature. The Discussion section should begin by stating whether or not the data support rejecting the stated null hypothesis. If the results do not agree with other studies and/or with accepted opinions, state how and why the results differ. Agreement with other studies should also be stated. Identify the limitations of the present study and suggest areas for future research.

Conclusions: Concisely list conclusions that may be drawn from the research; do not simply restate the results. The conclusions must be pertinent to the objectives and justified by the data. In most situations, the conclusions are true for only the population of the experiment. All statements reported as conclusions should be accompanied by statistical analyses.

References:See Reference Guidelines and Sample References page.

Tables: See Table Guidelines.

Illustrations: See Figure Submission and Sample Figures page.

Clinical Report

The clinical report describes the author’s methods for meeting a patient treatment challenge. It should be no longer than 4 to 5 double-spaced, pages and be accompanied by no more than 8 high-quality illustrations. In some situations, the Editor may approve the publication of additional figures if they contribute significantly to the manuscript.

Abstract: Provide a short, nonstructured, 1-paragraph abstract that briefly summarizes the problem encountered and treatment administered.

Introduction: Summarize literature relevant to the problem encountered. Include references to standard treatments and protocols. Please note that most, if not all, references should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Clinical Report section.

Clinical Report: Describe the patient, the problem with which he/she presented, and any relevant medical or dental background. Describe the various treatment options and the reasons for selection of the chosen treatment. Fully describe the treatment rendered, the length of the follow-up period, and any improvements noted as a result of treatment. This section should be written in past tense and in paragraph form.

Discussion: Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen treatment and describe any contraindications for it. If the text will only be repetitive of previous sections, omit the Discussion.

Summary: Briefly summarize the patient treatment.

References: See Reference Guidelines and Sample References page.

Illustrations: See Figure Submission and Sample Figures page.

Dental Technique

The dental technique article presents, in a step-by-step format, a unique procedure helpful to dental professionals. It should be no longer than 4 to 5 double-spaced, typed pages and be accompanied by no more than 8 high-quality illustrations. In some situations, the Editor may approve the publication of additional figures if they contribute significantly to the manuscript.

Abstract: Provide a short, nonstructured, 1-paragraph abstract that briefly summarizes the technique.

Introduction: Summarize relevant literature. Include references to standard methods and protocols. Please note that most, if not all, references should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Technique section.

Technique: In a numbered, step-by-step format, describe each step of the technique. The text should be written in command rather than descriptive form (?Survey the diagnostic cast? rather than ?The diagnostic cast is surveyed.?) Include citations for the accompanying illustrations.

Discussion: Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, indicate the situations to which it may be applied, and describe any contraindications for its use. Avoid excessive claims of effectiveness. If the text will only be repetitive of previous sections, omit the Discussion.

Summary: Briefly summarize the technique presented and its chief advantages.

References: See Reference Guidelines and Sample References page

Illustrations: See Figure Submission and Sample Figures page.

Systematic Review

The author is advised to develop a systematic review in the Cochrane style and format. The Journal has transitioned away from literature reviews to systematic reviews. For more information on systematic reviews, please see An example of a Journal systematic review: Torabinejad M, Anderson P, Bader J, Brown LJ, Chen LH, Goodacre CJ, Kattadiyil MT, Kutsenko D, Lozada J, Patel R, Petersen F, Puterman I, White SN. Outcomes of root canal treatment and restoration, implant-supported single crowns, fixed partial dentures, and extraction without replacement: a systematic review. J Prosthet Dent 2007;98:285-311.

The systematic review consists of:

An Abstract using a structured format (Statement of Problem, Purpose, Material and Methods, Results, Conclusions).

Text of the review consisting of an introduction (background and objective), methods (selection criteria, search methods, data collection and data analysis), results (description of studies, methodological quality, and results of analyses), discussion, authors’ conclusions, acknowledgments, and conflicts of interest. References should be peer reviewed and follow JPD format.

Tables and figures, if necessary, showing characteristics of the included studies, specification of the interventions that were compared, the results of the included studies, a log of the studies that were excluded, and additional tables and figures relevant to the review.

Tips From Our Readers

Tips are brief reports on helpful or timesaving procedures. They should be limited to 2 authors, no longer than 250 words, and include no more than 2 high quality illustrations. Describe the procedure in a numbered, step-by-step format; write the text in command rather than descriptive or passive form (“Survey the diagnostic cast” rather than “The diagnostic cast is surveyed”).

Contact Information

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Editorial Office
The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
The Dental College of Georgia at Augusta University
1120 15th St., GC3094
Augusta, GA 30912-1255
Phone: (706) 721-4558
E-mail: [email protected]edu
Online submission:

Submission Guidelines

Thank you for your interest in writing an article for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. In publishing, as in dentistry, precise procedures are essential. Your attention to and compliance with the following policies will help ensure the timely processing of your submission.

Length of Manuscripts
Manuscript length depends on manuscript type. In general, research and clinical science articles should not exceed 10 to 12 double-spaced, typed pages (excluding references, legends, and tables). Clinical Reports and Technique articles should not exceed 4 to 5 pages, and Tips articles should not exceed 1 to 2 pages. The length of systematic reviews varies.

Number of Authors
The number of authors is limited to 4; the inclusion of more than 4 must be justified in the letter of submission. (Each author’s contribution must be listed.) Otherwise, contributing authors in excess of 4 will be listed in the Acknowledgments. There can only be one corresponding author.

General Formatting
All submissions must be submitted via the Editorial Manager system in Microsoft Word with an 8.5×11 inch page size. The following specifications should also be followed:
  • Times Roman, 12 pt
  • Double-spaced
  • Left-justified
  • No space between paragraphs
  • 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Half-inch paragraph indents
  • Headers/Footers should be clear of page numbers or other information
  • Headings are upper case bold, and subheads are upper/lower case bold. No italics are used.
  • References should not be automatically numbered. Endnote or other reference-generating programs should be turned off.
  • Set the Language feature in MS Word to English (US). Also change the language to English (US) in the style named Balloon Text.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good American English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the MS Word program. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.

To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Essential title page information

  • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae. Trade names should not be used in the title.
  • Author names and affiliations. Author’s names should be complete first and last names. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' current title and affiliation, including the city and state/country of that affiliation. If it is private practice, indicate the city and state/country of the practice. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation.
  • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Title page format

  • Title: Capitalize only the first letter of the first word. Do not use any special formatting. Abbreviations or trade names should not be used. Trade names should not be used in the title.
  • Authors: Directly under the title, type the names and academic degrees of the authors.
  • Under the authors’ names, provide the title, department and institutional names, city/state and country (unless in the U.S.) of each author. If necessary, provide the English translation of the institution. If the author is in private practice, indicate where with city/state/country. Link names and affiliations with a superscript letter (a,b,c,d).
  • Presentation/support information and titles: If research was presented before an organized group, indicate name of the organization and location and date of the meeting. If work was supported by a grant or any other kind of funding, supply the name of the supporting organization and the grant number.
  • Corresponding author: List the mailing address, business telephone, and e-mail address of the author who will receive correspondence.
  • Acknowledgments: Indicate special thanks to persons or organizations involved with the manuscript.
  • See Sample Title page.

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Figure Submission

JPD takes pride in publishing only the highest quality figures in its journal. All incoming figures must pass a thorough examination in Photoshop before the review process can begin. With more than 1,000 manuscripts submitted yearly, the manuscripts with few to no submission errors move through the system quickly. Figures that do not meet the guidelines will be sent back to the author for correction and moved to the bottom of the queue, creating a delay in the publishing process.

File Format

All figures should be submitted as TIF files or JPEG files only.

Image File Specifications

Figure dimensions must be 5.75 × 3.85 inches.
Figures should be size-matched (the same physical size) unless the image type prohibits size matching to other figures within the manuscript, as in the case of panoramic or periapical radiographs, SEM images, or graphs and screen shots. Do not “label” the faces of the figures with letters or numbers to indicate the order in which the figures should appear; such labels will be inserted during the publication process. Do not add wide borders to increase size.

The figures should be of professional quality and high resolution. The following are resolution requirements:
  • Color and black-and-white photographs should be created and saved at 300 dots per inch (dpi).
    Note: A 5.75 × 3.85-inch image at a resolution of 300 dpi will be approximately 6 megabytes. A figure of less than 300 dpi must not be increased artificially to 300 dpi; the resulting quality and resolution will be poor.

  • Line art or combination artwork (an illustration containing both line art and photograph) should be created and saved at a minimum of 600dpi.
  • Clarity, contrast, and quality should be uniform among the parts of a multipart figure and among all of the figures within a manuscript.
  • A uniform background of nontextured, medium blue should be provided for color figures when possible.

Text within Images

If text is to appear within the figure, labeled and unlabeled versions of the figures must be provided. Text appearing within the labeled versions of the figures should be in Arial font and a minimum of 10 pt. The text should be sized for readability if the figure is reduced for production in the Journal. Lettering should be in proportion to the drawing, graph, or photograph. A consistent font size should be used throughout each figure, and for all figures, Please note: Titles and captions should not appear within the figure file, but should be provided in the manuscript text (see Figure Legends).

If a key to an illustration requires artwork (screen lines, dots, unusual symbols), the key should be incorporated into the drawing instead of included in the typed legend. All symbols should be done professionally, be visible against the background, and be of legible proportion should the illustration be reduced for publication.

All microscopic photographs must have a measurement bar and unit of measurement on the image.

Color Figures

Generally, a maximum of 8 figures will be accepted for clinical report and dental technique articles, and 2 figures will be accepted for tips from our reader articles. However, the Editor may approve the publication of additional figures if they contribute significantly to the manuscript.

Clinical figures should be color balanced. Color images should be in CMYK (Cyan/Magenta/Yellow/Black) color format as opposed to RGB (Red/Green/Blue) color format.

Graphs/Screen Captures

Graphs should be numbered as figures, and the fill for bar graphs should be distinctive and solid; no shading or patterns. Thick, solid lines should be used and bold, solid lettering. Arial font is preferred. Place lettering on white background is preferred to reverse type (white lettering on a dark background). Line drawing should be a minimum of 600 dpi. Screen Captures should be a minimum of 300 dpi and as close to 5.75 and 3.85 as possible.


Composites are multiple images within one Figure file and, as a rule, are not accepted. They will be sent back to the author to replace them with each image sent separately as, Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B, Fig. 1C, etc. Each figure part must meet JPD Guidelines. (Some composite figures are more effective when submitted as one file. These files will be reviewed per case.) Contact the editorial office for more information about specific composites.

Figure Legends

The figure legends should appear within the text of the manuscript on a separate page after Tables and should appear under the heading FIGURES. Journal style requires that the articles (a, an, and the) are omitted from the figure legends. If an illustration is taken from previously published material, the legend must give full credit to the source (see Permissions).

File Naming

Each figure file must be numbered according to its position in the text (Figure 1, Figure 2, and so on) with Arabic numerals. The electronic image files must be named so that the figure number and format can be easily identified. For example, a Figure 1 in TIFF format should be named fig. 1.tif. Multipart figures must be clearly identifiable by the file names: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B, Fig. 1C, Fig. 1-unlabeled, Fig. 1-labeled, etc.


In the article, clearly reference each Figure and Table by including its number in parentheses at the end of the appropriate sentence before closing punctuation. For example: The sutures were removed after 3 weeks (Fig. 4). Or: are illustrated in Table 4.

The Journal reserves the right to standardize the format of graphs and tables.

Authors are obligated to disclose whether illustrations have been modified in any way.


Place thumbnails (reduced size versions) of your figures in Figures section below each appropriate legend.

Thumbnails refers to placing a small (compressed file) copy of your figure into the FIGURES section of the manuscript after each appropriate legend. No smaller than 2" × 1.5" and approximately 72dpi. The goal is to give the editors/reviewers something to review but we want to keep the dimensions and the file size small for easy access. These small images are called thumbnails.

Figures Quick Checklist
  • All files are saved as TIFFs or JPEGs (only).
  • Figure size: 5.75" × 3.85" (radiographs, SEMS, and screen captures may vary but they must all be size-matched).
  • Figures are 300 dpi; line or combo line/photo illustrations are minimum 600 dpi.
  • For text in figures use Ariel font.
  • Label the Figure files according to their sequence in the text.
  • Provide figure legends in the manuscript Figure section.
  • Place thumbnails (small versions of figure files approx. 2" × 1.5") in Figure section below each legend.
  • Submit composite figure parts as separate files.

A detailed guide to electronic artwork is available on our website: You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information about figure preparation are given here.

Please make sure that artwork files are TIFFs and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Illustration services

Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical, and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables, and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Electronic Artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Use the font Ariel or Helvetica in your illustrations.
• Number the illustration files according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide figure legends in the Figure section.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 600 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 600 dpi.

Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, PNG, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution? or smaller than 5.75 × 3.85-inch.;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF or JPEG)and with the correct size and resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. See Sample Figures page.


  • Tables should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate the text.
  • Provide all tables at the end of the manuscript after the reference list and before the Figures. There should be only one table per page. Omit internal horizontal and vertical rules (lines). Omit any shading or color.
  • Do not list tables in parts (Table Ia, Ib, etc.). Each should have its own number. Number the tables in the order in which they are mentioned in the text (Table 1., Table 2, etc).
  • Supply a concise legend that describes the content of the table. Create descriptive column and row headings. Within columns, align data such that decimal points may be traced in a straight line. Use decimal points (periods), not commas, to mark places past the integer (eg, 3.5 rather than 3,5).
  • In a line beneath the table, define any abbreviations used in the table.
  • If a table (or any data within it) was published previously, give full credit to the original source in a footnote to the table. If necessary, obtain permission to reprint from the author/publisher.
  • The tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word. If a table has been prepared in Excel, it should be imported into the manuscript.


Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not permitted in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Acceptable references and their placement

  • Most, if not all, references should first be cited in the Introduction and/or Material and Methods section. Only those references that have been previously cited or that relate directly to the outcomes of the present study may be cited in the Discussion.

  • Only peer-reviewed, published material may be cited as a reference. Manuscripts in preparation, manuscripts submitted for consideration, and unpublished theses are not acceptable references.

  • Abstracts are considered unpublished observations and are not allowed as references unless follow-up studies were completed and published in peer-reviewed journals.

  • References to foreign language publications should be kept to a minimum (no more than 3). They are permitted only when the original article has been translated into English. The translated title should be cited and the original language noted in brackets at the end of the citation.

  • Textbook references should be kept to a minimum, as textbooks often reflect the opinions of their authors and/or editors. The most recent editions of textbooks should be used. Evidence-based journal citations are preferred.

Reference formatting

  • References must be identified in the body of the article with superscript Arabic numerals. At the end of a sentence, the reference number falls after the period.

  • The complete reference list, double-spaced and in numerical order, should follow the Conclusions section but start on a separate page. Only references cited in the text should appear in the reference list.

  • Reference formatting should conform to Vancouver style as set forth in “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” (Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47).

  • References should be manually numbered.

  • List up to six authors. If there are seven or more, after the sixth author’s name, add et al.

  • Abbreviate journal names per the Cumulative Index Medicus. A complete list of standard abbreviations is available through the PubMed website:

  • Format for journal articles: Supply the last names and initials of all authors; the title of the article; the journal name; and the year, volume, and page numbers of publication. Do not use italics, bold, or underlining for any part of the reference. Put a period after the initials of the last author, after the article title, and at the end of the reference. Put a semicolon after the year of publication and a colon after the volume. Issue numbers are not used in Vancouver style.

    Ex: Jones ER, Smith IM, Doe JQ. Uses of acrylic resin. J Prosthet Dent 1985;53:120-9.

  • Book References: The most current edition must be cited. Supply the names and initials of all authors/editors, the title of the book, the city of publication, the publisher, the year of publication, and the inclusive page numbers consulted. Do not use italics, bold, or underlining for any part of the reference.

    Ex: Zarb GA, Carlsson GE, Bolender CL. Boucher’s prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients. 11th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1997. p. 112-23.

References should not be submitted in Endnote or other reference-generating software. Endnote formatting cannot be edited by the Editorial Office or reviewers, and must be suppressed or removed from the manuscript prior to submission. Nor should references be automatically numbered. Please number manually.

See Sample Manuscript.

Approved Abbreviations for Journals

Because the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry is published not only in print but also online, authors must use the standard PubMed abbreviations for journal titles. If alternate or no abbreviations are used, the references will not be linked in the online publication. A complete list of standard abbreviations is available through the PubMed website:


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Submission Checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article before sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item. Ensure the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
  • Email address
  • Full postal address
  • Phone number

All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain the following:
  • All figure thumbnails and legends
  • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
  • Justification letter for more than 4 authors
  • Patient photo permission
  • IRB statements

Further considerations:
  • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
  • References are in the correct format for this journal
  • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
  • There are call-outs for each figure in the text
  • Permission has been obtained for the use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)

For any further information please visit our customer support site at


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:

If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.


  • All quoted material must be clearly marked with quotation marks and a reference number. If more than 5 lines are quoted, a letter of permission must be obtained from the author and publisher of the quoted material.
  • All manuscripts are submitted to software to identify similarities between the submitted manuscript and previously published work.
  • If quotations are more than 1 paragraph in length, open quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and close quotation mark at the end of the final paragraph only. Type all quoted material exactly as it appears in the original source, with no changes in spelling or punctuation. Indicate material omitted from a quotation with ellipses (3 dots) for material omitted from within a sentence, 4 dots for material omitted after the end of a sentence).
  • If any submitted photographs include the eyes of a patient, the patient must sign a consent form authorizing use of his/her photo in the Journal. If such permission is not obtained, the eyes will be blocked with black bars at publication.
  • Illustrations that are reprinted or borrowed from other published articles/books cannot be used without the permission of the original author and publisher. The manuscript author must secure this permission and submit it for review. In the illustration legend, provide the full citation for the original source in parentheses.

Interest in Commercial Companies and/or Products

  • Authors may not directly or indirectly advertise equipment, instruments, or products in which they have a personal investment.
  • Statements and opinions expressed in the manuscripts are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. The editors and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the editors nor the publisher guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in the Journal; neither the editors nor the publisher guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of said product or service.
  • Authors must disclose any financial interest they may have in products mentioned in an article. This disclosure should be typed after the Conclusions section.

Writing Guidelines

General Policies and Suggestions

  • Authors whose native language is not English should obtain the assistance of an expert in English and scientific writing before submitting their manuscripts. Manuscripts that do not meet basic language standards will be returned before review.
  • The Journal does not use first person (I, we, us, our, etc.). “We conducted the study” can be changed easily to “The study was conducted.”
  • Avoid the use of subjective terms such as “extremely”, “innovative” etc.
  • The JPD uses the serial comma which is the comma that precedes the conjunction before the final item in a list of three or more items: The tooth was prepared with a diamond rotary instrument, carbide bur, and carbide finishing bur.
  • We prefer the nonpossessive form for eponyms: the Tukey HSD test rather than Tukey’s HSD test, Down syndrome rather than Down’s syndrome and so on.
  • Describe experimental procedures, treatments, and results in passive tense. All else should be written in an active voice.
  • Describe teeth by name (eg, maxillary right first molar), not number.
  • Hyphens are not used for common suffixes and prefixes, unless their use is critical to understanding the word. Some prefixes with which we do not use hyphens include: pre-, non-, anti-, multi-, auto-, inter-, intra-, peri-.
  • Eliminate the use of i.e. and e.g. as they are not consistent with Journal style.
  • Spell out seconds, minutes, hours, etc.
  • Only use abbreviations in the Tables.
  • Avoid the repeated use of Product names in the manuscript. Please initially identify all the products used in the experiment and subsequently refer to them by generic terms.
  • It is generally better to paraphrase information from a published source than to use direct quotations. Paraphrasing saves space. The exception is a direct quotation that is unusually pointed and concise.
  • When long terms with standard abbreviations (as in TMJ for temporomandibular joint) are used frequently, spell out the full term upon first use and provide the abbreviation in parentheses. Use only the abbreviation thereafter. Even very common acronyms should still be defined at first mention.
  • We do not italicize foreign words such as “in vivo”, “in vitro.”
  • Abbreviate units of measurement without a period in the text and tables (9 mm). Insert a nonbreaking space between all numbers and their units (100 mm, 25 MPa) except before % and °C. There should never be a hyphen between the number and the abbreviation or symbol except when in adjectival form (100-mm span).
  • Spell out “degrees” for angles. Use the degree symbol only for temperature, include a space between the number and degree symbol (e.g., 37 C).
  • Contractions such as don’t, it’s, wouldn’t, etc are not used in scientific writing.
  • Avoid using the words ""respectively"" or ""former/latter."" Both force the reader to stop and backtrack.
  • For the common statistical outcomes P, a, ß omit the zero before the decimal point as these cannot be greater than 1.
  • Proprietary names function as adjectives. Nouns must be supplied after their use, as in Vaseline petroleum jelly. Wherever possible, use only the generic term.
  • Do not use trademark symbols as they are not consistent with Journal style.

Some Elements of Effective Style

  • Short words. Short words are preferable to long ones if shorter word is equally precise.
  • Familiar words. Readers want information that they can grasp easily and quickly. Simple, familiar words provide clarity and impact.
  • Specific rather than general words. Specific terms pinpoint meaning and create word pictures; general terms may be fuzzy and open to varied interpretations.
  • Brisk opening. Plunge into your subject in the first paragraph of the article.
  • Limited use of modifying words and phrases. Check your adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases. If they are not needed, strike them out.
  • No unnecessary repetition. An idea may be repeated for emphasis—so long as that repetition is effective.
  • Short sentence length. Twenty words or less is recommended. Rambling sentences cluttered with subordinate clauses and other modifiers are hard to read and may cause readers to lose their train of thought. Short sentences should, however, be balanced with somewhat longer ones to avoid monotony.
  • Paragraphs. Break up long sections into paragraphs but avoid the use of single sentence paragraphs.
  • Restraint. Writers who use flamboyant words or overstate their proposition or conclusions discredit themselves. Facts speak for themselves.
  • Clearly stated conclusions. Don’t hedge. If you don’t know something, say so.

Objectionable Terms

The following are selected objectionable terms and their proper substitutes. For a complete list of approved prosthodontic terminology, consult the eighth edition of the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (J Prosthet Dent 2005;94:10-92).

Or visit JPD and click on Collections/Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms.

  • Alginate use Irreversible hydrocolloid
  • Bite use Occlusion
  • Bridge use Partial fixed dental prosthesis
  • Case use Patient, situation, or treatment as appropriate
  • Cure use Polymerize
  • Final use Definitive
  • Freeway space use Interocclusal distance
  • Full denture use Complete denture
  • Lower (teeth, arch) use Mandibular
  • Model use Cast
  • Modeling compound use Modeling plastic impression compound
  • Muscle trimming use Border molding
  • Overbite, overjet use Vertical overlap, horizontal overlap
  • Periphery use Border
  • Post dam, postpalatal seal use Posterior palatal seal
  • Prematurity use Interceptive occlusal contact
  • Saddle use Denture base
  • Study model use Diagnostic cast
  • Take impressions, photographs, radiographs use Make
  • Upper (teeth, arch) use Maxillary
  • X-ray, roentgenogram use Radiograph

In addition, specimen should be used rather than sample when referring to an example regarded as typical of its class.

Additional Terminology Guidelines

An adjective form that requires a noun, as in acrylic resin.

Affect, effect
Affect is a verb; effect is a noun.

African American
Spelled thus and preferred over Negro and black in both adjective (African American patients) and noun (… of whom 20% were African Americans) forms.

Average, mean, median
Mean and average are synonyms. Median refers to the midpoint in a range of items; the midpoint has many items above as below it.

Like fundamental, this word is often unnecessary. An example of unnecessary use: Dental implants consist of two basic types: subperiosteal and endosteal.

Between, among
Use between when 2 things are involved and among when there are more than 2.

This noun should NOT be used as a verb. A biopsy was performed on the Tissue, rather than: The tissue was biopsied.

An adjective that requires a noun, as in centric relation.

Currently, now, at present, etc.
These expressions are often unnecessary, as in: This technique is currently being used…

Use as a plural, as in: The data were…

Should not become an elegant variation of use, as in This method is employed …

Preferred over insure in the sense of to make certain.

Fewer, less
Use fewer with nouns that can be counted (fewer patients were seen) and less with nouns that cannot be counted (less material was used).

After is preferred.

Imply, infer
The speaker implies; the listener infers.

The rate at which a disease occurs in a given time; sometimes confused with prevalence (the total number of cases of a disease in a given region).

Means more than half; use most when you mean almost all. Male, female
For adult humans, use men and women. For children, use boys and girls.

Must, should
Must means that the course of action is essential. Should is less strong and means that the course of action is recommended.

Spell out numbers used in titles or headings and numbers at the beginning of a sentence. The spelled version may also be preferable in a series of consecutive numbers that may confuse the reader (eg, 2 3.5-inch disks should be written two 3.5-inch disks). In all other cases, use Arabic numerals.

Proper form; avoid orientate.

Use instead of pathological. Other words in which the suffix -al has been dropped include biologic, histologic, and physiologic.

The study of disease; often mistaken for pathosis (the condition of disease)

Use the percent sign in the text, as in The distribution of scores was as follows: adequate, 8%; oversized, 23%; and undersized, 69%. But spell out when the percent opens a sentence, as in Twenty percent of the castings …

Prior to
Before is preferred.

Rare, infrequent, often not, etc.
Whenever possible, these vague terms should be backed up with a specific number.

Like very, this word should be avoided.

A planned program for taking medication, dieting, exercising, etc. Not to be confused with regime, meaning a system of government or management.

Use “sex” rather than “gender” unless you are referring to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.

The science or study of symptoms; this word is not a synonym for the word symptoms.

Preferred over technic.

Avoid the dangling modifier in sentences such as “The impression was made using vinyl polysiloxane impression material.” Write “with” or “by using” instead.

Use is preferred.

An adjective that needs a noun, as in vertical relation.

Use through, with, or by means of.

Preferred over Caucasian. This is true only if the patient is from the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe. If not, use the term, white to describe the patient.

Sample Manuscript

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